Hispanophone and Hispanosphere are terms used to refer to Spanish-language speakers and the Spanish-speaking world, respectively. The terms derive from the Latin political name of the Iberian Hispania. In addition to the general definition of Hispanophone, some groups in the Hispanic world make a distinction between Castilian-speaking and Spanish-speaking, with the former term denoting the speakers of the Spanish language—also known as Castilian—and the latter the speakers of the Spanish or Hispanic languages. Hispanophones are estimated at between 480 and 577 million globally, making Spanish the second most spoken language in terms of native speakers. Around 360 million live in 45 million in Spain. There are more than 34 million Spanish speakers in the United States. There are smaller Hispanophone groups in Canada, northern Morocco, Equatorial Guinea, Western Sahara, the Philippines and Brazil as well as in many other places around the world other countries of European Union, where it is one of 24 official languages, Australia.
In a cultural, rather than linguistic sense, the notion of "Hispanophone" goes further than the above definition. The Hispanic culture is the legacy of the Spanish Empire, so the term can refer to people whose cultural background is associated with Spain, regardless of ethnic or geographical differences; the whole sense of identity of the Hispanic population and the Hispanophones is sometimes referred by the term Hispanidad. During the Spanish period between 1492 and 1898, many people from Spain migrated to the new lands they had conquered; the Spaniards took with them their language and culture, integrated within the society they had settled, creating a large empire that stretched all over the world and producing several multiracial populations. Their influences are found in the following continents and countries that were colonized by the Spaniards; the modern-day people that live in the region of ancient Hispania are the Portuguese, Spanish and Gibraltarian people. The modern country of Spain was formed by the accretion of several independent Iberian kingdoms through dynastic inheritance and the will of the local elites.
These kingdoms had political borders. Today, there is no single Castilian–Spanish identity for the whole country. Spain is a de facto plurinational state. Many Spanish citizens feel no conflict in recognising their multiple ethnic identities at the same time. Spain is a culturally heterogeneous country, home to a wide range of cultures, each one with its own customs and traditions; some such cultures have their own language. Since the beginning of the transition to democracy in Spain and the creation of the Spanish autonomous communities, after Francoist Spain, there have been many movements towards more autonomy in certain territories of the country, some with the aim of achieving full independence and others with the goal of improving the system of devolution and the state of the autonomies; the existence of multiple distinct cultures in Spain allows an analogy to be drawn to the United Kingdom. Using the term Spanish for someone of Spanish descent would be expected to be equivalent to using Briton to describe someone descending from some part of the United Kingdom.
Cultures within the United Kingdom, such as English, Irish and Welsh, would correspond in this analogy to cultures within Spain such as Castilian, Catalan and Basque among others. In contrast with Spain, because of centuries of gradual and mutual consolidation across the Iberian Peninsula, such distinctions tend to be blurred, it is a subtle, yet important, distinction. In Spain, as in the United Kingdom, the economically dominant territories—Castile and England—spread their language for mutual communication. However, the political dominance in the United Kingdom tends to be sharper compared to Spain, where most of medieval realms do not correspond with the actual boundaries of the autonomous communities, the crown was unified into a sole monarch. For instance, Spanish people in modern times never refer to King Felipe VI of Spain as "the King of Castile," whereas the British sovereign, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, is sometimes referred to colloquially as "the Queen of England."
Spanish is the official language in a great part of the Americas. U. S. Hispanics are citizens of the United States whose ancestry or national origin is of any of the nations composing the Hispanosphere. A Hispanic person's status is independent from whether or not he or she speaks the Spanish language, for not all Hispanic Americans speak Spanish. A Hispanic person may be of any race; as of 2013 Hispanics accounted for 17.1% of the population, around 53.2 million people. This was an increase of 29 % since 2004; the Hispanic growth rate over the July 1, 2003 to July 1, 2004 period was 3.6% — higher than any other ancestral group in the United States — and more than three times the rate of the nation's total population. The projected Hispanic population of the United States for July 1, 2050, is 105.6 million people. According to this projection, Hispanics will constitute 25% of the nation's total population by the year 2050. A continuous Hispanic presence in the territory of the United States has existed since the 16th century, earlier than any other group after the Amerindians.
Spaniards pioneered the present-day United States. The first confirmed Eur
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government with regional governments in a single political system. Its distinctive feature, exemplified in the founding example of modern federalism by the United States under the Constitution of 1787, is a relationship of parity between the two levels of government established, it can thus be defined as a form of government in which there is a division of powers between two levels of government of equal status. Federalism differs from confederalism, in which the general level of government is subordinate to the regional level, from devolution within a unitary state, in which the regional level of government is subordinate to the general level, it represents the central form in the pathway of regional integration or separation, bounded on the less integrated side by confederalism and on the more integrated side by devolution within a unitary state. Leading examples of the federation or federal state include India, the United States, Mexico, Germany, Switzerland and Australia.
Some today characterize the European Union as the pioneering example of federalism in a multi-state setting, in a concept termed the federal union of states. The terms'federalism' and'confederalism' both have a root in the Latin word foedus, meaning "treaty, pact or covenant." Their common meaning until the late eighteenth century was a simple league or inter-governmental relationship among sovereign states based upon a treaty. They were therefore synonyms, it was in this sense that James Madison in Federalist 39 had referred to the new US Constitution as'neither a national nor a federal Constitution, but a composition of both'. In the course of the nineteenth century the meaning of federalism would come to shift, strengthening to refer uniquely to the novel compound political form established, while the meaning of confederalism would remain at a league of states. Thus, this article relates to the modern usage of the word'federalism'. Modern federalism is a system based upon democratic rules and institutions in which the power to govern is shared between national and provincial/state governments.
The term federalist describes several political beliefs around the world depending on context. Federalism is sometimes viewed as in the context of international negotiation as "the best system for integrating diverse nations, ethnic groups, or combatant parties, all of whom may have cause to fear control by an overly powerful center." However, in some countries, those skeptical of federal prescriptions believe that increased regional autonomy is to lead to secession or dissolution of the nation. In Syria, federalization proposals have failed in part because "Syrians fear that these borders could turn out to be the same as the ones that the fighting parties have carved out."Federations such as Yugoslavia or Czechoslovakia collapsed as soon as it was possible to put the model to the test. According to Daniel Ziblatt's Structuring the State, there are four competing theoretical explanations in the academic literature for the adoption of federal systems: Ideational theories, which hold that a greater degree of ideological commitment to decentralist ideas in society makes federalism more to be adopted.
Cultural-historical theories, which hold that federal institutions are more to be adopted in societies with culturally or ethnically fragmented populations. "Social contract" theories, which hold that federalism emerges as a bargain between a center and a periphery where the center is not powerful enough to dominate the periphery and the periphery is not powerful enough to secede from the center. "Infrastructural power" theories, which hold that federalism is to emerge when the subunits of a potential federation have developed infrastructures. Immanuel Kant was an advocate of federalism, noting that "the problem of setting up a state can be solved by a nation of devils" so long as they possess an appropriate constitution which pits opposing factions against each other with a system of checks and balances. In particular individual states required a federation as a safeguard against the possibility of war. On the 1st of January 1901 the nation-state of Australia came into existence as a federation.
The Australian continent was colonised by the United Kingdom in 1788, which subsequently established six self-governing, colonies there. In the 1890s the governments of these colonies all held referendums on becoming the unified, self-governing "Commonwealth of Australia" within the British Empire; when all the colonies voted in favour of federation, the Federation of Australia commenced, resulting in the establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The model of Australian federalism adheres to the original model of the United States of America, although it does so through a parliamentary Westminster system rather than a presidential system. In Brazil, the fall of the monarchy in 1889 by a military coup d'état led to the rise of the presidential system, headed by Deodoro da Fonseca. Aided by well-known jurist Ruy Barbosa, Fonseca established federalism in Brazil by decree, but this system of government would be confirmed by every Brazilian constitution since 1891, although some of them would distort some of the federalist principles.
The 1937 federal government had the authority to appoint State Governors at will, thus centralizing power in the hands of P
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish and French are predominantly spoken. The term "Latin America" was first used in an 1856 conference with the title "Initiative of the America. Idea for a Federal Congress of the Republics", by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao; the term was used by Napoleon III's French government in the 1860s as Amérique latine to consider French-speaking territories in the Americas, along with the larger group of countries where Spanish and Portuguese languages prevailed, including the Spanish-speaking portions of the United States Today, areas of Canada and the United States where Spanish and French are predominant are not included in definitions of Latin America. Latin America consists of 13 dependencies and 20 countries which cover an area that stretches from the northern border of Mexico to the southern tip of South America, including the Caribbean, it has an area of 19,197,000 km2 13% of the Earth's land surface area.
As of 2016, its population was estimated at more than 639 million and in 2014, Latin America had a combined nominal GDP of US$5,573,397 million and a GDP PPP of 7,531,585 million USD. The idea that a part of the Americas has a linguistic affinity with the Romance cultures as a whole can be traced back to the 1830s, in the writing of the French Saint-Simonian Michel Chevalier, who postulated that this part of the Americas was inhabited by people of a "Latin race", that it could, ally itself with "Latin Europe" overlapping the Latin Church, in a struggle with "Teutonic Europe", "Anglo-Saxon America" and "Slavic Europe". Further investigations of the concept of Latin America are by Michel Gobat in the American Historical Review, the studies of Leslie Bethell, the monograph by Mauricio Tenorio-Trillo, Latin America: The Allure and Power of an Idea. Historian John Leddy Phelan (located the origins of “Latin America” in the French occupation of Mexico, his argument is that French imperialists used the concept of "Latin" America as a way to counter British imperialism, as well as to challenge the German threat to France.
The idea of a "Latin race" was taken up by Latin American intellectuals and political leaders of the mid- and late-nineteenth century, who no longer looked to Spain or Portugal as cultural models, but rather to France. French ruler Napoleon III had a strong interest in extending French commercial and political power in the region he and his business promoter Felix Belly called “Latin America” to emphasize the shared Latin background of France with the former colonies of Spain and Portugal; this led to Napoleon's failed attempt to take military control of Mexico in the 1860s. However, though Phelan thesis is still mentioned in the U. S. academy, two Latin American historians, the Uruguayan Arturo Ardao and the Chilean Miguel Rojas Mix proved decades ago that the term "Latin America" was used earlier than Phelan claimed, the first use of the term was opposite to support imperialist projects in the Americas. Ardao wrote about this subject in his book Génesis de la idea y el nombre de América latina, Miguel Rojas Mix in his article "Bilbao y el hallazgo de América latina: Unión continental, socialista y libertaria".
As Michel Gobat reminds in his article "The Invention of Latin America: A Transnational History of Anti-Imperialism and Race", "Arturo Ardao, Miguel Rojas Mix, Aims McGuinness have revealed the term'Latin America' had been used in 1856 by Central and South Americans protesting U. S. expansion into the Southern Hemisphere". Edward Shawcross summarizes Ardao's and Rojas Mix's findings in the following way: "Ardao identified the term in a poem by a Colombian diplomat and intellectual resident in France, José María Torres Caicedo, published on 15 February 1857 in a French based Spanish-language newspaper, while Rojas Mix located it in a speech delivered in France by the radical liberal Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao in June 1856". So, regarding when the words "Latin" and "America" were combined for the first time in a printed work, the term "Latin America" was first used in 1856 in a conference by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao in Paris; the conference had the title "Initiative of the America.
Idea for a Federal Congress of Republics." The following year the Colombian writer José María Torres Caicedo used the term in his poem "The Two Americas". Two events related with the U. S. played a central role in both works. The first event happened less than a decade before the publication of Bilbao's and Torres Caicedo works: the Mexican–American War, after which Mexico lost a third of its territory; the second event, the Walker affair, happened the same year both works were written: the decision by U. S. president Franklin Pierce to recognize the regime established in Nicaragua by American William Walker and his band of filibusters who ruled Nicaragua for nearly a year and attempted to reinstate slavery there, where it had been abolished for three decades In both Bilbao's and Torres Caicedo's works, the Mexican-American War and Walker's expedition to Nicaragua are explicitly mentioned as examples of dangers for the region. For Bilbao, "Latin America" w
International rankings of Argentina
The following are international rankings of Argentina: Population ranked 37 in the world Life expectancy ranked 59 in the world The Wall Street Journal and the Heritage Foundation: 2012 Index of Economic Freedom, ranked 158 out of 179 countries Fraser Institute 2009 Economic Freedom of the World, ranked 119 of 141 countries International Monetary Fund: GDP per capita 2010, ranked 61 out of 182 countries International Monetary Fund: GDP 2010, ranked 27 out of 181 countries World Economic Forum: Global Competitiveness Index 2011-2012, ranked 85 out of 142 countries Books published per country per year ranked 27 in the world Environmental Sustainability Index 2005, ranked 9 out of 146 countries Yale University and Columbia University: Environmental Performance Index 2010, ranked 70 in the world New Economics Foundation: 2012 Happy Planet Index ranked 17 Total land area ranked 8 among all countries A. T. Kearney/Foreign Policy Magazine: Globalization Index 2010, ranked 70 out of 181 countries Transparency International: 2011 Corruption Perceptions Index, ranked 100 out of 182 countries Reporters Without Borders: 2011-2012 Press Freedom Index, ranked 47 out of 179 countries Fund for Peace: 2012 Failed States Index ranked 145 out of 165 Economist Intelligence Unit: Quality-of-life index 2005, ranked 40 out of 111 countries United Nations: Human Development Index 2011, ranked 45 out of 187 countries University of Leicester 2006 Satisfaction with Life Index, ranked 56 out of 178 countries Gallup World Poll 2010, ranked 30 out of 155 Economist Intelligence Unit e-readiness rankings 2009, ranked 45 out of 70 countries Total broadband Internet users ranked 20 in the world Lists of countries Lists by country List of international rankings
The Southern Cone is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of and around the Tropic of Capricorn. Traditionally, it covers Argentina and Uruguay, bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the south by the junction between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, the continental area closest to Antarctica. In terms of social and political geography, the Southern Cone comprises Argentina, Chile and the Southern and Southeastern of Brazil. In its broadest definition, the Southern Cone includes southern Bolivia and Paraguay. High life expectancy, the highest Human Development Index of Latin America, high standard of living, low fertility rates, significant participation in the global markets and the emerging economy of its members make the Southern Cone the most prosperous macro-region in Latin America; the climates are temperate, but include humid subtropical, highland tropical, maritime temperate, sub-Antarctic temperate, highland cold and semi-arid temperate regions.
Except for northern regions of Argentina, the whole country of Paraguay, the Argentina-Brazil border and the interior of the Atacama desert, the region suffers from heat. In addition to that, the winter presents cool temperatures. Strong and constant wind and high humidity is; the Atacama is the driest place on Earth. One of the most peculiar plants of the region is the Araucaria tree, which can be found in Brazil and Argentina; the only native group of conifers found in the southern hemisphere had its origin in the Southern Cone. Araucaria angustifolia, once widespread in Southern Brazil, is now a critically endangered species, protected by law; the prairies region of central Argentina and southern Brazil is known as the Pampas. Central Chile has grading southward into oceanic climate; the Atacama and Monte deserts form a diagonal of arid lands separating the woodlands and pastures of La Plata basin from Central and Southern Chile. Apart from the desert diagonal, the north-south running Andes form a major divide in the Southern Cone and constitute, for most of its part in the southern cone, the Argentina–Chile border.
In the east the river systems of the La Plata basin form natural barriers and sea-lanes between Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Besides sharing languages and colonial heritage, the residents of the states of the Southern Cone are avid players and fans of football, with top-notch teams competing in the sport. Argentina and Uruguay have both won the FIFA World Cup twice. Argentina, Chile and Brazil have all hosted the World Cup. Additionally, national teams from the region have won several Olympic medals in football. Football clubs from the Southern Cone countries have won large numbers of club competitions in South-American competitions, Pan-American competitions, world-FIFA Club World Cup-level competitions; the asado barbecue is a culinary tradition typical of the Southern Cone. The asado developed from the horsemen and cattle culture of the region, more from the gauchos of Argentina and Southern Brazil and the huasos of Chile. In the Southern Cone, horsemen are considered icons of national identity.
Mate is popular throughout the Southern Cone. In this area, there was extensive European immigration during the 19th- and 20th-centuries, with their descendants, have influenced the culture, social life and politics of these countries. In a social survey, residents rated their countries as'good places for gay or lesbian people to live. By contrast, fewer people in the following countries agreed: Bolivia and Peru; the overwhelming majority, including those of recent immigrant background, speak Spanish or Portuguese in the case of Southern Brazil. The Spanish-speaking countries of the Southern Cone are divided into two main dialects: Castellano Rioplatense, spoken in Argentina and Uruguay, where the accent and daily language is influenced by 19th-20th century Italian immigrants, has a particular intonation famously recognized by Spanish speakers from around the world, it is sometimes erroneously referred to as "Castellano Argentino/Argentinean Spanish" due to the majority of the speakers being Argentinians.
Preliminary research has shown that Rioplatense Spanish, has intonation patterns that resemble those of Italian dialects in the Naples region, differ markedly from the patterns of other forms of Spanish. Buenos Aires and Montevideo had a massive influx of Italian immigrant settlers from the mid-19th until mid-20th centuries. Researchers note that the development of this dialect is a recent phenomenon, developing at the beginning of the 20th century with the main wave of Italian immigration. Castellano Chileno These dialects share common traits, such as a number of Lunfardo and Quechua words. Other minor languages and dialects include Portuñol, a hybrid between Rioplatense and Brazilian Portuguese, spoken in Uruguay on the border with Brazil; some Native American groups in rural areas, continue to speak autochthonous languages, including Mapudungun, Quechua and Guarani. The first is
Name of Argentina
The name of Argentina, traditionally called the Argentine in English, is derived from the Latin argentum "silver" and the feminine of the adjectival suffix -īnus, the Latin "argentum" has its origin from the ancient Greek-Hellenic word "argyro", άργυρο meaning silver. The first use of the name "Argentina" can be traced back to the first voyages made by the Spanish and Portuguese conquistadors to the Río de la Plata, in the first years of the 16th century. Aleixo Garcia, one of the survivors of the shipwrecked expedition mounted by Juan Díaz de Solís in 1516, heard notices about a powerful White King in a country rich in silver, at the mountains called "Sierra de la Plata". Garcia organized an expedition and reached Potosí's area, gaining several silver objects and gifts, he was killed by the Payaguás, returning to Santa Catarina, but the Guaraní people who were part of the expedition took the silver objects back and spread the Sierra de Plata legend, explained that it was possible to reach that fabulous land through the wide river to the south.
While the exact origin of the name "Rio de la Plata" is unknown, Sebastian Cabot's exploration between 1526 and 1529 is credited to have inspired such name due to his obtaining and collecting a variety of silver objects from the Guaraní tribes along the Paraguay river. The river received other names, such as "Mar Dulce", "Río de Solís", "Río de Santa María", "Río Jordán", but "Río de La Plata" was the one that prevailed; the Portuguese cartographer Lopo Homem made reference to the place as "Terra Argentea" in a 1554 map. The first mention of the name "Argentina" was in Martín del Barco Centenera's poem Argentina y conquista del Río de la Plata, con otros acaecimientos de los reinos del Perú, Tucumán y estado del Brasil, published in Spain in 1602. Ten years in 1612, Ruy Díaz de Guzmán published the book Historia del descubrimiento, población, y conquista del Río de la Plata, naming the territory discovered by Solís "Tierra Argentina". In 1776 the "Virreinato del Río de la Plata" was created, named after the river.
The Spanish viceroy was ousted during the May Revolution, starting the Argentine War of Independence. The new government removed the "Viceroyalty" word from the name, renaming the territory the "Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata"; this denomination was ratified years by the Assembly of Year XIII. The Congress of Tucumán, seeking a higher Latin American integration, used instead the name "Provincias Unidas de Sud América"; the name "Argentina" was used among the high society, in limited cases. The use became popular with the sanction of the second Argentine National Anthem, written by Vicente López y Planes. However, it was not used because it was not associated to the whole territory, but just to the Buenos Aires province; the Constitution of 1826 was sanctioned as the Constitución de la República Argentina. The other provinces rejected its high centralism, the president Bernardino Rivadavia was deposed shortly after. During the second government of Juan Manuel de Rosas, Confederación Argentina was the main name used for the young country, but others were used, including República de la Confederación Argentina and Federación Argentina.
Justo José de Urquiza deposed Rosas in the battle of Caseros and called for a Constituent Assembly that would write the Constitution of Argentina of 1853. Buenos Aires did not accept it, seceded from the Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires. For a decade, Buenos Aires and the Confederation existed as distinct administrative divisions. Buenos Aires rejoined the Confederation after an amendment to the 1853 Constitution; the name was changed to Nación Argentina, though including a paragraph with the historical names as "equivalent and valid" denominations. On October 8, 1860, President Santiago Derqui decreed the official name to be República Argentina. In common speech, the country is referred to as "la Argentina" in Spanish, bypassing the noun in any of the above expressions. List of meanings of countries' names What's our name? My name is Argentina
Paraguay the Republic of Paraguay, is a country of South America. It is bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, Bolivia to the northwest. Although it is one of the only two landlocked countries in South America, the country has coasts and ports on the Paraguay and Paraná rivers that give exit to the Atlantic Ocean through the Paraná-Paraguay Waterway. Due to its central location in South America, it is sometimes referred to as Corazón de Sudamérica. Spanish conquistadores arrived in 1524 after navigating northwards from the Río de la Plata to the Paraná River, up the Paraguay River. In 1537, they established the city of Asunción, the first capital of the Governorate of Paraguay and Río de la Plata. Paraguay was the epicenter of the Jesuit Missions, where the Guaraní people were educated and introduced to Christianity and European culture under the direction of the Society of Jesus in Jesuit reductions during the 17th century. However, after the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spanish territories in 1767, Paraguay became a peripheral colony, with few urban centers and settlers.
Following independence from Spain at the beginning of the 19th century, Paraguay was ruled by a series of authoritarian governments who implemented nationalist and protectionist policies. This period ended with the disastrous Paraguayan War, during which Paraguay lost at least 50% of its prewar population and around 25–33% of its territory to the Triple Alliance of Argentina and Uruguay. In the 20th century, Paraguay faced another major international conflict – the Chaco War – against Bolivia, from which the Paraguayans emerged victorious. Afterwards, the country entered a period of military dictatorships, ending with the 35 year regime of Alfredo Stroessner that lasted until he was toppled in 1989 by an internal military coup; this marked the beginning of the "democratic era" of Paraguay. With around 7 million inhabitants, Paraguay is a founding member of Mercosur, an original member of the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Lima Group; the city of Luque, in Asuncion's Metropolitan Area, is the seat of the CONMEBOL.
The Guarani culture is influential and more than 90% of the people speak different forms of the Guarani language on top of Spanish. Paraguayans are known for being a happy and easy-living people and many times the country topped the "world's happiest place" charts because of the "positive experiences" lived and expressed by the population; the indigenous Guaraní had been living in eastern Paraguay for at least a millennium before the arrival of the Spanish. Western Paraguay, the Gran Chaco, was inhabited by nomads of whom the Guaycuru peoples were the most prominent; the Paraguay River was the dividing line between the agricultural Guarani people to the east and the nomadic and semi-nomadic people to the west in the Gran Chaco. The Guarcuru nomads were known for their warrior traditions and were not pacified until the late 19th century; these indigenous tribes belonged to five distinct language families, which were the bases of their major divisions. Differing language speaking groups were competitive over resources and territories.
They were further divided into tribes by speaking languages in branches of these families. Today 17 separate ethnolinguistic groups remain; the first Europeans in the area were Spanish explorers in 1516. The Spanish explorer Juan de Salazar de Espinosa founded the settlement of Asunción on 15 August 1537; the city became the center of a Spanish colonial province of Paraguay. An attempt to create an autonomous Christian Indian nation was undertaken by Jesuit missions and settlements in this part of South America in the eighteenth century, which included portions of Uruguay and Brazil, they developed Jesuit reductions to bring Guarani populations together at Spanish missions and protect them from virtual slavery by Spanish settlers and Portuguese slave raiders, the Bandeirantes. In addition to seeking their conversion to Christianity. Catholicism in Paraguay was influenced by the indigenous peoples; the reducciones flourished in eastern Paraguay for about 150 years, until the expulsion of the Jesuits by the Spanish Crown in 1767.
The ruins of two 18th-century Jesuit Missions of La Santísima Trinidad de Paraná and Jesús de Tavarangue have been designated as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. In western Paraguay Spanish settlement and Christianity were resisted by the nomadic Guaycuru and other nomads from the 16th century onward. Most of these peoples were absorbed into the mestizo population in the 19th centuries. Paraguay overthrew the local Spanish administration on 14 May 1811. Paraguay's first dictator was José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia who ruled Paraguay from 1814 until his death in 1840, with little outside contact or influence, he intended to create a utopian society based on the French theorist Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Social Contract. Rodríguez de Francia established new laws that reduced the powers of the Catholic church and the cabinet, forbade colonial citizens from marrying one another and allowed them to marry only blacks, mulattoes or natives, in order to break the power of colonial-era elites and to create a mixed-race or mestizo society.
He cut off the rest of South America. Because of Francia's restrictions of freedom, Fulgencio Yegros and several other Independence-era