Riddarholmen is a small islet in central Stockholm, Sweden. The island forms part of Gamla Stan, the old town, houses a number of private palaces dating back to the 17th century; the main landmark is the church Riddarholmskyrkan, used as Sweden's royal burial church from the 17th century to 1950, where a number of earlier Swedish monarchs lie buried. The western end of the island gives a magnificent panoramic and photogenic view of the bay Riddarfjärden used by TV journalists with Stockholm City Hall in the background. A statue of Birger Jarl, traditionally considered the founder of Stockholm, stands on a pillar in front of the Bonde Palace, north of Riddarholm Church. Other notable buildings include the Old Parliament Building in the south-eastern corner, the Old National Archive on the eastern shore, the Norstedt Building, the old printing house of the publisher Norstedts, the tower roof of, a well-known silhouette on the city's skyline. While the Riddarholm Church dates back to the Middle Ages, is one of Stockholm's oldest buildings, most of the present structures on Riddarholmen were built during the 17th century when the island was an aristocratic setting that gave the islet its present name.
Three of the palaces are gathered around the central public square, Birger Jarls Torg centred on the 19th-century statue of Birger Jarl: The Wrangel Palace on the west side, the most impressive, incorporates a medieval defensive tower and a portal designed by Nicodemus Tessin the Elder. North of the square, the two 19th-century wings of the Palace of Schering Rosenhane reach the rustic main building, which dates from the 17th century. Wrangel Palace, the palaces of Hessenstein, Schering Rosenhane are today used by Svea Hovrätt, the appellate court for Svealand, while the Supreme Court and the Supreme Administrative Court reside in the palaces of Bonde and Stenbock respectively; some of the older Swedish Government Agencies, like the Legal and Administrative Services Agency and the Chancellor of Justice, are located on the island. According to a Swedish guide book, these anonymous institutions, together with the motorway Centralbron that isolates the island from the rest of the city, make the island as a whole a lifeless and dull environment, despite ambitious restorations during the 1990s.
The island is first mentioned as Kidaskär in the Eric Chronicles from around 1325, which recounts how King Magnus Ladulås had a Greyfriars monastery built on the island about 1270, asking in his will that he be buried in it in 1285. During the Middle Ages, the original name disappeared from historical records, replaced by Gråbrödraholm, Gråmunkeholm, the latter most used until the 17th century; the monastery, closed following the Protestant Reformation and was subsequently converted into a church. As consequence, the name changed in the 1630s, the island being referred to as Riddarholmen, för detta Gråmunkeholm kallad in 1638; the old name did persist however, so while Charles XI preferred the new name, his youngest daughter Ulrika Eleonora remained faithful to the old. C. K. G. Billings's yacht Vanadis is now anchored at Riddarholmen, is used as a hotel known as Mälardrottningen with the ship rechristened as Lady Hutton. History of Stockholm Geography of Stockholm List of streets and squares in Gamla stan Riddarholmsbron Hebbes Bro Birger Jarls torn Media related to Riddarholmen at Wikimedia Commons
Northern Europe is a general term for the geographical region in Europe, north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, about 54°N. Narrower definitions may be based on other geographical factors such as ecology. A broader definition would include the area north of the Alps. Countries which are central-western, central or central-eastern are not considered part of either Northern or Southern Europe; when Europe was dominated by the Roman Empire, everything not near the Mediterranean region was termed Northern Europe, including southern Germany, all of the Low Countries, Austria. This meaning is still used today in some contexts, for example, discussions of the Northern Renaissance. Northern Europe might be defined as the British Isles, the peninsula of Jutland, the Baltic plain that lies to the east and the many islands that lie offshore from mainland Northern Europe and the main European continent. Nations included within this region are Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Lithuania and Sweden, less the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, northern Germany, northern Belarus and northwest Russia.
The area is mountainous, including the northern volcanic islands of Iceland and Jan Mayen, the mountainous western seaboard and Scandinavia, includes part of a large eastern plain, with Lithuania, Latvia and Finland. The entire region's climate is at least mildly affected by the Gulf Stream. From the west climates vary from maritime subarctic climates. In the north and central climates are subarctic or Arctic and to the east climates are subarctic and temperate/continental. Just as both climate and relief are variable across the region, so too is vegetation, with sparse tundra in the north and high mountains, boreal forest on the north-eastern and central regions temperate coniferous forests and temperate broadleaf forests growing in the south and temperate east. Countries included in their entirety within the region, by population count: United Kingdom 66,040,229 Sweden 10,067,744 Denmark 5,769,603 Finland 5,513,000 Norway 5,282,223 Ireland 4,813,608 Lithuania 2,827,721 Latvia 1,940,740 Estonia 1,317,800 Iceland 341,284Countries in Northern Europe have developed economies and some of the highest standards of living in the world.
They score on surveys measuring quality of life, such as the Human Development Index. Aside from the United Kingdom, they have a small population relative to their size, most of whom live in cities. Most peoples living in Northern Europe are traditionally Protestant Christians, although many are non-practicing. There are growing numbers of non-religious people and people of other religions Muslims, due to immigration. In the United Kingdom, there are significant numbers of Indian religions such as Hindus and Sikhs, due to the large South Asian diaspora; the quality of education in much of Northern Europe is rated in international rankings, with Estonia and Finland topping the list among the OECD countries in Europe. The Hansa group in the European Union comprises most of the Northern European states. Media related to Northern Europe at Wikimedia Commons
Djurgårdsbrunnskanalen is a canal in central Stockholm, separating the island Djurgården from the northern mainland. The canal stretches one kilometre from Lilla Värtan to Djurgårdsbrunnsviken and allows ships 9.5 metres wide and 2.1 metres deep to pass. Two bridges pass over the canal: Lilla Sjötullsbron; the decision to build the canal was made by King Charles XIV in 1825. The canal was completed in 1834, it was built to make it easier for smaller ships with supplies to reach the center of Stockholm, but for aesthetic reasons because Djurgården is a royal park. Geography of Stockholm Isbladskärret kanaler.arnholm.nu - Images from Djurgårdsbrunnskanalen
Outline of Sweden
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Sweden: Sweden – Scandinavian country in Northern Europe, situated between Norway and Finland. Sweden has maintained a policy of neutrality in armed conflicts since the early 19th century, it retains its own currency. Swedish icons include Sweden's quality of life, its neutrality, public health care, furniture and pop music performers. Pronunciation: Common English country name: Sweden Official English country name: Kingdom of Sweden Common endonym: Sverige Official endonym: Konungariket Sverige Adjectival: Swedish Demonym: Swedish, Swedes Etymology: Name of Sweden International rankings of Sweden ISO country codes: SE, SWE, 752 ISO region codes: See ISO 3166-2:SE Internet country code top-level domain:.se Geography of Sweden Sweden is: a Nordic country Location: The regions that Sweden is located in are: Northern Hemisphere and Eastern Hemisphere Eurasia Europe Northern Europe Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Time zone: Central European Time, Central European Summer Time Extreme points of Sweden High: Kebnekaise 2,104 m Low: Kristianstad −2.4 m Land boundaries: 2,233 km Norway 1,619 km Finland 614 kmCoastline: 3,218 kmPopulation of Sweden: 10,065,389 - 89th most populous country Area of Sweden: 449,964 km2 Atlas of Sweden Climate of Sweden Climate change in Sweden Renewable energy in Sweden Geology of Sweden Protected areas of Sweden Biosphere reserves in Sweden National parks of Sweden Wildlife of Sweden Fauna of Sweden Amphibians and reptiles of Sweden Birds of Sweden Fish in Sweden Insects of Sweden Ants of Sweden Butterflies of Sweden Moths of Sweden Mammals of Sweden Molluscs of Sweden Flora of Sweden List of lichens of Sweden Forests of Sweden Islands of Sweden Lakes of Sweden Mountains of Sweden Glaciers of Sweden Rivers of Sweden World Heritage Sites in Sweden Regions of Sweden List of ecoregions in Sweden Ecoregions in Sweden Administrative divisions of Sweden Counties of Sweden – first-level administrative and political subdivisions of Sweden, of which there are 21.
Municipalities of Sweden – Sweden's lower-level local government entities, of which there are 290. Districts of Sweden – municipalities in Sweden are in some rare cases divided into smaller districts. Provinces of Sweden – 25 historical, geographical or cultural regions that have no administrative function, but remain historical legacies and the means of cultural identification. Counties of Sweden Stockholm County Västerbotten County Norrbotten County Uppsala County Södermanland County Östergötland County Jönköping County Kronoberg County Kalmar County Gotland County Blekinge County Skåne County Halland County Västra Götaland County Värmland County Örebro County Västmanland County Dalarna County Gävleborg County Västernorrland County Jämtland County Municipalities of Sweden Capital of Sweden: Stockholm Cities of Sweden Provinces of Sweden The provinces of Sweden, which are historical in significance, are: Blekinge Bohuslän Dalarna Dalsland Gotland Gästrikland Halland Hälsingland Härjedalen Jämtland Lappland Medelpad Norrbotten Närke Skåne Småland Södermanland Uppland Värmland Västmanland Västerbotten Västergötland Ångermanland Öland Östergötland Demographics of Sweden Census of Sweden Demographical center of Sweden Politics of Sweden Form of government: Constitutional monarchy Capital of Sweden: Stockholm Arctic policy of Sweden Anarchism in Sweden Consolidation of Sweden Corruption in Sweden Elections in Sweden Election Authority of Sweden Category:Elections in Sweden Monetary policy of Sweden Political parties in Sweden Taxation in Sweden Terrorism in Sweden Head of state: King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf Head of government: Prime Minister of Sweden Deputy Prime Minister of Sweden Government of Sweden Government Agencies in Sweden Riksdag of Sweden Speaker of the Riksdag Members of the Riksdag Parliamentary committees Committee on Civil Affairs Committee on Finance Committee on Foreign Affairs Committee on Justice Committee on the Constitution Judicial system of Sweden Supreme Court of Sweden Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden Foreign relations of Sweden Diplomatic missions in Sweden Diplomatic missions of Sweden Embassy of Sweden in Moscow Embassy of Sweden, Athens Embassy of Sweden, Bangkok Embassy of Sweden, Helsinki Embassy of Sweden, London List of ambassadors of Sweden to the United Kingdom Embassy of Sweden, Mexico City Embassy of Sweden, Paris Embassy of Sweden, Prague Embassy of Sweden, Rome List of ambassadors of Sweden to Germany List of ambassadors of Sweden to Ukraine List of ambassadors of Sweden to the United States The Kingdom of Sweden is a member of: Law of Sweden Constitution of Sweden Divorce law in Sweden Human rights in Sweden Abortion in Sweden Censorship in Sweden Compulsory sterilisation in Sweden LGBT rights in Sweden Same-sex marriage in Sweden Freedom of religion in Sweden Law enforcement in Sweden Crime in Sweden Human trafficking in Sweden Racism in Sweden Antisemitism in Sweden Terrorism in Sweden Capital punishment in Sweden Life imprisonment in Sweden Military of Sweden Command Commander-in-chief: Government of Sweden Supreme Commander of the Swedish Armed Forces Ministry of Defence of Sweden Forces Swedish Armed Forces Swedish Army Swedish Home Guard Swedish Navy Swedish Amphibious Corps Swedish Fleet Swedish Air Force Military aircraft of Sweden Special forces of Sweden Military equipment of Sweden Military history of Sweden Military ranks of Sweden Soldier ranks of Sweden Loc
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Hammarby sjö is a watercourse in central Stockholm, Sweden. Separating Stockholm City Centre from South Stockholm, or, more locally, Norra Hammarbyhamnen on eastern Södermalm from Södra Hammarbyhamnen, it connects Saltsjön to Årstasjön. Covering a surface of 34 hectare and having an average depth of 4,5 metres, Hammarby sjö is supplied by a drainage area covering 159 hectares and contains 1,600,000 cubic metres of water. A lake about 3 metres deep, it was transformed into a canal when connected to Saltsjön in the 1920s and a 6 metres deep channel was dug between Hammarbyslussen and Saltsjön and another to Sickla sluss; the importance of the water expanse has grown since the late 20th century as new residential areas have been constructed along its shores. Four bridges stretch over Hammarby Sjö and connected bodies of water: Danviksbron, Skansbron and Johanneshovsbron. Geography of Stockholm Media related to Hammarby sjö at Wikimedia Commons