An equator of a rotating spheroid is its zeroth circle of latitude. It is the imaginary line on the spheroid, equidistant from its poles, dividing it into northern and southern hemispheres. In other words, it is the intersection of the spheroid with the plane perpendicular to its axis of rotation and midway between its geographical poles. On Earth, the Equator is 21.3 % over land. Indonesia is the country straddling the greatest length of the equatorial line across both land and sea; the name is derived from medieval Latin word aequator, in the phrase circulus aequator diei et noctis, meaning ‘circle equalizing day and night’, from the Latin word aequare meaning ‘make equal’. The latitude of the Earth's equator is, by definition, 0° of arc; the Equator is one of the five notable circles of latitude on Earth. The Equator is the only line of latitude, a great circle — that is, one whose plane passes through the center of the globe; the plane of Earth's equator, when projected outwards to the celestial sphere, defines the celestial equator.
In the cycle of Earth's seasons, the equatorial plane runs through the Sun twice per year: on the equinoxes in March and September. To a person on Earth, the Sun appears to travel above the Equator at these times. Light rays from the Sun's center are perpendicular to Earth's surface at the point of solar noon on the Equator. Locations on the Equator experience the shortest sunrises and sunsets because the Sun's daily path is nearly perpendicular to the horizon for most of the year; the length of daylight is constant throughout the year. Earth bulges at the Equator. Sites near the Equator, such as the Guiana Space Centre in Kourou, French Guiana, are good locations for spaceports as they have a faster rotational speed than other latitudes. Since Earth rotates eastward, spacecraft must be launched eastward to take advantage of this Earth-boost of speed; the precise location of the Equator is not fixed. This effect must be accounted for in detailed geophysical measurements; the International Association of Geodesy and the International Astronomical Union have chosen to use an equatorial radius of 6,378.1366 kilometres.
This equatorial radius is in the 2003 and 2010 IERS Conventions. It is the equatorial radius used for the IERS 2003 ellipsoid. If it were circular, the length of the Equator would be 2π times the radius, namely 40,075.0142 kilometres. The GRS 80 as approved and adopted by the IUGG at its Canberra, Australia meeting of 1979 has an equatorial radius of 6,378.137 kilometres. The WGS 84, a standard for use in cartography and satellite navigation including GPS has an equatorial radius of 6,378.137 kilometres. For both GRS 80 and WGS 84, this results in a length for the Equator of 40,075.0167 km. The geographical mile is defined as one arc-minute of the Equator, so it has different values depending on which radius is assumed. For example, by WSG-84, the distance is 1,855.3248 metres, while by IAU-2000, it is 1,855.3257 metres. This is a difference of less than one millimetre over the total distance; the earth is modeled as a sphere flattened 0.336% along its axis. This makes the Equator 0.16% longer than a meridian.
The IUGG standard meridian is, to the nearest millimetre, 40,007.862917 kilometres, one arc-minute of, 1,852.216 metres, explaining the SI standardization of the nautical mile as 1,852 metres, more than 3 metres less than the geographical mile. The sea-level surface of the Earth is irregular, so the actual length of the Equator is not so easy to determine. Aviation Week and Space Technology on 9 October 1961 reported that measurements using the Transit IV-A satellite had shown the equatorial "diameter" from longitude 11° West to 169° East to be 1,000 feet greater than its "diameter" ninety degrees away; the Equator passes through the land of 11 countries. Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the Equator passes through: Despite its name, no part of Equatorial Guinea lies on the Equator. However, its island of Annobón is 155 km south of the Equator, the rest of the country lies to the north. Seasons result from the tilt of the Earth's axis compared to the plane of its revolution around the Sun.
Throughout the year the northern and southern hemispheres are alternately turned either toward or away from the sun depending on Earth's position in its orbit. The hemisphere turned toward the sun receives more sunlight and is in summer, while the other hemisphere receives less sun and is in winter. At the equinoxes, the Earth's axis
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish and French are predominantly spoken. The term "Latin America" was first used in an 1856 conference with the title "Initiative of the America. Idea for a Federal Congress of the Republics", by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao; the term was used by Napoleon III's French government in the 1860s as Amérique latine to consider French-speaking territories in the Americas, along with the larger group of countries where Spanish and Portuguese languages prevailed, including the Spanish-speaking portions of the United States Today, areas of Canada and the United States where Spanish and French are predominant are not included in definitions of Latin America. Latin America consists of 13 dependencies and 20 countries which cover an area that stretches from the northern border of Mexico to the southern tip of South America, including the Caribbean, it has an area of 19,197,000 km2 13% of the Earth's land surface area.
As of 2016, its population was estimated at more than 639 million and in 2014, Latin America had a combined nominal GDP of US$5,573,397 million and a GDP PPP of 7,531,585 million USD. The idea that a part of the Americas has a linguistic affinity with the Romance cultures as a whole can be traced back to the 1830s, in the writing of the French Saint-Simonian Michel Chevalier, who postulated that this part of the Americas was inhabited by people of a "Latin race", that it could, ally itself with "Latin Europe" overlapping the Latin Church, in a struggle with "Teutonic Europe", "Anglo-Saxon America" and "Slavic Europe". Further investigations of the concept of Latin America are by Michel Gobat in the American Historical Review, the studies of Leslie Bethell, the monograph by Mauricio Tenorio-Trillo, Latin America: The Allure and Power of an Idea. Historian John Leddy Phelan (located the origins of “Latin America” in the French occupation of Mexico, his argument is that French imperialists used the concept of "Latin" America as a way to counter British imperialism, as well as to challenge the German threat to France.
The idea of a "Latin race" was taken up by Latin American intellectuals and political leaders of the mid- and late-nineteenth century, who no longer looked to Spain or Portugal as cultural models, but rather to France. French ruler Napoleon III had a strong interest in extending French commercial and political power in the region he and his business promoter Felix Belly called “Latin America” to emphasize the shared Latin background of France with the former colonies of Spain and Portugal; this led to Napoleon's failed attempt to take military control of Mexico in the 1860s. However, though Phelan thesis is still mentioned in the U. S. academy, two Latin American historians, the Uruguayan Arturo Ardao and the Chilean Miguel Rojas Mix proved decades ago that the term "Latin America" was used earlier than Phelan claimed, the first use of the term was opposite to support imperialist projects in the Americas. Ardao wrote about this subject in his book Génesis de la idea y el nombre de América latina, Miguel Rojas Mix in his article "Bilbao y el hallazgo de América latina: Unión continental, socialista y libertaria".
As Michel Gobat reminds in his article "The Invention of Latin America: A Transnational History of Anti-Imperialism and Race", "Arturo Ardao, Miguel Rojas Mix, Aims McGuinness have revealed the term'Latin America' had been used in 1856 by Central and South Americans protesting U. S. expansion into the Southern Hemisphere". Edward Shawcross summarizes Ardao's and Rojas Mix's findings in the following way: "Ardao identified the term in a poem by a Colombian diplomat and intellectual resident in France, José María Torres Caicedo, published on 15 February 1857 in a French based Spanish-language newspaper, while Rojas Mix located it in a speech delivered in France by the radical liberal Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao in June 1856". So, regarding when the words "Latin" and "America" were combined for the first time in a printed work, the term "Latin America" was first used in 1856 in a conference by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao in Paris; the conference had the title "Initiative of the America.
Idea for a Federal Congress of Republics." The following year the Colombian writer José María Torres Caicedo used the term in his poem "The Two Americas". Two events related with the U. S. played a central role in both works. The first event happened less than a decade before the publication of Bilbao's and Torres Caicedo works: the Mexican–American War, after which Mexico lost a third of its territory; the second event, the Walker affair, happened the same year both works were written: the decision by U. S. president Franklin Pierce to recognize the regime established in Nicaragua by American William Walker and his band of filibusters who ruled Nicaragua for nearly a year and attempted to reinstate slavery there, where it had been abolished for three decades In both Bilbao's and Torres Caicedo's works, the Mexican-American War and Walker's expedition to Nicaragua are explicitly mentioned as examples of dangers for the region. For Bilbao, "Latin America" w
Goiás is a state of Brazil, located in the Center-West region of the country. The name Goiás comes from the name of an indigenous community; the original word seems to have been guaiá, a compound of gua e iá, meaning "the same person" or "people of the same origin." It borders the Federal District and the states of Tocantins, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso. The most populous state of its region, Goiás is characterized by a landscape of chapadões. In the height of the drought season, from June to September, the lack of rain makes the level of the Araguaia River go down and exposes 2 kilometres of beaches, making it the main attraction of the State. At the Emas National Park in the municipality of Mineiros, it is possible to observe the typical fauna and flora from the region. At the Chapada dos Veadeiros the attractions are the canyons, valleys and waterfalls. Other attractions are the historical city of Goiás, 132 km from Goiânia, established in the beginning of 18th Century, Caldas Novas, with its hot water wells attracting more than one million tourists per year.
In Brazil's geoeconomic division, Goiás belongs to the Centro-Sul, being the northernmost state of the southern portion of Brazil. Located in the east of the Center-West region, adjacent to Brazil's Southeastern region, Goiás lies on the southern portion of the Brazilian Highlands, which are located in the center of the country, it occupies a large plateau, the vast level surface of which stands between 750 and 900 m above sea level and forms the divide between three of Brazil's largest river systems: to the south. Goiás is drained by a tributary of the Paraná River. Other major rivers in the state are the Meia Ponte, Aporé, São Marcos, Corumbá River, Maranhão, Paranã and Preto. None of these rivers is navigable except for short distances by small craft; the state's highest point is Pouso Alto, at 1,676 metres above sea level, in the Chapada dos Veadeiros. Goiás is covered with a woodland savanna known in Brazil as campo cerrado, although there are still tropical forests along the rivers; this cerrado has been diminished in recent years due to cattle raising and soybean farming with great loss of animal life and forest cover.
The climate of the plateau is tropical. Average monthly temperatures vary from 26 °C in the warmest month to 22 °C in the coldest; the year is divided into a dry season. Average annual rainfall is about 1,700 millimetres, but this varies due to elevation and microclimate; some parts of the state, have small remnants of tropical Atlantic forest, that appears around rivers and valleys. The Great Central West Region, consisting of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, the Federal District, is among the fastest-growing regions of Brazil; the population of Goiás state tripled in size in the period from 1950 to 1980 and is still growing quickly. However, outside the Federal District and the Goiânia metropolitan region most of Goiás is thinly populated; the chief concentration of settlement is in the southeast, in the area of Goiânia, across the border from Minas Gerais, around the Federal District. See also: History of Goiás The first European exploration of this interior part of Brazil was carried out by expeditions from São Paulo in the 17th century.
Gold was discovered in the gravel of a tributary of the Araguaia River by the bandeirante Bartolomeu Bueno da Silva in 1682. The settlement he founded there, called Santa Anna, became the colonial town of Goiás Velho, the former state capital. In 1744 the large inland area, much of it still unexplored by Europeans, was made a Captaincy General, in 1822 it became a province of the empire of Brazil, it became a state in 1889. The Brazilian constitution of 1891 specified that the nation's capital should be moved to the Brazilian Highlands, in 1956 Goiás was selected as the site for the federal district and capital national, Brasília; the seat of the federal government was moved to Brasília in 1960. Goiânia, the largest city and capital was planned in 1933 to replace the old, inaccessible former state capital of Goiás, 110 kilometres northwest. In 1937 the state government moved there, in 1942 the official inauguration was held. Goiânia is now one of the fastest growing cities in Brazil and one of the most livable cities in the country..
It stands out as both an industrial center and as a cultural center for country culture and music, known as Sertanejo. Due to the large territory of the state, over 600,000 square kilometres, communications were very difficult; the northern part of the state began to feel abandoned by the southern government and began a movement for separation. Local political leaders, many of whom were large landowners and were eager to gain important positions such as governor or senator and financial gain with the construction of a new capital encouraged the movement. In 1989 the northern half of Goiás became. According to the IBGE of 2010, there were 6,004,045 people residing in the state; the population density was 16.9 inh./km2. Ur
Fernando de Noronha
Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago of 21 islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean, 354 km offshore from the Brazilian coast. The archipelago's name is a corruption of the name of the Portuguese merchant Fernão de Loronha, to whom it was given by the Portuguese crown for services rendered regarding wood imported from Brazil. Only the homonymous main island is inhabited; the archipelago's total area is 26 km2. Administratively the islands are a unique case in Brazil of a special "state district", not part of any municipality and is administered directly by the government of the state of Pernambuco; the state district's jurisdiction includes the remote Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, located 625 kilometres northeast of Fernando de Noronha. 70% of the islands area were established in 1988 as a national maritime park. In 2001, UNESCO designated it as a World Heritage Site because of the importance of its environment, its time zone is UTC−02:00 all year round. The local population and travelers can get to Noronha by plane from Natal.
An "environmental preservation" daily fee is charged from tourists upon arrival by Pernambuco State administration, while another fee is paid once to have access to the National Park attractions. The islands of this archipelago are the visible parts of a range of submerged mountains, it consists of 21 islands and rocks of volcanic origin. The main island has an area of 18 km2, being 3.5 km wide at its maximum. The base of this enormous volcanic formation is 756 metres below the surface; the volcanic rocks are of variable though silica-undersaturated character with basanite and phonolite among the lava types found. The main island, from which the group gets its name, makes up 91% of the total area; the central upland of the main island is called the Quixaba. The United Nations Environment Programme lists 15 possible endemic plant species, including species of the genera Capparis noronhae, Ceratosanthes noronhae, Cayaponia noronhae, Moriordica noronhae, Cereus noronhae, Palicourea noronhae, Guettarda noronhae, Bumelia noronhae, Physalis noronhae, Ficus noronhae.
The islands have two endemic birds -- the Noronha vireo. Both are present on the main island. In addition there is an endemic subspecies of Zenaida auriculata noronha. Subfossil remains of an extinct endemic rail have been found; the archipelago is an important site for breeding seabirds. An endemic sigmodontine rodent, Noronhomys vespuccii, mentioned by Amerigo Vespucci, is now extinct; the islands have two endemic reptiles, the Noronha wormlizard, Amphisbaena ridleyi, the Noronha skink, Trachylepis atlantica. The life above and below sea is the main attraction of the island. Sea turtles, cetaceans and many other species are observed; the climate is tropical, with two well-defined seasons for rainfall, if not temperature. The rainy season lasts from February to July; the temperature ranges, both diurnal and monthly, are unusually slight. Many controversies mark the discovery of the archipelago by Europeans. At least three names – São Lourenço, São João, Quaresma – have been associated with the island around the time of its discovery.
Based on the written record, Fernando de Noronha island was discovered on August 10, 1503, by a Portuguese expedition and financed by a private commercial consortium headed by the Lisbon merchant Fernão de Loronha. The expedition was under the overall command of captain Gonçalo Coelho and carried the Italian adventurer Amerigo Vespucci aboard, who wrote an account of it; the flagship of the expedition hit a reef and foundered near the island, the crew and contents had to be salvaged. On Coelho's orders, Vespucci anchored at the island, spent a week there, while the rest of the Coelho fleet went on south. In his letter to Soderini, Vespucci describes the uninhabited island and reports its name as the "island of St. Lawrence", its existence was reported to Lisbon sometime between and January 16, 1504, when King Manuel I of Portugal issued a charter granting the "island of St. John" as a hereditary captaincy to Fernão de Loronha; the date and new name in the charter has presented historians with a puzzle.
As Vespucci did not return to Lisbon until September 1504, the discovery must have been earlier. Historians have hypothesized that a stray ship of the Coelho fleet, under an unknown captain, may have returned to the island to collect Vespucci, did not find him or anyone else there, went back to Lisbon by itself with the news; the captain who returned to Lisbon with the n
International rankings of Brazil
The following are international rankings of Brazil. International Monetary Fund: GDP 2012, ranked 7 out of 181 countries International Monetary Fund: GDP per capita 2011, ranked 53 out of 183 countries The Wall Street Journal and the Heritage Foundation: Index of Economic Freedom 2006, ranked 81 out of 157 countries World Economic Forum: Global Competitiveness Index 2011-2012, ranked 53 out of 142 countries Motor Vehicle Production: ranked 6 Yale University and Columbia University: 2012 Environmental Performance Index, ranked 30 out of 132 2010 KOF Index of Globalization ranked 75 out of 181 Institute for Economics and Peace Global Peace Index ranked 85 out of 144 Transparency International: 2011 Corruption Perceptions Index, ranked 73 out of 182 countries Reporters Without Borders: 2011-2012 Press Freedom Index, ranked 99 out of 179 countries Economist Intelligence Unit: E-readiness 2008, ranked 41 out of 70 countries Futron: Space Competitiveness Index 2010, ranked 10th in the world United Nations: 2011 Human Development Index, ranked 84 out of 187 countries
Rio de Janeiro (state)
Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil. It has the second largest economy of Brazil, with the largest being that of the state of São Paulo; the state of Rio de Janeiro is located within the Brazilian geopolitical region classified as the Southeast. Rio de Janeiro shares borders with all the other states in the same Southeast macroregion: Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and São Paulo, it is bounded on the south by the South Atlantic Ocean. Rio de Janeiro has an area of 43,653 km2, its capital is the city of Rio de Janeiro, the capital of the Portuguese Colony of Brazil from 1763 to 1815, of the following United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves from 1815 to 1822, of independent Brazil as a kingdom and republic from 1822 to 1960. The archaic demonym meaning for the Rio de Janeiro State is "fluminense", taken from the Latin word flumen, meaning "river". Despite the fact "carioca" is a most ancient demonym of Rio de Janeiro's inhabitants, it was replaced by "fluminense" in 1783, when it was sanctioned as the official demonym of the Royal Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a few years after the City of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro has become the capital city of the Brazilian colonies.
From 1783 and during the Imperial Regime, "carioca" remained only as a nickname by which other Brazilians called the inhabitants of Rio. During the first years of the Brazilian Republic, "carioca" was the name given to those who lived in the slums or a pejorative way to refer the bureaucratic elite of the Federal District. Only when the City of Rio lost its status as Federal District and became a Brazilian State when the capital was moved to Brasília earlier in 1960, "carioca" was made a co-official demonym with "guanabarino". In 1975, the Guanabara State was ended and extinct by President Ernesto Geisel becoming the present City of Rio de Janeiro and "carioca" was made the demonym of its municipality. Although "carioca" is not recognized as an official demonym of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazilians call the inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro in general as "cariocas", most of its inhabitants claim to be "cariocas". Nowadays, social movements like "Somos Todos Cariocas" have tried to achieve the official recognition of "carioca" as a co-official demonym of the Rio de Janeiro State.
The state's 22 largest cities are Rio de Janeiro, São Gonçalo, Duque de Caxias, Nova Iguaçu, Niterói, Campos dos Goytacazes, Belford Roxo, São João de Meriti, Petrópolis, Volta Redonda, Magé, Macaé, Itaboraí, Cabo Frio, Armação dos Búzios, Angra dos Reis, Nova Friburgo, Barra Mansa, Barra do Piraí, Teresópolis and Nilópolis. Rio de Janeiro is one of the smallest in Brazil, it is, the third most populous Brazilian state, with a population of 16 million of people in 2011 and has the third longest coastline in the country. In the Brazilian flag, the state is represented by the beta star in the Southern Cross. European presence in Rio de Janeiro is as old as Brazil itself, dating back to 1502. Rio de Janeiro originated from parts of the captainships of São Vicente. Between 1555 and 1567, the territory was occupied by the French, who intended to install a colony, France Antarctique. Aiming to prevent the occupation of the Frenchmen, in March 1565, the city of Rio de Janeiro was established by Estácio de Sá.
In the 17th century, cattle raising and sugar cane cultivation stimulated the city's progress, definitively assured when the port started to export gold extracted from Minas Gerais in the 18th century. In 1763, Rio de Janeiro became the capital of Colonial Brazil. With the flight of the Portuguese royal family from Portugal to Brazil in 1808, the region soon benefited from urban reforms to house the Portuguese. Chief among the promoted changes were: the transformation of agencies of public administration and justice, the creation of new churches, hospitals, the foundation of the first bank of the country - the Banco do Brasil - and the Royal Press, with the Gazette do Rio of Janeiro; the following years witnessed the creation of the Academia Real Militar. There followed a process of cultural enhancement influenced not only by the arrival of the Royal Family, but by the presence of European graphic artists who were hired to record the society and Brazilian natural features. During this same time, the Escola Real de Ciências, Artes e Ofícios was founded as well.
In 1834, the city of Rio de Janeiro was transformed into a "neutral city", remaining as capital of the state, while the captainships became provinces, with headquarters in Niterói, a neighboring city. In 1889, the city became the capital of the Republic, the neutral city became the federal district and the province a state. In 1894, Petrópolis became the capital of Rio de Janeiro, until 1902 when Niterói recovered its capital status. With the relocation of the federal capital to Brasília in 1960, the city of Rio de Janeiro became Guanabara State. Niterói remained the state capital for Rio de Janeiro state, while Rio de Janeiro served the same status for Guanabara. In 1975, the states of Guanabara and Rio de Janeiro were merged under the name of Rio de Janeiro, with the city of Rio de Janeiro as state capital; the symbols of the former State of Rio de Janeiro were preserved, while the symbols of Guanabara were kept by the city of Rio de Janeir
Flag of Brazil
The flag of Brazil, known in Portuguese as Verde e amarela, or less usually'Auriverde, is a blue disc depicting a starry sky spanned by a curved band inscribed with the national motto "Ordem e Progresso", within a yellow rhombus, on a green field. Brazil adopted this design for its national flag on November 19, 1889 — four days after the Proclamation of the Republic, to replace the flag of the Empire of Brazil; the concept was the work of Raimundo Teixeira Mendes, with the collaboration of Miguel Lemos, Manuel Pereira Reis and Décio Villares. The green field and the yellow rhombus from the previous imperial flag, though modified in hue and shape, were preserved — the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow represented the House of Habsburg of his wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina. A blue circle with white five-pointed stars replaced the arms of the Empire of Brazil — its position in the flag reflects the sky over the city of Rio de Janeiro on November 15, 1889.
The motto Ordem e Progresso is inspired by Auguste Comte's motto of positivism: "L'amour pour principe et l'ordre pour base. Each star corresponds to a Brazilian Federative Unit and, according to Brazilian Law, the flag must be updated in case of creation or extinction of a state. At the time the flag was first adopted in 1889, it held 21 stars, it received one more star in 1960 another in 1968, four more stars in 1992, totalling 27 stars in its current version. The Portuguese territories in the Americas, corresponding to what is now Brazil, never had their own official flag, since Portuguese tradition encouraged hoisting the flag of the Kingdom of Portugal in all territories of the Portuguese Crown; the first Brazilian vexillological symbols were private maritime flags used by Portuguese merchant ships that sailed to Brazil. A flag with green and white stripes was used until 1692; the green and white colors represented the national colours of Portugal. In 1692, that flag was no longer used by ships that sailed to Brazil and became the flag of the merchant vessels in coastal Portugal.
In 1692, a new flag was introduced for merchant vessels sailing to Brazil. The new flag had a white field with a golden armillary sphere; the armillary sphere had served as the personal emblem of King Manuel I of Portugal. During his reign Portuguese ships used it and it became a national emblem of Portugal and, more of the Portuguese empire. A similar flag was introduced for the Portuguese ships that sailed to India, but with a red armillary sphere. Despite representing the entire Portuguese empire, the armillary sphere began to be used more extensively in Brazil — the largest and most developed colony at the time — not only in maritime flags, but on coins and other media, it became the unofficial ensign of Brazil. In 1815, Brazil was elevated to the rank of kingdom, the kingdoms of Portugal and the Algarves were united as a single state--the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves; the Charter Act of 1816 established the insignia of the new kingdom. It specified that the arms of the Kingdom of Brazil was to be composed of a gold armillary sphere on a blue field.
During this time, the flag of Brazil was the flag of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. The imperial flag of Brazil was designed by Jean-Baptiste Debret as the Royal Standard of the Prince Royal of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, Pedro I. After the Brazilian Declaration of Independence, with the coronation of Pedro I as Emperor of Brazil, the Royal Standard was modified to become the flag of the Empire of Brazil; the new flag featured the imperial coat of arms on a green field. The green and yellow colors represented the dynastic houses of Pedro I and his consort Maria Leopoldina of Austria; the imperial flag was modified during the reign of Pedro II, when an extra star was added to the imperial arms to conform to the new territorial organization of the country. Upon the proclamation of the Republic, one of the civilian leaders of the movement, the lawyer Ruy Barbosa, proposed a design for the nation's new flag inspired by the flag of the United States, it was flown from 15 November 1889, until 19 November 1889, when Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca vetoed the design, citing concerns that it looked too similar to the flag of another state.
Fonseca suggested. This was intended to underscore continuity of national unity during the transition from a constitutional monarchy to a republic. Raimundo Teixeira Mendes presented a project in which the imperial coat of arms was replaced by a blue celestial globe and the positivist motto, it was presented to Fonseca. The flag was designed by a group formed by Raimundo Teixeira Mendes, Miguel Lemos, Manuel Pereira Reis and Décio Villares, it was adopted on 19 November 1889. The flag has been modified on three occasions to add additional stars intended to reflect newly created states: 1960, 1968 and 1992. In contrast to many other national flags with elements representing political subdivisions, modifications to the flag of Brazil were not always made promptly upon political reorganisation, resulting in multi-year periods of history wh