The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian and east of the antimeridian. The other half is called the Eastern Hemisphere; the Western Hemisphere consists of the Americas, the western portions of Eurasia and Africa, the extreme eastern tip of Siberia, numerous territories in Oceania, a portion of Antarctica, while excluding some of the Aleutian Islands to the southwest of the Alaskan mainland. In an attempt to define the Western Hemisphere as the parts of the world which are not part of the Old World, there exist projections which use the 20th meridian west and the diametrically opposed 160th meridian east to define the hemisphere; this projection excludes the European and African mainlands and a small portion of northeast Greenland, but includes more of eastern Russia and Oceania. The center of the Western Hemisphere is located in the Pacific Ocean at the intersection of the 90th meridian west and the Equator, among the Galápagos Islands.
The nearest land is Genovesa Island at 0°19′00″N 89°57′00″W. The highest mountain in the Western Hemisphere is Aconcagua in the Andes of Argentina at 6,960.8 metres. Below is a list of the sovereign states which are in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres on the IERS Reference Meridian, in order from north to south: Denmark. Norway. United Kingdom Netherlands France Spain Algeria Mali Burkina Faso Ghana TogoBelow is a list of the sovereign states which are in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres along the 180th meridian, in order from north to south. With the exception of the United States, all of them are located on just one side of the International Date Line, curved around them. Russia United States Kiribati Tuvalu Fiji New Zealand The following countries and territories lie outside the Americas yet are entirely/mostly or within the Western Hemisphere: Media related to Western Hemisphere at Wikimedia Commons
The Catostomidae are the suckers of the order Cypriniformes, with about 78 species in this family of freshwater fishes. The Catostomidae are native to North America, but Catostomus catostomus is found in both North America and Russia, Myxocyprinus asiaticus is from China, they are not fished recreationally. The mouth of this fish is located with thick, fleshy lips. Most species are less than 60 cm in length, they are distinguished from related fish by having a long pharyngeal bone in the throat, containing a single row of teeth. Catostomids are most found in rivers, but can be found in any freshwater environment, their food ranges from bottom-dwelling organisms, to surface insects and small fishes. Catostomidae have been dated to the Middle Eocene in Colorado and Utah. An enormous gap in the fossil record occurs from the Late Eocene to Early Pleistocene, they can be taken including angling and gigging. Species such as Catostomus commersonii and Hypentelium nigricans are preferred for eating, they can be canned, smoked, or fried, but small incisions must be made in the flesh before frying to allow small internal bones to be palatable.
Subfamily Catostominae Tribe Catostomini Genus Catostomus Genus Chasmistes Genus Deltistes Genus Xyrauchen Tribe Erimyzoninae Genus Erimyzon Genus Minytrema Tribe Thoburniinae Genus Hypentelium Genus Thoburnia Tribe Moxostomatini Genus Moxostoma Subfamily Cycleptinae Genus Cycleptus Subfamily Ictiobinae Genus †Amyzon Genus Carpiodes Genus Ictiobus Subfamily Myxocyprininae Genus Myxocyprinus other extinct genera Genus †Jianghanichthys Genus †Plesiomyxocyprinus Genus †Vasnetzovia Froese and Daniel Pauly, eds.. "Catostomidae" in FishBase. August 2011 version. Bruner, John Clay. "Comments on the genus Amyzon". Journal of Paleontology. 65: 678–686. Doi:10.1017/s0022336000030766. JSTOR 1305679
Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located within the United States. The other four Great Lakes are shared by the U. S. and Canada. It is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior and Lake Huron. To the east, its basin is conjoined with that of Lake Huron through the wide Straits of Mackinac, giving it the same surface elevation as its easterly counterpart. Lake Michigan is shared, from west to east, by the U. S. states of Wisconsin, Illinois and Michigan. Ports along its shores include Chicago; the word "Michigan" referred to the lake itself, is believed to come from the Ojibwe word michi-gami meaning "great water". Some of the earliest human inhabitants of the Lake Michigan region were the Hopewell Indians, their culture declined after 800 AD, for the next few hundred years, the region was the home of peoples known as the Late Woodland Indians. In the early 17th century, when western European explorers made their first forays into the region, they encountered descendants of the Late Woodland Indians: the Chippewa.
The French explorer Jean Nicolet is believed to have been the first European to reach Lake Michigan in 1634 or 1638. In the earliest European maps of the region, the name of Lake Illinois has been found in addition to that of "Michigan", named for the Illinois Confederation of tribes. Lake Michigan is joined via the narrow, open-water Straits of Mackinac with Lake Huron, the combined body of water is sometimes called Michigan–Huron; the Straits of Mackinac were an important Native American and fur trade route. Located on the southern side of the Straits is the town of Mackinaw City, the site of Fort Michilimackinac, a reconstructed French fort founded in 1715, on the northern side is St. Ignace, site of a French Catholic mission to the Indians, founded in 1671. In 1673, Jacques Marquette, Louis Joliet and their crew of five Métis voyageurs followed Lake Michigan to Green Bay and up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters, in their search for the Mississippi River, cf. Fox–Wisconsin Waterway.
The eastern end of the Straits was controlled by Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, a British colonial and early American military base and fur trade center, founded in 1781. With the advent of European exploration into the area in the late 17th century, Lake Michigan became part of a line of waterways leading from the Saint Lawrence River to the Mississippi River and thence to the Gulf of Mexico. French coureurs des bois and voyageurs established small ports and trading communities, such as Green Bay, on the lake during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. In the 19th century, Lake Michigan played a major role in the development of Chicago and the Midwestern United States west of the lake. For example, 90% of the grain shipped from Chicago travelled east over Lake Michigan during the antebellum years, only falling below 50% after the Civil War and the major expansion of railroad shipping; the first person to reach the deep bottom of Lake Michigan was J. Val Klump, a scientist at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee.
Klump reached the bottom via submersible as part of a 1985 research expedition. In 2007, a row of stones paralleling an ancient shoreline was discovered by Mark Holley, professor of underwater archeology at Northwestern Michigan College; this formation lies 40 feet below the surface of the lake. One of the stones is said to have a carving resembling a mastodon. So far the formation has not been authenticated; the warming of Lake Michigan was the subject of a report by Purdue University in 2018. In each decade since 1980, steady increases in average surface temperature have occurred; this is to lead to decreasing native habitat and to adversely affect native species survival. Lake Michigan is the sole Great Lake wholly within the borders of the United States, it lies in the region known as the American Midwest. Lake Michigan has a surface area of 22,404 sq.mi. It is the larger half of Lake Michigan–Huron, the largest body of fresh water in the world by surface area, it is 307 miles long by 118 miles wide with a shoreline 1,640 miles long.
The lake's average depth is 46 fathoms 3 feet. It contains a volume of 1,180 cubic miles of water. Green Bay in the northwest is its largest bay. Grand Traverse Bay in its northeast is another large bay. Lake Michigan's deepest region, which lies in its northern-half, is called Chippewa Basin and is separated from South Chippewa Basin, by a shallower area called the Mid Lake Plateau. Twelve million people live along Lake Michigan's shores in the Chicago and Milwaukee metropolitan areas; the economy of many communities in northern Michigan and Door County, Wisconsin is supported by tourism, with large seasonal populations attracted by Lake Michigan. Seasonal residents have summer homes along the waterfront and return home for the winter; the southern
Flag and seal of Illinois
The Great Seal of the State of Illinois is the official emblem of the state, signifies the official nature of a document produced by the state of Illinois. The flag of the state of Illinois consists of the seal of Illinois on a white background, with the word "Illinois" underneath the seal; the present seal was adopted in 1869, the flag bearing the central elements of the seal was adopted in 1915, the word Illinois was added to the flag in 1970. The current flag depicts the Great Seal of Illinois, designed in 1819 and emulated the Great Seal of the United States. In the eagle's beak there is a banner with the state motto, "State Sovereignty, National Union." The dates on the seal, 1818 and 1868, represent the year Illinois became a state and the year in which the Great Seal was redesigned by Sharon Tyndale. Although "State Sovereignty" comes first in the motto, "State" is at the bottom and "Sovereignty" is upside-down; the first Great Seal of the State of Illinois was adopted in 1819 by the first Illinois General Assembly.
The first law authorizing the Great Seal required the Secretary of State of Illinois to procure and keep the seal. The first seal engraved was a duplicate of the Great Seal of the United States, it was used until 1839. The seal designed in 1839 became the Second Great Seal. Illinois Secretary of State Sharon Tyndale spearheaded the drive to create a third state seal for Illinois. In 1867, he asked State Senator Allen C. Fuller to introduce legislation requiring a new seal, suggested to Fuller that the words of the state motto be reversed, from "State Sovereignty, National Union", to "National Union, State Sovereignty". However, the bill passed by the legislature on March 7, 1867, kept the original wording. Despite declining his suggestion, the legislature nonetheless entrusted Tyndale with designing the new seal, and Tyndale managed to twist the legislature's intent. Tyndale's seal features a bald eagle pitched on a rock carrying a shield in its talons and a banner with the state motto in its beak.
Thirteen stars and thirteen stripes on the shield represent the original thirteen states of the Union. The date August 26, 1818, when Illinois's first constitution was adopted in Kaskaskia, appears along the bottom arc of the circle, 1818, the year of statehood, displays on the seal below 1868, the year the current seal was adopted; this basic design has survived through several minor modifications. The Illinois Secretary of State is still the keeper of the Great Seal of the State of Illinois. During her time as state regent of the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1912, Ella Park Lawrence began a campaign to have Illinois adopt a state flag, she was unsuccessful during her time as state regent, but continued to lobby members of the Illinois General Assembly to adopt a state flag as a member of the Rockford chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. On April 1, 1914, Lawrence sent a letter to every Illinois chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution announcing a contest to design an Illinois state flag, with the winner receiving a prize of $25.
Thirty-five designs were submitted in response to this contest. The contest was judged by a panel chaired by Lewis Stevenson, Illinois Secretary of State, they selected the design of Lucy Derwent. The flag became the official state banner on July 6, 1915, following its passage in the Illinois State House and Senate. Governor Edward F. Dunne did not sign the bill. In the 1960s, Chief Petty Officer Bruce McDaniel petitioned to have the name of the state added to the flag, he noted. Governor Richard B. Ogilvie signed the addition to the flag into law on September 17, 1969, the new flag was designed by Mrs. Sanford Hutchinson and became the official flag on July 1, 1970. For Illinois's first 100 years of statehood in 1918, Wallace Rice, who designed Chicago's flag, designed a centennial flag for the state, it had three horizontal bands of equal width alternating white, white. It was charged with 21 stars along the edge of the hoist. There were 10 blue stars in the upper white band and 10 in the lower white band, representing the 10 northern and 10 southern states at the time of Illinois' statehood in 1818.
The center blue band had one white star for the state of Illinois itself. Illinois Centennial half dollar State of Illinois Symbols of Illinois The Great Seal of the State of Illinois Illinois State Flag
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Great Lakes region
The Great Lakes region of North America is a bi-national Canadian–American region that includes portions of the eight U. S. states of Illinois, Michigan, New York, Ohio and Wisconsin as well as the Canadian province of Ontario. The region centers on the Great Lakes and forms a distinctive historical and cultural identity. A portion of the region encompasses the Great Lakes Megalopolis; the Great Lakes Commission, authorized by the region's American states and Province of Ontario, the additional Canadian Province of Quebec, comprises a bi-national authority with specified powers to protect and preserve the water and environmental resources of the Great Lakes and surrounding waterways and aquifers. The Commission's authorities are confirmed by the Canadian and American federal governments, by its constituent states and provinces; the states and provinces are represented in the Conference of Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Governors and Premiers; the Great Lakes region takes its name from the corresponding geological formation of the Great Lakes Basin, a narrow watershed encompassing The Great Lakes, bounded by watersheds to the region's north, west and south.
To the east, the rivers of St. Lawrence, Hudson and Susquehanna form an arc of watersheds east to The Atlantic; the Great Lakes region, as distinct from the Great Lakes Basin, defines a unit of sub-national political entities defined by the U. S. states and the Canadian Province of Ontario encompassing the Great Lakes watershed, the states and Province bordering one or more of the Great Lakes. Prior to European settlement, Iroquoian people lived around Lakes Erie and Ontario, Algonquian peoples around most of the rest, a variety of other indigenous nation-peoples including the Menominee, Illinois, Huron, Erie, Miami, Meskwaki and Ho-Chunk. With the first permanent European settlements in the early seventeenth century, all these nation-peoples developed an extensive fur trade with French and English merchants in the St. Lawrence and Mohawk Valleys, Hudson's Bay, respectively; the prospects of fur monopolies and discovery of a fabled Northwest Passage to Asia generated sporadic but intense competition among the three most powerful northwest Europe imperial nations to control the territory.
A century and a half of naval and land wars among France, The Netherlands and Britain resulted in British control of the region, from the Ohio River to the Arctic, from the Atlantic to the Mississippi. Beyond the region, North American claims remained disputed among Britain, France and Russia. Britain defeated France decisively at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham near Quebec City in 1759, the Treaty of Paris that ended The Seven Years' War, known in America as the French and Indian War ceded the entire region to the victor. Britain's claims were intensely disputed by a confederation of Indians during Pontiac's Rebellion, which induced major concessions to still sovereign Indian nations. During the American Revolution, the region was contested between Britain and rebellious American colonies. Hoping for favorable claims of territorial control in an eventual peace treaty with Britain, American adventurers led by Kentucky militia leader George Rogers Clark occupied village settlements, including Cahokia and Vincennes unopposed, with passive support from Francophone inhabitants.
In the Peace of Paris Britain ceded what became known as The Northwest Territory, the area bounded by Great Lakes and Ohio rivers, the eastern colonies of New York and Pennsylvania, to the fledgling United States. Britain, which may have entertained ambitions to repossess the area if America failed to govern it, retained control over its forts and licensed fur trade for fifteen years. During the Confederacy Period of 1781–1789, the Continental Congress passed three ordinances whose authority was unclear regarding the region's governance on the American side; the Land Ordinance of 1784 established the broad outlines of future governance. The territory would be divided into six states, which would be given broad powers of constitutional instituting, admitted to the nation as equal members; the Land Ordinance of 1785 specified the manner in which land would be distributed in the Territory, favoring sale in small parcels to settlers who would work their own farms. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 defined the political protocols by which American states south of the lakes would enter the union as political equals with the original thirteen colonies.
The ordinance, adopted in its final form just before the writing of the United States Constitution, was a sweeping, visionary proposal to create what was at the time a radical experiment in democratic governance and economy. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 prohibited slavery, restricted primogeniture, mandated universal public education, provided for affordable farm land to people who settled and improved it, required peaceful, lawful treatment of the Indian population; the ordinance prohibited the establishment of state religion and established civic rights that foreshadowed the United States Bill of Rights. Civil rights included freedom from cruel and unusual punishment, trial by jury, exemption from unreasonable search and seizure. States were authorized to organize constitutional conventions and petition for admission as states equal to the original thirteen. Five states evolved from its provisions: Ohio, Michigan and Wisconsin; the northeastern sectio
Vehicle registration plates of Illinois
The U. S. state of Illinois first required its residents to register their motor vehicles in 1907. Registrants provided their own license plates for display until 1911, when the state began to issue plates. Plates were issued annually until 1978. Plates are issued by the Illinois Secretary of State. Automobile owners in Illinois were first required to register their vehicles with the Secretary of State's office in 1907, paying a one-time registration fee of $2. Registrants were issued a numbered aluminum disc to place on their dashboard, but they had to provide their own license plates. Annual registration commenced in 1909; the state began to issue license plates in 1911. Front and rear plates were required each year, along with an aluminum dashboard disc whose number matched the serial on the plate; the legislation authorizing the state issuance of license plates provided for the registration and plating of motorcycles, issued special licenses and plates to mechanics and chauffeurs. Serials were all-numeric and ran to five digits.
When 99999 was reached in 1914 and 1915, serials with one letter and four digits were issued. Six-digit all-numeric serials were introduced in 1916, followed in 1925 by seven-digit serials. Aluminum dashboard discs were discontinued after 1917; the year 1920 marked the first time. Only two general classes were specified, vehicles carrying less than seven people and those that carried more than seven people or carried freight. Trucks received their own special plate for the first time with a vertical "TRUCK" embossed onto the plate. Four years the first plates for trailers were issued. In 1927 the first graphic device was placed on an Illinois license plate. An embossed outline of the state's shape was shown with the letters "ILL" and "27" debossed inside the design; this was a single year feature. And with the exception of an Illinois State Seal decal appearing on a few thousand plates in 1943, another graphic would not appear on an Illinois plate again until the Antique Automobile plate of 1950.
In July 1953 Illinois governor William Stratton signed into law a bill that gave the Secretary of State the power to place the slogan "Land of Lincoln" and a silhouette of Abraham Lincoln on all Illinois license plates. Charles Carpentier, the Secretary of State, indicated that he would have the slogan placed on all 1954 Illinois license plates, but that the silhouette of Lincoln would not appear because to do so would necessitate an increase in the size of the license plates at a cost of $250,000. While the phrase "Land of Lincoln" was supposed to appear on all state issued license plates, it was several years before this happened. In 1954 alone Local Bus, Disabled Veteran, Historic Automobile, several other plate types were missing the slogan, it was not until July 2001. In 1956, the United States and Mexico came to an agreement with the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators, the Automobile Manufacturers Association and the National Safety Council that standardized the size for license plates for vehicles at 6 inches in height by 12 inches in width, with standardized mounting holes.
The 1956 issue was the first Illinois license plate that complied with these standards: the 1955 issue was 6 inches in height by 12 inches in width, but had non-standard mounting holes. Illinois issued calendar year plates longer than any other state; this ended with the first multiyear baseplate which began in 1979, there have been only four major plate designs issued since that year. These issues began in 1979, 1984, 2001, 2017. Multiyear plates for Illinois drivers had been proposed as early as 1917, they were in use as early as 1912 in Minnesota. In 1918 the President of the Chicago Motor Club, Charles M. Hayes, sent a letter to the Illinois Secretary of State, Louis Emmerson, suggesting that Illinois license plates be retained for multiple years, that they would be revalidated by a disc that would be issued each year. At a minimum the "perpetual" license plates would save the state the annual manufacturing cost of the plates and postage costs to mail them to motorists. In late 1966 the implementation of five year license plates, which would use renewal tabs annually, was proposed again.
Their use would aid police in indentifing drivers because the books that listed all license plate numbers were not available until half way through the year. With fewer plate numbers changing, the books would be relevant for longer periods of time. Paul Powell, the Illinois Secretary of State, rejected the proposal stating that any cost savings would be minimized by additional record keeping costs, he mentioned that some multiyear plates used in other states were not satisfactory. Powell further reiterated his position the following month by mentioning a University of Illinois study which recommended the annual change in license plate colors as an incentive for motorists to pay the annual registration cost, that the initial cost of the longer term plates would be much more than regular plates; the University of Illinois study mentioned by Powell was conducted in 1957 and 1958, recommended the addition of letters to the Illinois license plate. In 1969 Powell backed a plan to implement two-year plates, which would have cost twice the annual registration price, but the plan did not pass the legislature.
In January 1975 it was recommended that Illinois retain the practice of issuing annual license plates by an advisory committee to Secretary of State Michael Howlett. Two year license plates and a staggered registration system were studied by the committee, but both proposal