Yukon is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories. It has the smallest population of any province or territory in Canada, with 35,874 people, although it has the largest city in any of the three territories. Whitehorse is Yukon's only city. Yukon was split from the Northwest Territories in 1898 and was named the Yukon Territory; the federal government's Yukon Act, which received royal assent on March 27, 2002, established Yukon as the territory's official name, though Yukon Territory is still popular in usage and Canada Post continues to use the territory's internationally approved postal abbreviation of YT. Though bilingual, the Yukon government recognizes First Nations languages. At 5,959 m, Yukon's Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada and the second-highest on the North American continent. Most of Yukon has a subarctic climate, characterized by brief warm summers; the Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate. Notable rivers include the Yukon River, as well as the Pelly, Peel and Tatshenshini rivers.
The territory is named after the longest river in Yukon. The name itself is from a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River. Long before the arrival of Europeans and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people, the area escaped glaciation. Sites of archeological significance in Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human habitation in North America; the sites safeguard the earliest First Nations of the Yukon. The volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in 800 AD in what is now the U. S. state of Alaska blanketed southern Yukon with a layer of ash which can still be seen along the Klondike Highway, which forms part of the oral tradition of First Nations peoples in Yukon and further south in Canada. Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks. European incursions into the area began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries.
By the 1870s and 1880s gold miners began to arrive. This drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897; the increased population coming with the gold rush led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories and the formation of the separate Yukon Territory in 1898. The territory is the approximate shape of a right triangle, bordering the U. S. state of Alaska to the west and northwest for 1,210 km along longitude 141° W, the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia to the south. Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea, its ragged eastern boundary follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Most of the territory is in the watershed of the Yukon River; the southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system.
The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake and Kluane Lake. Bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon. Canada's highest point, Mount Logan, is in the territory's southwest. Mount Logan and a large part of Yukon's southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Vuntut National Park in the north. Other watersheds include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed and the Alsek–Tatshenshini, a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea; the two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast and the Peel River and its tributaries in the northeast. Notable widespread tree species within Yukon are white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of severe climate; the capital, Whitehorse, is the largest city, with about three-quarters of the population.
British Columbia Northwest Territories Alaska, United States While the average winter temperature in Yukon is mild by Canadian arctic standards, no other place in North America gets as cold as Yukon during extreme cold snaps. The temperature has dropped down to −60 °C three times, 1947, 1954, 1968; the most extreme cold snap occurred in February 1947 when the abandoned town of Snag dropped down to −63.0 °C. Unlike most of Canada where the most extreme heat waves occur in July and September, Yukon's extreme heat tends to occur in June and May. Yukon has recorded 36 °C three times; the first time was in June 1969 when Mayo recorded a temperature of 36.1 °C. 14 years this record was beaten when Forty Mile recorded 36 °C in May 1983. The old record was broken 21 years in June 2004 when the Mayo Road weather station, located just northwest of Whitehorse, recorded a temperature of 36.5 °C. The 2016 census reported a Yukon population of 35,874, an increase of 5.8% from 2011. With a land area of 474,712.64 km2, it had a population de
William H. Seward
William Henry Seward was United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, earlier served as Governor of New York and United States Senator. A determined opponent of the spread of slavery in the years leading up to the American Civil War, he was a dominant figure in the Republican Party in its formative years, was praised for his work on behalf of the Union as Secretary of State during the American Civil War. Seward was owned slaves, he was moved to the Central New York town of Auburn. Seward was elected to the New York State Senate in 1830 as an Anti-Mason. Four years he became the gubernatorial nominee of the Whig Party. Though he was not successful in that race, Seward was elected governor in 1838 and won a second two-year term in 1840. During this period, he signed several laws that advanced the rights and opportunities for black residents, as well as guaranteeing fugitive slaves jury trials in the state; the legislation protected abolitionists, he used his position to intervene in cases of freed black people who were enslaved in the South.
After many years of practicing law in Auburn, he was elected by the state legislature to the U. S. Senate in 1849. Seward's strong stances and provocative words against slavery brought, he was re-elected to the Senate in 1855, soon joined the nascent Republican Party, becoming one of its leading figures. As the 1860 presidential election approached, he was regarded as the leading candidate for the Republican nomination. Several factors, including attitudes to his vocal opposition to slavery, his support for immigrants and Catholics, his association with editor and political boss Thurlow Weed, worked against him and Abraham Lincoln secured the presidential nomination. Although devastated by his loss, he campaigned for Lincoln, elected and appointed him Secretary of State. Seward did his best to stop the southern states from seceding, his firm stance against foreign intervention in the Civil War helped deter the United Kingdom and France from entering the conflict and gaining the independence of the Confederate States.
He was one of the targets of the 1865 assassination plot that killed Lincoln, was wounded by conspirator Lewis Powell. Seward remained loyally at his post through the presidency of Andrew Johnson, during which he negotiated the Alaska Purchase in 1867 and supported Johnson during his impeachment, his contemporary Carl Schurz described Seward as "one of those spirits who sometimes will go ahead of public opinion instead of tamely following its footprints." Seward was born in on May 1801, in the small community of Florida, New York, in Orange County. He was the fourth son of his wife Mary Seward. Samuel Seward was a wealthy slaveholder in New York State. Florida was located some 60 miles north of New York City, west of the Hudson River, was a small rural village of a dozen homes. Young Seward attended school there, in the nearby county seat of Goshen, he was a bright student. In years, one of the former family slaves would relate that instead of running away from school to go home, Seward would run away from home to go to school.
At the age of 15, Henry—he was known by his middle name as a boy—was sent to Union College in Schenectady, New York. Admitted to the sophomore class, Seward was an outstanding student and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. Seward's fellow students included Richard M. Blatchford, who became a lifelong legal and political associate. Samuel Seward kept his son short on cash, in December 1818—during the middle of Henry's final year at Union—the two quarreled about money; the younger Seward returned to Schenectady, but soon left school in company with a fellow student, Alvah Wilson. The two took a ship from New York to Georgia, where Wilson had been offered a job as rector, or principal, of a new academy in rural Putnam County. En route, Wilson took a job at another school, leaving Seward to continue on to Eatonton in Putnam County; the trustees interviewed the 17-year-old Seward, found his qualifications acceptable. Seward enjoyed his time in Georgia, where he was accepted as an adult for the first time in his life.
He was treated hospitably, but witnessed the ill-treatment of slaves. Seward was persuaded to return to New York by his family, did so in June 1819; as it was too late for him to graduate with his class, he studied law at an attorney's office in Goshen before returning to Union College, securing his degree with highest honors in June 1820. After graduation, Seward spent much of the following two years studying law in Goshen and New York City with attorneys John Duer, John Anthon and Ogden Hoffman, he passed the bar examination in late 1822. He could have practiced in Goshen, but he disliked the town and sought a practice in growing Western New York. Seward decided upon Auburn in Cayuga County, about 150 miles west of Albany and 200 miles northwest of Goshen, he joined the practice of retired judge Elijah Miller, whose daughter Frances Adeline Miller was a classmate of his sister Cornelia at Emma Willard's Troy Female Seminary. Seward married Frances Miller on October 20, 1824. In 1824, Seward was journeying with his wife to Niagara Falls when one of the wheels on his carriage was damaged while they passed through Rochester.
Among those who came to their aid was local newspaper publisher Thurlow Weed. Seward and Weed would become closer in the years ahead as they found they shared a belief that governm
Index of Alaska-related articles
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the U. S. state of Alaska..ak.us – Internet second-level domain for the state of Alaska 49th State to join the United States of America 54°40′ parallel north 100 km isolated peaks of Alaska 100Stone 141st meridian west 1500 meter prominent peaks of Alaska 4000 meter peaks of Alaska Adjacent province and territory: Province of British Columbia Territory of Yukon Agriculture in Alaska Category:Agriculture in Alaska Airports in Alaska AK – United States Postal Service postal code for the state of Alaska Alaska website Category:Alaska commons:Category:Alaska commons:Category:Maps of Alaska Alaska Immigration Justice Project Alaska lunar sample displays Alaska Purchase of 1867 Alaska State Capitol Alaska State Troopers Alaska Territorial Guard Anchorage, Alaska Aquaria in Alaska commons:Category:Aquaria in Alaska Archaeology in Alaska Category:Archaeological sites in Alaska commons:Category:Archaeological sites in Alaska Architecture in Alaska Area codes in Alaska Art museums and galleries in Alaska commons:Category:Art museums and galleries in Alaska Astronomical observatories in Alaska commons:Category:Astronomical observatories in Alaska Athletes from Alaska Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest, 1744–1792 Barrow Area Information Database Battle of the Aleutian Islands, 1942–1943 Botanical gardens in Alaska commons:Category:Botanical gardens in Alaska Boroughs and census areas of the state of Alaska commons:Category:Boroughs in Alaska Buildings and structures in Alaska commons:Category:Buildings and structures in Alaska Capital of the State of Alaska Capitol of the State of Alaska commons:Category:Alaska State Capitol Census statistical areas of Alaska Cities in Alaska commons:Category:Cities in Alaska Climate of Alaska Category:Climate of Alaska commons:Category:Climate of Alaska Colleges and universities in Alaska commons:Category:Universities and colleges in Alaska Coming into the Country - a 1976 nonfiction book by John McPhee Communications in Alaska commons:Category:Communications in Alaska Companies in Alaska Category:Companies based in Alaska Constitution of the State of Alaska Culture of Alaska Category:Alaska culture commons:Category:Alaska culture Demographics of Alaska Category:Demographics of Alaska Department of Alaska, 1867–1884 District of Alaska, 1884–1912 Economy of Alaska Category:Economy of Alaska commons:Category:Economy of Alaska Education in Alaska Category:Education in Alaska commons:Category:Education in Alaska Elections in the state of Alaska Category:Alaska elections commons:Category:Alaska elections Environment of Alaska commons:Category:Environment of Alaska Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989 Festivals in Alaska commons:Category:Festivals in Alaska Fjords of Alaska commons:Category:Fjords of Alaska Flag of the state of Alaska Flora of Alaska Forts in Alaska Category:Forts in Alaska commons:Category:Forts in Alaska Gardening in Alaska Geography of Alaska Category:Geography of Alaska commons:Category:Geography of Alaska Geology of Alaska commons:Category:Geology of Alaska Ghost towns in Alaska Category:Ghost towns in Alaska commons:Category:Ghost towns in Alaska Glaciers of Alaska Gold mining in Alaska Good Friday earthquake of 1964 Government of the state of Alaska website Category:Government of Alaska commons:Category:Government of Alaska Governor of the State of Alaska List of Governors of Alaska Great Seal of the State of Alaska Heritage railroads in Alaska commons:Category:Heritage railroads in Alaska High schools of Alaska Higher education in Alaska Highest major peaks of Alaska Highway routes in Alaska Hiking trails in Alaska commons:Category:Hiking trails in Alaska History of Alaska Historical outline of Alaska Category:History of Alaska commons:Category:History of Alaska Hospitals in Alaska Hot springs of Alaska commons:Category:Hot springs of Alaska House of Representatives of the State of Alaska Images of Alaska commons:Category:Alaska Islands of Alaska Juneau, capital of Alaska since 1906 Lakes in Alaska commons:Category:Lakes of Alaska Landmarks in Alaska commons:Category:Landmarks in Alaska Languages of Alaska Lieutenant Governor of the State of Alaska Lists related to the state of Alaska: List of airports in Alaska List of athletes from Alaska List of birds of Aleutian Islands List of census statistical areas in Alaska List of cities in Alaska List of colleges and universities in Alaska List of companies in Alaska List of counties in Alaska List of forts in Alaska List of ghost towns in Alaska List of Governors of Alaska List of high schools in Alaska List of highway routes in Alaska List of hospitals in Alaska List of islands of Alaska List of law enforcement agencies in Alaska List of Lieutenant Governors of Alaska List of mountains of Alaska List of 4000 meter peaks of Alaska List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of museums in Alaska List of National Historic Landmarks in Alaska List of National Parks in Alaska List of people from Alaska List of places in Alaska List of radio stations in Alaska List of railroads in Alaska List of Registered Historic Places in Alaska List of rivers in Alaska List of school districts in Alaska List of state forests in Alaska List of state parks in Alaska List of state prisons in Alaska List of state symbols of Alaska List of telephone area codes in Alaska List of television stations in Alaska List of towns in Alaska List of United States congressional delegations from Alaska List of United States congressional district of Alaska List of United States Representatives from Alaska List of United States Senators from Alaska Maps of Alaska commons:Category:Maps of Alaska Mountain peaks of Alaska The 50 Highest major peaks of Alaska The 20 4000 meter peaks of Alaska The 50 Most prominent peaks of Alaska The 65 Ultra prominent peaks of Alaska The 50 Most isolated major peaks of Alaska The 38 100 km isolated peaks of Alaska Category:Mountains of A
The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the summer months in places north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle, when the Sun remains visible at the local midnight. Around the summer solstice, the Sun is visible for given fair weather; the number of days per year with potential midnight sun increases the closer towards either pole one goes. Although defined by the polar circles, in practice the midnight sun can be seen as much as 55 miles outside the polar circle, as described below, the exact latitudes of the farthest reaches of midnight sun depend on topography and vary year-to-year; because there are no permanent human settlements south of the Antarctic Circle, apart from research stations, the countries and territories whose populations experience the midnight sun are limited to those crossed by the Arctic Circle: the Canadian Yukon and Northwest Territories. A quarter of Finland's territory lies north of the Arctic Circle, at the country's northernmost point the sun does not set at all for 60 days during summer.
In Svalbard, the northernmost inhabited region of Europe, there is no sunset from 19 April to 23 August. The extreme sites are the poles; the North Pole has midnight sun for 6 months from late March to late September. The South Pole experiences this from 23 September to 20 March; the opposite phenomenon, polar night, occurs in winter, when the Sun stays below the horizon throughout the day. Since the axial tilt of the Earth is considerable, the Sun does not set at high latitudes in local summer; the Sun remains continuously visible for one day during the summer solstice at the polar circle, for several weeks only 100 km closer to the pole, for six months at the pole. At extreme latitudes, the midnight sun is referred to as polar day. At the poles themselves, the Sun sets only once each year on the equinox. During the six months that the Sun is above the horizon, it spends the days continuously moving in circles around the observer spiralling higher and reaching its highest circuit of the sky at the summer solstice.
Because of atmospheric refraction, because the Sun is a disc rather than a point, the midnight sun may be experienced at latitudes south of the Arctic Circle or north of the Antarctic Circle, though not exceeding one degree. For example, Iceland is known for its midnight sun though most of it is south of the Arctic Circle. For the same reasons, the period of sunlight at the poles is longer than six months; the northern extremities of Scotland experience twilight throughout the night in the northern sky at around the summer solstice. Observers at heights appreciably above sea level can experience extended periods of midnight sun as a result of the "dip" of the horizon viewed from altitude; the term "midnight sun" refers to the consecutive 24-hour periods of sunlight experienced north of the Arctic Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle. Other phenomena are sometimes referred to as "midnight sun", but they are caused by time zones and the observance of daylight saving time. For instance, in Fairbanks, south of the Arctic Circle, the Sun sets at 12:47 am at the summer solstice.
This is because Fairbanks is 51 minutes ahead of its idealized time zone and Alaska observes daylight saving time. This means. If a precise moment for the genuine "midnight sun" is required, the observer's longitude, the local civil time and the equation of time must be taken into account; the moment of the Sun's closest approach to the horizon coincides with its passing due north at the observer's position, which occurs only at midnight in general. Each degree of longitude east of the Greenwich meridian makes the vital moment 4 minutes earlier than midnight as shown on the clock, while each hour that the local civil time is ahead of coordinated universal time makes the moment an hour later; these two effects must be added. Furthermore, the equation of time must be added: a positive value on a given date means that the Sun is running ahead of its average position, so the value must be subtracted; as an example, at the North Cape of Norway at midnight on June 21/22, the longitude of 25.9 degrees east makes the moment 103.2 minutes earlier by clock time.
The equation of time at that date is -2.0 minutes. Therefore, the sun's lowest elevation occurs 120 - 103.2 + 2.0 minutes after midnight: at 00.19 Central European Summer time. On other nearby dates the only thing different is the equation of time, so this remains a reasonable estimate for a considerable period; the Sun's altitude remains within half a degree of the minimum of about 5 degrees for about 45 minutes either side of this time. Locations where the Sun remains less than 6 degrees below the horizon—above 60° 34’ latitude south of the Arctic Circle or north of the Antarctic Circle—experience midnight twilight instead of midnight
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci