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Outline of South Asian history

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the history of South Asia: History of South Asia – South Asia includes the contemporary political entities of the Indian subcontinent and associated islands, its history includes the histories of India, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and the island nations of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. James Mill, in his The History of British India, distinguished three phases in the history of India, namely Hindu and British civilisations; this periodisation has been influential, but has been criticised for the misconceptions it gave rise to. Another influential periodisation is the division into "ancient, classical and modern periods", although this periodisation has been criticised. Romila Thapar notes that the division into Hindu-Muslim-British periods of Indian history gives too much weight to "ruling dynasties and foreign invasions", neglecting the social-economic history which showed a strong continuity; the division into Ancient-Medieval-Modern periods overlooks the fact that the Muslim conquests occurred during which time many things came and went off, while the south was never conquered.

According to Thapar, a periodisation could be based on "significant social and economic changes", which are not related to the change of ruling powers. Madrasian culture Soanian South Asian Stone Age Bhirrana Culture Mehrgarh Culture Bronze Age India Indus Valley Civilization Early Harappan Culture Mature Harappan Culture Ochre Coloured Pottery culture Vedic period Late Harappan Culture Swat culture Black and Red ware culture Iron Age Vedic period Black and Red ware culture Painted Grey Ware culture Janapadas Northern Black Polished Ware Haryanka Kingdom Maha Janapadas Pandyan Kingdom Achaemenid Empire Magadha Kingdom Ror Kingdom Nanda Empire Shishunaga Kingdom Macedonian Empire Maurya Empire Seleucid Empire Chera Kingdom Chola Empire Pallava Empire Maha-Megha-Vahana Empire Parthian Empire Middle kingdoms of India Satavahana Empire Kuninda Kingdom Indo-Scythian Kingdom Shunga Empire Indo-Greek Kingdom Kanva Empire Indo-Parthian Kingdom Western Satrap Empire Kushan Empire Bharshiva Dynasty Nagas of Padmavati Sasanian Empire Indo-Sassanid Kingdom Vakataka Empire Kalabhra Empire Gupta Empire Kadamba Empire Western Ganga Kingdom Kamarupa Kingdom Vishnukundina Empire Maitraka Empire Huna Kingdom Rai Kingdom Shahi Empire Chalukya Empire Maukhari Empire Kalachuris of Mahishmati Harsha Empire Eastern Chalukya Kingdom Rashidun Caliphate Gurjara-Pratihara Empire Umayyad Caliphate Kalachuris of Tripuri Pala Empire Rashtrakuta Empire Paramara Kingdom Yadava Empire Chaulukya Kingdom Western Chalukya Empire Lohara Kingdom Hoysala Empire Sena Empire Eastern Ganga Empire Zamorin Kingdom Kakatiya Kingdom Chutiya Kingdom Kalachuris of Kalyani Late medieval period Delhi Sultanate Mamluk Sultanate Khalji Sultanate Tughlaq Sultanate Sayyid Sultanate Lodi Sultanate Deva Kingdom Ahom Kingdom Chitradurga Kingdom Reddy Kingdom Vijayanagara Empire Bengal Sultanate Ilyas Shahi Sultanate Hussain Shahi Sultanate Karrani Sultanate Garhwal Kingdom Mysore Kingdom Gajapati Kingdom Keladi Kingdom Deccan Sultanates Koch Kingdom Early modern period Bengal Sultanate Hussain Shahi Sultanate Karrani Sultanate Mughal Empire Sur Empire Madurai Kingdom Thanjavur Kingdom Marava Kingdom Thondaiman Kingdom Maratha Empire Sikh Confederacy Durrani Empire Travancore Kingdom Sikh Empire Colonial period Portuguese India Dutch India Danish India French India Company Raj British Raj Partition of British India Kingdoms of Sri Lanka Kingdom of Tambapanni Kingdom of Upatissa Nuwara Anuradhapura Kingdom Kingdo

Mata Hari (Wildhorn musical)

Mata Hari at the Moulin Rouge is a musical with a book by Ivan Menchell, lyrics by Jack Murphy, music by Frank Wildhorn. It is based on the life of Mata Hari, a dancer and spy during World War I, it premiered on the 29th of March 2016 in South Korea at Bluesquare Interpark Hall with the production directed by Two-Time Tony Award Nominee, Jeff Calhoun.. The Japan premiere production ran from the 21st to 28th of January 2018 in Umeda Arts Theater in Osaka and the 3rd to 18th of February in Tokyo International Forum Hall C in Tokyo. An encore production opened in Seoul, South Korea in June 2017 directed by Stephen Rayne that featured major changes to the story and structure; the musical tells the story of the infamous exotic dancer, executed in France following a conviction of espionage during World War I."The year 1917. Paris, once the glamorous city of light, is suffering amidst the chaos, World War I. France, Great Britain and Russia are fighting against the Austrian-Hungarian empire. To heal the wounds of war, a beautiful dancer Mata Hari captivates all of Europe, her mysterious dance putting her at the centre of attention within high society.

Mata Hari's status as a celebrity allows her to travel between the warring countries making her a valuable asset to the French army and one day a visit from George Ladoux of the French military intelligence changes her life forever. Meanwhile she begins a relationship with a young French pilot, Armand Gilot, but all is not as it seems...." - Official sypnosis In 2012, Frank Wildhorn suggested a musical about the life and death of "Mata Hari" to Hong Hyun Eum producer of works such as Mozart and Rebecca in Korea. Ivan Menchell, Wildhorn's writing partner, completes the first draft of the script in 2013. A poster design was made by DEWYNTER in London in the same year; the first reading of Mata Hari took place in New York at the Manhattan Pearl Studio. The workshop showed potential for global success. During this time, Frank Wildhorn helped to produce Ock Joo Hyun's "Gold" album that predominantly featured her singing his songs. One of the songs, "내 마음을 조심해 Be careful with my heart", was from the development stages of Mata Hari.

It was remixed to be more jazzy than how the song was written. In a press conference of the musical and other interviews, he talked at length how Ock Joo Hyun was the sole inspiration for Mata Hari and wrote the part to match her voice."There is a recording and it's a video on YouTube that she made of a song from Monte Cristo called "Back When The World Was Mine" that many of the actress, best actresses, in New York listen to all the time and are blown away by it... It's a magical moment this particular video on YouTube, and every time I listened to it I always get inspired that this was a voice I wanted to write for." - Frank Wildhorn, Mata Hari press conferenceAs the production took shape, Oh Pil Young was brought in to create the set design, critically acclaimed. The show took on a meta perspective. Mata Hari, a dancer and entertainer, is introduced by the Emcee who purposefully addresses the audience as spectators in the Moulin Rouge itself. In 2015, another workshop was held, this time in Seoul at the Namsan Creative Center.

Sophie Kim, Lee Ji Hoon, Lim Hyun Soo and Kim Soo Yong participated in the workshop as the Korean lyrics and dialogue was tried out for the first time. On the 25th of January 2016, the cast and creatives performed a Music Showcase of the key numbers. Menchell and Wildhorn were both there to introduce, give context to and play the songs that they ahd been developing; this was the first. The whole showcase was broadcast on Naver Live TV and clips recorded by other Musical news outlets such as PlayDB have been uploaded to YouTube; the show opened on the 29th of March 2016 at Blue Square Interpark Hall in Seoul. Previews were held from the 25th to the 27th of March, with a two day break before the opening as the directors were still negotiating the cast schedule. EMK Musical Company reported that they had $4.5 million of pre-opening ticket sales and over 100,000 audience members attended the show in their limited 8 week run. During the 29th of January to the 3rd of February the cast recorded a highlights album that featured six tracks.

This was released together as a package with a Photo Book and DVD of the behind the scenes. The productions premiere had received much criticism for the lack of substance in the show's plot but was critically acclaimed in its production design; as a result, the show was revised to be more "realistic" and showed more focus on the effect of war on both Mata Hari's relationships as well as the citizens of Paris. A main draw in the first production was that it was performed on the stage of the Moulin Rouge where the audience member was treated as a patron of the cabaret; the opening of the show featured Mata being shot by a firing squad and is reenacted in the closing scene as well. The 2017 production, opens with the citizens of Paris panicking as an air raid goes off, it transitions into Mata's dressing room and the show resumes the same plot for the rest of the act as the premiere. There were both major and minor changes to the characters but for the most part the three leads characterisations stayed the same.

The role of Emcee was removed to get rid of the "show" and "performance" aspect of the premiere to better show the realism of the War. Katherine's role as a minor antagonist decreased and her song was subsequently cut. Von Bissing enjoyed a larger part as his character was expanded upon to reveal more of the spy aspect to

Virgin Media Television (Ireland)

Virgin Media Television Ltd is a commercial TV network in Ireland, based in Dublin. Launched in 1998 as TV3 Television Network, the TV3 Group was formed in January 2009; the company was acquired by Liberty Global in 2015, the channels were rebranded to Virgin Media Television in 2018. Virgin Media One Virgin Media Two Virgin Media Three Virgin Media SportChildren's programming blockVirgin Media Kids Virgin Media Television is operated by Virgin Media Ireland and owned by Liberty Global. Under its previous operations TV3 Television Network Ltd and the TV3 Group; the initial company TV3 Television Network Ltd was established in the early 1990s as a response to the development of the IRTC in October 1998. The former broadcasting regular Independent Radio & Television Commission was created to regulate broadcasting in Ireland. In 1990 following an invitation by the IRTC to seek interests from independent broadcasters, a consortium came together to launch the Republic of Ireland's first independent channel and third terrestrial channel.

The launch of TV3 was delayed and the licence was revoked due to this delay. Following a court case, the license was restored in 1993, it was agreed that 49% of the company would be sold to UTV, to raise much-needed cash for investment in facilities. By 1995, UTV decided not to partner up with Tullamore Beta and instead focused on its own channels being made available through digital television providers in Ireland. In 1997, Canadian communications company Canwest bought a major stake in the new company in order to help launch the independent network. By 1998, Canwest was a major owner of television and radio stations across a number of territories including Canada, New Zealand and Australia; the consortium Tullamore Beta and Canwest launched TV3 on 20 September 1998. However, in 2001 Canwest confirmed. In September 2000, Granada Media plc agreed to acquire 45% of the company from the original TV3 consortium; this was part of a deal. The Granada plc shareholding was taken over by ITV plc upon the merger of Granada with Carlton on 2 February 2004.

In early 2001, the station launched threetext, the teletext service, much of the content from Thomas Crosbie Media. Test transmissions of this service commenced in late 2000, but as early as 1999 limited programming content was provided. However, in 2004, the news and sports were dropped as part of a rebranding to an'entertainment portal'. On 16 January 2006, Canwest announced to TV3 staff, that it was selling its stake in the channel, in an effort to reduce its debt. Following this announcement on 19 May 2006 it was confirmed that Doughty Hanson & Co, a venture capital firm based in Luxembourg had purchased the stakes of Canwest and ITV Plc's stake, the remaining 10%. In 2006, the companies new owner Doughty Hanson & Co. arranged a loan through Anglo Irish Bank to take control of the company through Tullamore Beta Ltd. Under this ownership Doughty Hanson tried to move beyond television broadcasting and showed interest in acquiring a radio broadcasting license under the branding More FM, however the licence was granted to Classic Hits 4FM.

By 2008, the company expanded its channel portfolio with the acquisition of Kish Media owners of Channel Channel 6. Channel 6 was refocused under the TV3 Group branding and renamed 3e<. By January 2008, the TV3 Group composed of TV3, and 3Player. Doughty Hanson & Co came together with Eircom to produce a consortium to establish Ireland's commercial digital terrestrial television subscription service titled Onevision. Following a tender process the BAI deemed the consortium unsuccessful despite Onevision planning to launch additional TV3 branded channels. By 2011, the broadcaster planned its commitment to high definition broadcasting technologies and the company laid down plans to establish a HD studio, launched in Spring 2013 at cost of €5 million; the studio was developed to produce key programming in HD and offering independent companies and public broadcasters the opportunity to make use of the new studios. By 2015, Doughty Hanson & Co confirmed. Despite speculation from different companies seeking interest in the TV3 Group, by mid-2015 it was confirmed Liberty Global would purchase the company through its Irish subsidiary Virgin Media Ireland.

Doughty Hanson & Co sold the company for €80 million and an additional €7 million should the "group" meet certain targets. The acquisition of TV3 was approved by the CPCC in November 2015 and it was passed to Minister for Communications, Alex White, for approval which he gave in December 2015. CEO David McRedmond announced that he was to leave the company by the end of 2015. Expanding its channel portfolio, Liberty Global went onto purchase UTV Ireland from ITV plc for €10 million. On 17 November 2016 UTV Ireland was taken over by the TV3 Group; the channel was rebranded in January 2017. By late 2017. On August 30, 2018 Virgin Media Television completed its rebranding strategy. Virgin Media One: 20 September 1998

Joseph Addison

Joseph Addison was an English essayist, poet and politician. He was the eldest son of The Reverend Lancelot Addison, his name is remembered alongside that of his long-standing friend Richard Steele, with whom he founded The Spectator magazine. His simple prose style marked the end of the mannerisms and conventional classical images of the 17th century. Addison was born in Milston, but soon after his birth his father, Lancelot Addison, was appointed Dean of Lichfield and the family moved into the cathedral close, his father was a scholarly English clergyman. He was educated at Charterhouse School, where he first met Richard Steele, at The Queen's College, Oxford, he excelled in classics, being specially noted for his Latin verse, became a fellow of Magdalen College. In 1693, he addressed a poem to John Dryden, his first major work, a book of the lives of English poets, was published in 1694, his translation of Virgil's Georgics was published in the same year. Dryden, Lord Somers and Charles Montague, 1st Earl of Halifax, took an interest in Addison's work and obtained for him a pension of £300 a year to enable him to travel to Europe with a view to diplomatic employment, all the time writing and studying politics.

While in Switzerland in 1702, he heard of the death of William III, an event which lost him his pension, as his influential contacts and Somers, had lost their employment with the Crown. Addison returned to England at the end of 1703. For more than a year he remained unemployed, but the Battle of Blenheim in 1704 gave him a fresh opportunity to distinguish himself; the government Lord Treasurer Godolphin, commissioned Addison to write a commemorative poem about the battle, he produced The Campaign, received with such satisfaction that he was appointed Commissioner of Appeals in Halifax's government. His next literary venture was an account of his travels in Italy, Remarks on several parts of Italy, &c. in the years 1701, 1702, 1703, published in 1705 by Jacob Tonson. In 1705, with the Whigs in power, Addison was made Under-Secretary of State and accompanied Lord Halifax on a diplomatic mission to Hanover, Germany. A biography of Addison states: "In the field of his foreign responsibilities Addison's views were those of a good Whig.

He had always believed that England's power depended upon her wealth, her wealth upon her commerce, her commerce upon the freedom of the seas and the checking of the power of France and Spain."In 1708 and 1709, Addison was a Member of Parliament for the borough of Lostwithiel. He was soon appointed secretary to the new Lord Lieutenant of Lord Wharton. Under the direction of Wharton, he was an MP in the Irish House of Commons for Cavan Borough from 1709 until 1713. In 1710, he represented Malmesbury, in his home county of Wiltshire, holding the seat until his death in 1719, he remained there for a year. He helped form the Kitcat Club and renewed his friendship with Richard Steele. In 1709, Steele began to publish the Tatler, Addison became a regular contributor. In 1711 they began The Spectator; this paper, a daily, was published until 20 December 1714, interrupted for a year by the publication of The Guardian in 1713. His last publication was The Freeholder, a political paper, in 1715–16, he wrote the libretto for Thomas Clayton's opera Rosamond, which had a disastrous premiere in London in 1707.

In 1713 Addison's tragedy Cato was produced, was received with acclamation by both Whigs and Tories. He followed this effort with The Drummer. In 1712, Addison wrote Cato, a Tragedy. Based on the last days of Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis, it deals with conflicts such as individual liberty versus government tyranny, Republicanism versus Monarchism, logic versus emotion, Cato's personal struggle to retain his beliefs in the face of death, it has a prologue written by an epilogue by Samuel Garth. The play was a success throughout the British Empire, it continued to grow in popularity in America, for several generations. It is cited by some historians as a literary inspiration for the American Revolution, being known to many of the Founding Fathers. General George Washington sponsored a performance of Cato for the Continental Army during the difficult winter of 1777–78 at Valley Forge. According to John J. Miller, "no single work of literature may have been more important than Cato" for the leaders of the American revolution.

Scholars have identified the inspiration for several famous quotations from the American Revolution in Cato. These include: Patrick Henry's famous ultimatum: "Give me liberty or give me death!". Nathan Hale's valediction: "I regret that I have but one life to give for my country.". Washington's praise for Benedict Arnold in a letter: "It is not in the power of any man to command success. In 1789, Edmund Burke quoted the play in a letter to Charles-Jean-François Depont entitled Reflections on the revolution in France, saying that the French people may yet be obliged to go through more changes and "to pass, as one of our poets says,'through great varieties of untried being,'" before their state obtains its final form; the poet referred to is Addison and the passage quoted is from Cato: "Through what variety of untried being, th

Seven Minutes in Hell

"Seven Minutes in Hell" is the sixth episode of the horror black comedy series Scream Queens. It first aired on October 2015 on Fox; the episode written by Ryan Murphy. In this episode, Chanel makes a surprising decision: to protect herself from the Red Devil by leaving Zayday in position of power and win the election as president of Kappa Kappa Tau; when the Kappa girls hold a slumber party, it costs the life of some people and a shocking discovery is made. The episode title refers to the game Seven Minutes in Heaven, one of the ones played by the Kappa Kappa Tau sisters and Dickie Dollar Scholars brothers in this episode as part of the slumber party; the episode was watched by 2.59 million viewers and received positive reviews from critics. After this episode, there was a week hiatus due to the 2015 World Series; the Chanels and the pledges vote for their new president between Zayday. It comes to a tie. Zayday suggests they both be co-presidents; when Chanel #3 and Chanel #5 try to comfort her in her closet, Chanel tells them how it was part of her plan and opts to cede her presidency to Zayday as she thought by not being the leader she won't be the Red Devil's target.

In her room and Grace suggest they throw a slumber party and play'Truth or Dare' to find out who the killer is. At the part, the sisters play Hester and Jennifer "Candle Vlogger" kiss. Chanel #3 spins twice so she can kiss Sam "Predatory Lez." Afterwards, Chanel # 3 tells Sam. A boy was obsessed with her ears and sent her an email threatening to cut them off if he saw them again so she hides them with earmuffs. Jennifer and Sam tell the sisters that all the windows are locked. Chanel thinks; the lights go out and the sisters scream. Chanel calls Chad, along with his Dickie Dollar Scholars brothers are on their way to Kappa House to do a panty raid, she calls him with her satellite phone as the phone lines are down and he confesses about sleeping with Dean Munsch and Denise. When the frat brothers arrive with a ladder, Chad climbs in; when he sees the Red Devil, he shouts at his brothers to climb up. Earl and Roger manage to; the Kappa sisters and Dickie Dollar brothers decide to play "Truth or Dare" to determine who the killer is.

The game ends up with Sam revealing. Angered but confused by her feelings for Sam, Chanel #3 dares her to go down into the basement and take a nap in the bloody Kappa bathtub. Sam is visited by the Red Devil there, she asks them to take off their mask. She says "I knew it was you"; the group decides to play Chanel picks Chad. She asks Chad to promise not to sleep with anyone else and be in a monogamous relationship with her and Chad promises. Chanel #5 and Roger go next; the rest of the group finds Hester. Some sisters accuse Hester of being the killer. In Chanel's closet, Chanel #5 and Roger are together when Roger is killed by the Red Devil, which Chanel #5 witnesses; the group see Roger's claim Chanel # 5 as the killer. Chad lets. Chanel claims Pete as the killer. Chad finds a trap door under one of the Chanel's shelves; the group suggests. Chanel and Zayday go explore it but the Red Devil appears and chases them, with both of them narrowly escaping after Chanel saves Zayday; the next day, Grace talks to Detective Chisolm about how the murders all appear related to Kappa, except Coney's.

While the detective talks about having uniformed officers protecting the house, Wes tells Grace they're leaving, but she refuses, claiming that her sisters need her. In the bathroom, Chanel #3 and Chanel #5 make a pact to outlive Chanel. Chanel declares that they won't lose any more sisters; the girls start dancing. At the day the series premiered on Fox, series creator Ryan Murphy revealed that there would be a three-part Halloween episodes; this is the last special Halloween episode. Returning recurring characters include Kappa pledges Jennifer "Candle Vlogger" and Sam "Predatory Lez", Detective Chisolm, Dickie Dollar Scholars fraternity members Caulfield, twins Roger and Dodger. Seven Minutes in Hell was watched live by 2.59 million U. S and got a 1.0/3 rating/share in the adult 18-49 demographic, up from the previous episode. Seven Minutes in Hell received positive reviews from critics. LaToya Ferguson of The A. V. Club give the episode a B+, citing "After weeks of pointing out Scream Queens’ aggressively mean-spirited nature and confused tone, this week’s episode, “Seven Minutes In Hell,” feels like a strong piece of course correction for the show."

IGN's Terri Schwartz give the episode 7.8 out of 10, stating it as "one of the series' weaker installments, though it did have several gems like Zayday's pronouncement that, as co-KKT president, "the biggest change I'd like to implement is for everyone to stop being killed by a serial killer," and the Dickie Dollar Scholars' intervention with Chad for having sex with too many old people." Patrick Sproull from Den of Geek says "Scream Queens' halfway point ended on a thrilling note. We

State v. Dalton

State v. Dalton is a legal case in the U. S. state of Ohio involving the prosecution of a man for recording fictional tales of alleged child pornography in a diary. In 1998, Brian Dalton was charged with possession of child pornography, he received three years' probation. After violating his probation by failing to attend a sex offender treatment program, he was arrested, his mother informed his probation officer that she had found questionable material in his apartment—a journal. Dalton's journal was retrieved. Police determined. Dalton was charged with possession of child pornography; as part of a plea bargain, he pleaded guilty to one of the charges in July 2001. He was sentenced to seven years in prison, in addition to the remaining time from the first case. Dalton attempted to change his guilty plea, to pursue an appeal; the trial court denied his request. Dalton, supported by the American Civil Liberties Union, charged that the Ohio child pornography statute was unconstitutional. Ohio law forbids the possession of all child pornographic materials, including writings, while the U.

S. Supreme Court has held that only the possession of obscene photographic depictions of actual children may be outlawed; the case received wide publicity because of the private nature of a diary and a novel application of state child pornography laws. In July 2003, the Court of Appeals of Ohio vacated the conviction and allowed Dalton to retract his guilty plea, accepting his argument that he would not have pleaded guilty had he received effective assistance from his court-appointed lawyer; the court did not speak to the constitutional issues. In November 2003, the Ohio Supreme Court declined, by a 5–2 vote, to take the case on further appeal; the case was sent back to trial court, in March 2004, was dismissed. The trial judge held that "the charge did not meet the standard of the Ohio law that prosecutors used". Decision of the Ohio Court of Appeals, 2003