Demographics of Minnesota
The United States Census Bureau counted Minnesota's population at 5,303,925 in the 2010 Census. From fewer than 6,100 people in 1850, Minnesota's population grew to over 1.75 million by 1900. Each of the next six decades saw a 15.0% rise in population, reaching 3.41 million in 1960. Growth slowed, rising 11.0% to 3.8 million in 1970, an average of 9.0% over the next three decades to 4.91 million in the 2000 census. The rate of population change, age and gender distributions, approximate the national average. Minnesota's growing minority groups, still form a smaller proportion of the population than in the nation as a whole; the center of population of Minnesota is located in the city of Rogers. The population distribution by age in the 2005–2007 American Community Survey was: Under 5 years: 6.7% 5–9 years: 6.5% 10–14 years: 6.9% 15–19 years: 7.3% 20–24 years: 7.0% 25–34 years: 13.0% 35–44 years: 14.7% 45–54 years: 15.3% 55–59 years: 6.0% 60–64 years: 4.4% 65–74 years: 6.0% 75–84 years: 4.3% 85 years and over: 1.9%The median age was 36.9 years.
60.0% of the state's population lives within the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area and 40.0% in the remainder of the state. This is a result of the migration of jobs from farming and logging, prevalent in the 19th century, to the current concentration in professional and service jobs, concentrated in the metropolitan areas; the 16 most populous counties Over 85.0% of Minnesota's residents are of European descent, with the largest reported ancestries being German, Norwegian and Swedish. The Hispanic population of Minnesota is increasing, much like in other parts of the United States and recent immigrants have come from all over the world, including Hmong, Somalis and emigrants from the former Soviet bloc. Immigration to Minnesota was fueled by the efforts of railroad companies and civic boosters who published books explaining Minnesota's virtues. New Minnesotans sent letters back to the "old country" explaining the new hope and prosperity they had found in Minnesota; the first major wave of immigration, in the 1860s and 1870s, was from Germany and Ireland, most settlers moved to farming areas in the central and southern regions of the state.
Germans composed the largest immigrant group to Minnesota. When World War I started, 70% of the population was either foreign-born or had at least one parent born outside the United States. Of that number, more than one fourth were Germans. New Ulm, Saint Cloud, Shakopee were particular centers of German immigration. Scandinavians from Norway and Denmark, as well as immigrants from the Nordic country of Finland soon followed, but they tended to settle in distinctive communities of Norwegian, Swedish and Finnish groups instead of common Scandinavian or Nordic communities. Irish immigrants were the fourth largest group after the Germans and Norwegians, many of whom came as a result of the potato famine. Others were encouraged to immigrate by Archbishop John Ireland; the Irish concentrated in Saint Paul. Southern and eastern Europeans from Italy, Slovenia and Czecho-Slovakia became the dominant group immigrating to the United States, they tended to settle in the Twin Cities and the Iron Range; the Mesabi Range was popular among southeastern Europeans Slovenians and other Slavic immigrants living under the Austrian Empire, who found employment in the iron mines.
With extraordinary encouragement from Walter Mondale and Vietnamese immigrants started to come to Minnesota around the mid-1970s as the pro-American governments in their home countries collapsed. Many came through VOLAGS contracted with the State Department; as of the 2015 American Community Survey, there are a number residents from Laos and Thailand in the state, which include individuals of Hmong ancestry. In the mid-1990s, Somali immigrants began to settle in the United States as political turmoil occurred in Somalia. In 2002, official estimates put the population at around 15,000 residents. Many came through VOLAGS; as of the 2015 American Community Survey, there are 57,000 residents in the state who are of Somali ancestry. One of the fastest growing immigrant groups in Minnesota is the Karen people, an ethnic minority in conflict with the government in Myanmar. Most of the estimated 5,000 Karen in Minnesota came from refugee camps in Thailand. Many arrived through VOLAGS; as of the 2015 American Community Survey, the largest foreign-born groups in Minnesota are from Mexico, India, Laos including Hmong, China excluding Hong Kong and Taiwan and Thailand including Hmong.
Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group. In the year 2007, 90.4% of Minnesota's population 5 years and over spoke only English at home. The remaining 9.6% spoke a language other than English at home. About 3.4 % of Minnesota's population spoke Spanish Creole at home. In addition, 2.1% of the population spoke a different Indo-European language at home. About 2.6 % of Minnesota's population spoke a Pacific Island language at home. The remaining 1.5% spoke a different language at home. Although Christianity dominates the religious persuasion of residents, there is a long history of non-Christian faith. German-Jewish
Geography of Minnesota
Minnesota is the northernmost state outside Alaska. Minnesota is in the U. S. region known as the Upper Midwest. The state shares a Lake Superior water border with Wisconsin on the northeast. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are north. With 87,014 square miles, or 2.26 % of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th largest state. Minnesota contains some of the oldest rocks found on earth, gneisses some 3.6 billion years old, or 80% as old as the planet. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean. The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the landscape of the state and sculpted its current terrain.
The Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. 13,000 years ago gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest. Minnesota is geologically quiet today; the state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 602 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two continental divides meet in the northeastern part of Minnesota in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the St. Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean.
The state's nickname, The Land of 10,000 Lakes, is no exaggeration. The Minnesota portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of water in the state. Minnesota streams that cumulatively flow for 69,000 miles; the Mississippi River begins its journey from its headwaters at Lake Itasca and crosses the Iowa border 680 miles downstream. It is joined by the Minnesota River at Fort Snelling, by the St. Croix River near Hastings, by the Chippewa River at Wabasha, by many smaller streams; the Red River, in the bed of glacial Lake Agassiz, drains the northwest part of the state northward toward Canada's Hudson Bay. 10.6 million acres of wetlands are contained within Minnesota's borders, the most of any state except Alaska. Three of North America's biomes converge in Minnesota: prairie grasslands in the southwestern and western parts of the state, the Big Woods deciduous forest of the southeast, the northern boreal forest; the northern coniferous forests are a vast wilderness of pine and spruce trees mixed with patchy stands of birch and poplar.
Much of Minnesota's northern forest has been logged, leaving only a few patches of old growth forest today in areas such as in the Chippewa National Forest and the Superior National Forest where the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness has some 400,000 acres of unlogged land. Although logging continues, regrowth keeps about one third of the state forested. While loss of habitat has affected native animals such as the pine marten and bison, whitetail deer and bobcat thrive; the state has the nation's largest population of timber wolves outside Alaska, supports healthy populations of black bear and moose. Located on the Mississippi Flyway, Minnesota hosts migratory waterfowl such as geese and ducks, game birds such as grouse and turkeys, it is home to birds of prey including the bald eagle, red-tailed hawk, snowy owl. The lakes teem with sport fish such as walleye, bass and northern pike, streams in the southeast are populated by brook and rainbow trout. Minnesota endures temperature extremes characteristic of its continental climate.
Meteorological events include rain, hail, polar fronts, tornadoes and high-velocity straight-line winds. The growing season varies from 90 days per year in the Iron Range to 160 days in southeast Minnesota near the Mississippi River, mean average temperatures range from 36 °F to 49 °F. Average summer dewpoints range from about 58 °F in the south to about 48 °F in the north. Depending on location, average annual precipitation ranges from 19 in to 35 in, droughts occur every 10 to 50 years. Minnesota is home to a variety of wilderness and other open spaces. Minnesota's first state park, Itasca State Park, was established in 1891, is the source of the Mississip
Climate of Minnesota
Minnesota has a continental climate, with hot summers and cold winters. Minnesota's location in the Upper Midwest allows it to experience some of the widest variety of weather in the United States, with each of the four seasons having its own distinct characteristics; the areas near Lake Superior in the Minnesota Arrowhead region experience weather unique from the rest of the state. The moderating effect of Lake Superior keeps the surrounding area cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter, giving that region a smaller yearly temperature range. On the Köppen climate classification, much of the southern third of Minnesota—roughly from the Twin Cities region southward—falls in the hot summer humid continental climate zone, the northern two-thirds of Minnesota falls in the warm summer great continental climate zone. Winter in Minnesota is characterized by cold temperatures. Snow is the main form of winter precipitation, but freezing rain and rain are all possible during the winter months. Common storm systems include Panhandle hooks.
Annual snowfall extremes have ranged from over 170 inches in the rugged Superior Highlands of the North Shore to as little as 5 inches in southern Minnesota. Temperatures as low as −60 °F have occurred during Minnesota winters. Spring is a time of major transition in Minnesota. Snowstorms are common early in the spring, but by late-spring as temperatures begin to moderate the state can experience tornado outbreaks, a risk which diminishes but does not cease through the summer and into the autumn. In summer and humidity predominate in the south, while warm and less humid conditions are present in the north; these humid conditions initiate thunderstorm activity 30–40 days per year. Summer high temperatures in Minnesota average in the mid-80s F in the south to the upper-70s F in the north, with temperatures as hot as 114 °F possible; the growing season in Minnesota varies from 90 days per year in the Iron Range to 160 days in southeast Minnesota. Tornadoes are possible in Minnesota from March through November, but the peak tornado month is June, followed by July and August.
The state averages 27 tornadoes per year. Minnesota is the driest state in the Midwest. Average annual precipitation across the state ranges from around 35 inches in the southeast to 20 inches in the northwest. Autumn weather in Minnesota is the reverse of spring weather; the jet stream—which tends to weaken in summer—begins to re-strengthen, leading to a quicker changing of weather patterns and an increased variability of temperatures. By late October and November these storm systems become strong enough to form major winter storms. Autumn and spring are the windiest times of the year in Minnesota; because of its location in North America, Minnesota experiences temperature extremes characteristic of a continental climate, with cold winters and mild to hot summers in the south and frigid winters and cool summers in the north. Each season has distinctive upper air patterns; the state is nearly 500 miles from any large body of water, temperatures and precipitation vary widely. It is far enough north to experience −60 °F temperatures and blizzards during the winter months, but far enough south to have 114 °F temperatures and tornado outbreaks in the summer.
The 174 degree Fahrenheit variation between Minnesota's highest and lowest temperature is the 11th largest variation of any U. S. state, 3rd largest of any non-mountainous state. Minnesota is far from major sources of moisture and is in the transition zone between the moist East and the arid Great Plains. Annual average precipitation across the state ranges from around 35 inches in the southeast to 20 inches in the northwest. Snow is the main form of precipitation from November through March, while rain is the most common the rest of the year. Annual snowfall extremes have ranged from over 170 inches in the rugged Superior Highlands of the North Shore to as little as 2.3 inches in southern Minnesota. It has snowed in Minnesota during every month with the exception of July, the state averages 110 days per year with snow cover of an inch or greater. Lake Superior moderates the climate of those parts of Minnesota's Arrowhead Region near the shore; the lake acts as a heat sink, keeping the state's North Shore area cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter.
While this effect is marked near the lake, it does not reach far inland. For example, Grand Marais on the lakeshore has an average July high temperature of 70 °F, while Virginia, at about the same latitude but inland about 100 miles to the west, has an average July high of 77 °F. Virginia's average high temperature in January is 15 °F, while Grand Marais' is 23 °F. Just a few miles inland from Lake Superior are the Sawtooth Mountains, which completely confine the marine air masses and associated precipitation to lower elevations near the lake; the prevailing northwest winter winds limit the lake's influence. Places near the shoreline can receive lake-effect snow, but because the state lies north and west of the lake, snowfall amounts are not nearly as large as they are in locations like Wisconsin and Michigan that lie downwind to the south. So, the single largest snowstorm in Minnesota history was a lake effect event. On January 6, 1994, Minnesota, received 36 inches of lake effect snow in 24 hours, 47 inches over a three-d
Natural history of Minnesota
The natural history of Minnesota covers many plant and animal species in the U. S. state of Minnesota. The continental climate and location of Minnesota at the physiographic intersection of the Laurentian and the Interior Plains influences its plant and animal life. Three of North America's biomes converge in Minnesota: prairie grasslands in the southwestern and western parts of the state, the eastern temperate deciduous forests in the east-central and the southeast and the coniferous forest in the north-central and northeast. An ecoregion is an area uniquely defined by natural features. Ecoregions in Minnesota were influenced by the unique glacial history, soil type, land use, climate of the state; the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, World Wildlife Fund maintain separate classifications of the state's ecoregions. Although different, they agree on delineating between the coniferous forest in the north-central portion and the Arrowhead, a temperate deciduous forest in the central and southeast, the tallgrass prairie in the southern and western portions of the state.
The northern coniferous forests are a vast wilderness of pine and spruce trees mixed with patchy stands of birch and poplar. Much of Minnesota's northern forest has been logged, leaving only a few patches of old-growth forest today in areas such as in the Chippewa National Forest and the Superior National Forest where the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness has some 400,000 acres of unlogged land. Although logging continues, regrowth keeps about one third of the state forested. Flora listed as threatened on the United States Fish and Wildlife Service list of endangered species include the Prairie bush-clover, the Western Prairie Fringed Orchid, Leedy's roseroot. Dwarf trout lily is listed as endangered. While loss of habitat and over harvest has affected native animals such as the pine marten, elk and the boreal woodland caribou whitetail deer and bobcat thrive; the state has the nation's largest population of timber wolves outside Alaska, supports healthy populations of black bear and moose.
Located on the Mississippi Flyway, Minnesota hosts migratory waterfowl such as geese and ducks, game birds such as grouse and turkeys. It is home to birds of prey including the bald eagle, red-tailed hawk, snowy owl; the lakes teem with sport fish such as walleye and largemouth bass and northern pike, streams in the southeast are populated by brook and rainbow trout
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Territory of Minnesota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 3, 1849, until May 11, 1858, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Minnesota. The boundaries of the Minnesota Territory, as carved out of Iowa Territory, included the current Minnesota region and most of what became Dakota Territory east of the Missouri River. Minnesota Territory included portions of Wisconsin Territory that did not become part of Wisconsin, located between the Mississippi River and Wisconsin, including the Arrowhead Region. At the time of its formation, the territory contained three cities: St. Paul, St. Anthony, Stillwater; the major territorial institutions were divided among the three: St. Paul was made the capital. Charles K. Smith, 1849–1851 Alexander Wilkin, 1851–1853 Joseph Rosser, 1853–1857 Charles L. Chase, 1857–1858 Lorenzo A. Babcock, 1849–1853 Lafayette Emmett, 1853–1858 Henry Hastings Sibley, 31st Congress, 32nd Congress, 1849–1853 Henry Mower Rice, 33rd Congress, 34th Congress, 1853–1857 William W. Kingsbury, 35th Congress, 1857–1858 John Catlin Historic regions of the United States History of Minnesota Interior Plains Territorial era of Minnesota Territorial evolution of the United States Territory of France that encompassed land that would become part of the Territory of Minnesota: Louisiane, 1682–1764 and 1803 Territory of Spain that would be returned to France: Luisiana, 1764–1803 Territory of the United Kingdom that encompassed land that would become part of the Territory of Minnesota: Rupert's Land, 1670–1870 U.
S. territories that encompassed land that would become part of the Territory of Minnesota: Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, 1787–1803 Territory of Indiana, 1800–1816 Louisiana Purchase, 1803–1804 District of Louisiana, 1804–1805 Territory of Louisiana, 1805–1812 Territory of Illinois, 1809–1818 Territory of Missouri, 1812–1821 Territory of Michigan, 1805–1837 Territory of Wisconsin, 1836–1848 U. S. territories that encompassed land, part of the Territory of Minnesota: Territory of Dakota, 1861–1889 U. S. states that encompass land, once part of the Territory of Minnesota: State of Minnesota, 1858 State of North Dakota, 1889 State of South Dakota, 1889 Media related to Minnesota Territory at Wikimedia Commons Minnesota historic documents Debates and proceedings of the Constitutional convention for the territory of Minnesota, to form a state constitution preparatory to its admission into the Union as a state
Midwestern United States
The Midwestern United States referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau. It occupies the northern central part of the United States, it was named the North Central Region by the Census Bureau until 1984. It is located between the Northeastern United States and the Western United States, with Canada to its north and the Southern United States to its south; the Census Bureau's definition consists of 12 states in the north central United States: Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin. The region lies on the broad Interior Plain between the states occupying the Appalachian Mountain range and the states occupying the Rocky Mountain range. Major rivers in the region include, from east to west, the Ohio River, the Upper Mississippi River, the Missouri River. A 2012 report from the United States Census put the population of the Midwest at 65,377,684; the Midwest is divided by the Census Bureau into two divisions.
The East North Central Division includes Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, all of which are part of the Great Lakes region. The West North Central Division includes Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota and South Dakota, several of which are located, at least within the Great Plains region. Chicago is the most populous city in the American Midwest and the third most populous in the entire country. Other large Midwestern cities include: Columbus, Detroit, Kansas City, Minneapolis, Cleveland, St. Louis, St. Paul, Cincinnati and Des Moines. Chicago and its suburbs form the largest metropolitan statistical area with 9.9 million people, followed by Metro Detroit, Minneapolis–St. Paul, Greater St. Louis, Greater Cleveland, Greater Cincinnati, the Kansas City metro area, the Columbus metro area; the term Midwestern has been in use since the 1880s to refer to portions of the central United States. A variant term, Middle West, has been used since the 19th century and remains common. Another term sometimes applied to the same general region is the heartland.
Other designations for the region have fallen out of use, such as the Northwest or Old Northwest and Mid-America. The Northwest Territory was one of the earliest territories of the United States, stretching northwest from the Ohio River to northern Minnesota and the upper-Mississippi; the upper-Mississippi watershed including the Missouri and Illinois Rivers was the setting for the earlier French settlements of the Illinois Country and the Ohio Country. Economically the region is balanced between heavy industry and agriculture, with finance and services such as medicine and education becoming important, its central location makes it a transportation crossroads for river boats, autos and airplanes. Politically, the region swings back and forth between the parties, thus is contested and decisive in elections. After the sociological study Middletown, based on Muncie, commentators used Midwestern cities as "typical" of the nation. Earlier, the rhetorical question, "Will it play in Peoria?", had become a stock phrase using Peoria, Illinois to signal whether something would appeal to mainstream America.
The region has a higher employment-to-population ratio than the Northeast, the West, the South, or the Sun Belt states as of 2011. Traditional definitions of the Midwest include the Northwest Ordinance Old Northwest states and many states that were part of the Louisiana Purchase; the states of the Old Northwest are known as Great Lakes states and are east-north central in the United States. The Ohio River runs along the southeastern section while the Mississippi River runs north to south near the center. Many of the Louisiana Purchase states in the west-north central United States, are known as Great Plains states, where the Missouri River is a major waterway joining with the Mississippi; the Midwest lies north of the 36°30′ parallel that the 1820 Missouri Compromise established as the dividing line between future slave and non-slave states. The Midwest Region is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as these 12 states: Illinois: Old Northwest, Mississippi River, Ohio River, Great Lakes state Indiana: Old Northwest, Ohio River, Great Lakes state Iowa: Louisiana Purchase, Mississippi River, Missouri River state Kansas: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains, Missouri River state Michigan: Old Northwest and Great Lakes state Minnesota: Old Northwest, Louisiana Purchase, Mississippi River, part of Red River Colony before 1818, Great Lakes state Missouri: Louisiana Purchase, Mississippi River, Missouri River, border state Nebraska: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains, Missouri River state North Dakota: Louisiana Purchase, part of Red River Colony before 1818, Great Plains, Missouri River state Ohio: Old Northwest, Ohio River, Great Lakes state.
The southeastern part of the state is part of northern Appalachia South Dakota: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains, Missouri River state Wisconsin: Old Northwest, Mississippi River, Great Lakes stateVarious organizations define the Midwest with different groups of states. For example, the Council of State Governments, an organization for communication and coordination among state governments, includes in its Midwe