Critical thinking is the analysis of facts to form a judgment. The subject is complex, several different definitions exist, which include the rational, unbiased analysis, or evaluation of factual evidence. Critical thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, self-corrective thinking, it presupposes assent to rigorous standards of mindful command of their use. It entails effective communication and problem-solving abilities as well as a commitment to overcome native egocentrism and sociocentrism; the earliest documentation of critical thinking are the teachings of Socrates recorded by Plato. Socrates established the fact that one cannot depend upon those in "authority" to have sound knowledge and insight, he demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be confused and irrational. He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief, he established the importance of seeking evidence examining reasoning and assumptions, analyzing basic concepts, tracing out implications not only of what is said but of what is done as well.
His method of questioning is now known as "Socratic questioning" and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy. In his mode of questioning, Socrates highlighted the need for thinking for clarity and logical consistency. Socrates asked people questions to reveal their irrational lack of reliable knowledge. Socrates demonstrated, he established the method of questioning beliefs inspecting assumptions and relying on evidence and sound rationale. Plato carried on the tradition of critical thinking. Aristotle and subsequent Greek skeptics refined Socrates' teachings, using systematic thinking and asking questions to ascertain the true nature of reality beyond the way things appear from a glance. Socrates set the agenda for the tradition of critical thinking, namely, to reflectively question common beliefs and explanations distinguishing beliefs that are reasonable and logical from those that—however appealing to our native egocentrism, however much they serve our vested interests, however comfortable or comforting they may be—lack adequate evidence or rational foundation to warrant belief.
Critical thinking was described by Richard W. Paul as a movement in two waves; the "first wave" of critical thinking is referred to as a'critical analysis', clear, rational thinking involving critique. Its details vary amongst those. According to Barry K. Beyer, critical thinking means making clear, reasoned judgments. During the process of critical thinking, ideas should be reasoned, well thought out, judged; the U. S. National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking defines critical thinking as the "intellectually disciplined process of and skillfully conceptualizing, analyzing, synthesizing, or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, experience, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action." In the term critical thinking, the word critical, derives from the word critic and implies a critique. The intellectual roots of critical thinking are as ancient as its etymology, traceable to the teaching practice and vision of Socrates 2,500 years ago who discovered by a method of probing questioning that people could not rationally justify their confident claims to knowledge.
Traditionally, critical thinking has been variously defined as follows: "The process of and skillfully conceptualizing, analyzing and evaluating information to reach an answer or conclusion" "Disciplined thinking, clear, open-minded, informed by evidence" "Purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, methodological, criteriological, or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based" "Includes a commitment to using reason in the formulation of our beliefs" The skill and propensity to engage in an activity with reflective scepticism Thinking about one's thinking in a manner designed to organize and clarify, raise the efficiency of, recognize errors and biases in one's own thinking. Critical thinking is not'hard' thinking nor is it directed at solving problems. Critical thinking is inward-directed with the intent of maximizing the rationality of the thinker. One does not use critical thinking to solve problems—one uses critical thinking to improve one's process of thinking.
"An appraisal based on careful analytical evaluation"Contemporary critical thinking scholars have expanded these traditional definitions to include qualities and processes such as creativity, discovery, empathy, connecting knowing, feminist theory, subjectivity and inconclusiveness. Some definitions of critical thinking exclude these subjective practices; the ability to reason logically is a fundamental skill of rational agents, hence the study of the form of correct argumentation is relevant to the study of critical thinking. "First wave" logical thinking consisted of understanding the connections between two concepts or points in thought. It followed a philosophy where the thinker was removed from the train of thought and the connections and the analysis of the connect was devoid of any bias of the thinker. Kerry Walters describes this ideology in his ess
Homework, or a homework assignment, is a set of tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed outside the class. Common homework assignments may include required reading, a writing or typing project, mathematical exercises to be completed, information to be reviewed before a test, or other skills to be practiced; the effect of homework is debated. Speaking, homework does not improve academic performance among children and may improve academic skills among older students lower-achieving students. Homework creates stress for students and their parents and reduces the amount of time that students could spend outdoors, playing, sleeping, or in other activities; the basic objectives of assigning homework to students are the same as schooling in general: to increase the knowledge and improve the abilities and skills of the students, to prepare them for upcoming lessons, to extend what they know by having them apply it to new situations, or to integrate their abilities by applying different skills to a single task.
Homework provides an opportunity for parents to participate in their children's education. Homework is designed to reinforce what students have learned. Teachers have many purposes for assigning homework including: practice, participation personal development, parent–child relations, parent–teacher communications, peer interactions, public relations, punishment. Homework research dates back to the early 1900s. However, no consensus exists on the general effectiveness on homework. Results of homework studies vary based on multiple factors, such as the age group of those studied and the measure of academic performance. Among teenagers, students who spend somewhat more time on homework have higher grades, somewhat higher test scores than students who spend less time on homework. High amounts of homework cause students' academic performance to worsen among older students. Students who are assigned homework in middle and high school score somewhat better on standardized tests, but the students who have 60 to 90 minutes of homework a day in middle school or more than two hours in high school score worse.
Younger students who spend more time on homework have worse, or the same academic performance, as those who spend less time on homework. Homework does not improve academic achievements for grade school students. Low-achieving students receive more benefit from doing homework than high-achieving students. However, schoolteachers assign less homework to the students who need it most, more homework to the students who are performing well. Proponents claim, they advocate for doing unnecessary homework from age five to ten as a way of practicing for doing necessary homework from age 10 to 15. No research has been conducted to determine whether this claim has any merit; the amount of homework given does not affect students' attitudes towards homework and various other aspects of school. Epstein found a near-zero correlation between the amount of homework and parents' reports on how well their elementary school students behaved. Vazsonyi & Pickering studied 809 adolescents in American high schools, found that, using the Normative Deviance Scale as a model for deviance, the correlation was r =.28 for Caucasian students, r =.24 for African-American students.
For all three of the correlations, higher values represent a higher correlation between time spent on homework and poor conduct. Bempechat says that homework develops students' study skills. In a single study and teachers of middle school students believed that homework improved students' study skills and personal responsibility skills, their students were more to have negative perceptions about homework and were less to ascribe the development of such skills to homework. Leone & Richards found that students had negative emotions when completing homework and reduced engagement compared to other activities. Homework has been identified in numerous studies and articles as a dominant or significant source of stress and anxiety for students. Studies on the relation between homework and health are few compared to studies on academic performance. Cheung & Leung-Ngai surveyed 1,983 students in Hong Kong, found that homework led not only to added stress and anxiety, but physical symptoms, such as headaches and stomachaches.
Students in the survey who were ridiculed or punished by parents and peers had a higher incidence of depression symptoms, with 2.2% of students reporting that they "always" had suicidal thoughts, anxiety was exacerbated by punishments and criticism of students by teachers for both problems with homework as well as forgetting to hand in homework. A 2007 study of American students by MetLife found that 89% of students felt stressed from homework, with 34% reporting that they "often" or "very often" felt stressed from homework. Stress was evident among high school students. Students that reported stress from homework were more to be deprived of sleep. Homework can cause tension and conflict in the home as well as at school, can reduce students' family and leisure time. In the Cheung & Leung-Ngai survey, failure to complete homework and low grades where homework was a contributing factor was correlated with greater conflict. In the MetLife study, high school students reported spending more time completing homework than performing home tasks.
Kohn argued that homework can create family conflict and reduc
A skill is the ability to carry out a task with determined results within a given amount of time, energy, or both. Skills can be divided into domain-general and domain-specific skills. For example, in the domain of work, some general skills would include time management and leadership, self-motivation and others, whereas domain-specific skills would be used only for a certain job. Skill requires certain environmental stimuli and situations to assess the level of skill being shown and used. People need a broad range of skills to contribute to a modern economy. A joint ASTD and U. S. Department of Labor study showed that through technology, the workplace is changing, identified 16 basic skills that employees must have to be able to change with it. Three broad categories of skills are suggested and these are technical and conceptual; the first two can be substituted with soft skills, respectively. Hard skills called technical skills, are any skills relating to a specific task or situation, it involves both understanding and proficiency in such specific activity that involves methods, procedures, or techniques.
These skills are quantifiable unlike soft skills, which are related to one's personality. These are skills that can be or have been tested and may entail some professional, technical, or academic qualification. Skilled workers have long had historical import as electricians, carpenters, bakers, coopers and other occupations that are economically productive. Skilled workers were politically active through their craft guilds. An ability and capacity acquired through deliberate and sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout complex activities or job functions involving ideas, and/or people. See competence. According to the Portland Business Journal, people skills are described as: understanding ourselves and moderating our responses talking and empathizing building relationships of trust and productive interactions. A British definition is "the ability to communicate with people in a friendly way in business." The term is not listed yet in major US dictionaries. The term people skills is used to include both psychological skills and social skills but is less inclusive than life skills.
Social skill is any skill facilitating communication with others. Social rules and relations are created and changed in verbal and nonverbal ways; the process of learning such skills is called socialization. Soft skills are a combination of interpersonal people skills, social skills, communication skills, character traits, career attributes and emotional intelligence quotient among others. Skills can be categorized based on the level of motivation; the highest level of engagement corresponds to the craftsman. About 2% of people reach the highest level. Communication skills Deskilling DISCO - European Dictionary of Skills and Competences Dreyfus model of skill acquisition Game of skill Online skill-based game Procedural knowledge Transferable skills analysis American Society for Training & Development Australian National Training Authority NCVER's Review of generic skills for the new economy SKILLS EU Research Integrated Project
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, values and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, teaching and directed research. Education takes place under the guidance of educators and learners may educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational; the methodology of teaching is called pedagogy. Formal education is divided formally into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and college, university, or apprenticeship. A right to education has been recognized by the United Nations. In most regions, education is compulsory up to a certain age. Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin word ēducātiō from ēducō, related to the homonym ēdūcō from ē- and dūcō. Education began in prehistory, as adults trained the young in the knowledge and skills deemed necessary in their society.
In pre-literate societies, this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling passed knowledge and skills from one generation to the next; as cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom. Plato founded the Academy in the first institution of higher learning in Europe; the city of Alexandria in Egypt, established in 330 BCE, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of Ancient Greece. There, the great Library of Alexandria was built in the 3rd century BCE. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE 476. In China, Confucius, of the State of Lu, was the country's most influential ancient philosopher, whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like Korea and Vietnam. Confucius gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his Analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in East Asia into the modern era.
The Aztecs had a well-developed theory about education, which has an equivalent word in Nahuatl called tlacahuapahualiztli. It means "the art of raising or educating a person" or "the art of strengthening or bringing up men." This was a broad conceptualization of education, which prescribed that it begins at home, supported by formal schooling, reinforced by community living. Historians cite that formal education was mandatory for everyone regardless of social class and gender. There was the word neixtlamachiliztli, "the act of giving wisdom to the face." These concepts underscore a complex set of educational practices, oriented towards communicating to the next generation the experience and intellectual heritage of the past for the purpose of individual development and his integration into the community. After the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe; the church established cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centres of advanced education.
Some of these establishments evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europe's modern universities. During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated the famous and influential Chartres Cathedral School; the medieval universities of Western Christendom were well-integrated across all of Western Europe, encouraged freedom of inquiry, produced a great variety of fine scholars and natural philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas of the University of Naples, Robert Grosseteste of the University of Oxford, an early expositor of a systematic method of scientific experimentation, Saint Albert the Great, a pioneer of biological field research. Founded in 1088, the University of Bologne is considered the first, the oldest continually operating university. Elsewhere during the Middle Ages, Islamic science and mathematics flourished under the Islamic caliphate, established across the Middle East, extending from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Indus in the east and to the Almoravid Dynasty and Mali Empire in the south.
The Renaissance in Europe ushered in a new age of scientific and intellectual inquiry and appreciation of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press, which allowed works of literature to spread more quickly; the European Age of Empires saw European ideas of education in philosophy, religion and sciences spread out across the globe. Missionaries and scholars brought back new ideas from other civilizations – as with the Jesuit China missions who played a significant role in the transmission of knowledge and culture between China and Europe, translating works from Europe like Euclid's Elements for Chinese scholars and the thoughts of Confucius for European audiences; the Enlightenment saw the emergence of a more secular educational outlook in Europe. In most countries today, full-time education, whether at school or otherwise, is compulsory for all children up to a certain age. Due to this the proliferation of compulsory education, combined with population growth, UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years more people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far.
Formal education occurs in a structured environment. Formal education takes place in a school environme
Primary education called an elementary education is the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education. Primary education takes place in a primary school or elementary school. In some countries, primary education is followed by middle school, an educational stage which exists in some countries, takes place between primary school and high school. Primary Education in Australia consists of grades foundation to grade 6. In the United States, primary education is Grades 1 - 3 and elementary education consists of grades 1-6; the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 2 was to achieve universal primary education by the year 2015, by which time their aim was to ensure that all children everywhere, regardless of race or gender, will be able to complete primary schooling. Due to the fact that the United Nations focused on Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, as they are both home to the vast majority of children out of school, they hypothesized that they might not have been able to reach their goal by 2015.
According to the September 2010 fact sheet, this was because there were still about 69 million school-age children who were not in school with half of the demographic in sub-Saharan Africa and more than a quarter in Southern Asia. In order to achieve the goal by 2015, the United Nations estimated that all children at the official entry age for primary school would have had to have been attending classes by 2009; this would depend upon the duration of the primary level, as well as how well the schools retain students until the end of the cycle. Not only was it important for children to be enrolled in education, but countries will have needed to ensure that there are a sufficient number of teachers and classrooms to meet the demand of pupils; as of 2010, the number of new teachers needed in sub-Saharan Africa alone, equaled the current teaching force in the region. However, the gender gap for children not in education had been narrowed. Between 1999 and 2008, the number of girls not in education worldwide had decreased from 57 percent to 53 percent, however it should be noted that in some regions, the percentage had increased.
According to the United Nations, there are many things in the regions that have been accomplished. Although enrollment in the sub-Saharan area of Africa continues to be the lowest region worldwide, by 2010 "it still increased by 18 percentage points—from 58 percent to 76 percent—between 1999 and 2008." There was progress in both Southern Asia and North Africa, where both areas saw an increase in enrollment, For example, In Southern Asia, this had increased by 11 percent and in North Africa by 8 percent- over the last decade. Major advances had been made in the poorest of countries like the abolition of primary school fees in Burundi where there was an increase in primary-school enrollment which reached 99 percent as of 2008. Tanzania experienced a similar outcome; the country doubled its enrollment ratio over the same period. Moreover, other regions in Latin America such as Guatemala and Nicaragua, Zambia in Southern Africa "broke through the 90 percent towards greater access to primary education."
1st grade: 6 to 7 years old 2nd grade: 7 to 8 years old 3rd grade: 8 to 9 years old 4th grade: 9 to 10 years old 5th grade: 10 to 11 years old 6th grade: 11 to 12 years old 7th grade: 12 to 13 years old 8th grade: 13 to 14 years old 9th grade: 14 to 15 years old crèche École maternelle toute petite section Cycle I petite section moyenne section grande section Cycle II grande section École primaire CP CE1 Cycle III CE2 CM1 CM2 SecondaryCollège Brevet diploma Lycée Baccalauréat diploma In Somalia, pupils start primary school when they are 7 and finish it at the age of 11 starting from form 1 to form 4. Pupils must firstly have attended casual school known as dugsi and learnt the Muslim holy book Qur'an, the meaning of the Arabic language. Pupils who had not done this are not permitted to start primary school as they will be examined before starting. Pupils' age may sometimes vary seeing that some pupils achieve higher than their predicted grade and may skip the year while some require to repeat the year if they had not achieved the grade required from them.
After finishing primary, students move to intermediate school. In Tunisia pre-school education is optional and provided in three settings: Kindergartens:socio-educational institutions that come under the supervision of Ministry of culture. Kouttabs:religious institutions cater for children between 3 and 5 years of age, their task is to initiate them into learning the Quran as well as reading and arithmetic. They are under the supervision of the Ministry of Religious Affairs Preparatory year: It is an integral part of basic education but it is not compulsory, it is supervised by the Ministry of Education and is provided in public and quasi-public primary schools 9 years of basic education are compulsory. Kindergarten: 5–6 years 1st grade: 6–7 years 2nd grade: 7–8 years 3rd grade: 8–9 years 4th grade: 9–10 years 5th grade: 10–11 years 6th grade: 11–12 years 7th grade: 12–13 years 8th grade: 13–14 years 9th grade: 14–15 years In Hong Kong, students attend primary schools for the first six years of compuls
A rector is a senior official in an educational institution, can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school. Outside the English-speaking world the rector is the most senior official in a university, whilst in the United States the most senior official is referred to as President and in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations the most senior official is the Chancellor, whose office is ceremonial and titular; the term and office of a rector can be referred to as a rectorate. The title is used in universities in Europe, and is common in Latin American countries. It is used in Brunei, Russia, the Philippines, Indonesia and the Middle East. In the ancient universities of Scotland the office is sometimes referred to as Lord Rector, is the third most senior official, is responsible for chairing the University Court; the head of a university in Germany is called a president, rector magnificus or rectrix magnifica, as in some Belgian universities. In Dutch universities, the rector magnificus is the most publicly prominent member of the board, responsible for the scientific agenda of the university.
In the Netherlands, the rector is, not the chair of the university board. The chair has, in the most influence over the management of the University. In some countries, including Germany, the position of head teacher in secondary schools is designated as rector. In the Netherlands, the terms "rector" and "conrector" are used for high school directors; this is the case in some Maltese secondary schools. In the Scandinavian countries, the head of a university or a gymnasium is called a rektor. In Sweden and Norway, this term is used for the heads of primary schools. In Finland, the head of a primary school or secondary schools is called a rector provided the school is of sufficient size in terms of faculty and students, otherwise the title is headmaster; the head of some Finnish universities is called chancellor. In the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal's and Spain's university heads or presidents have the title; those universities whose foundation has been approved by the Pope, as e.g. the rector of the University of Coimbra, the oldest Portuguese university, is referred to as Magnífico Reitor.
The others are referred to as Excelentíssimo Senhor Reitor. In Spain, all Rectors must be addressed as Señor Rector Magnífico according to the law, but the Rector of the University of Salamanca, the oldest on the Iberian Peninsula, is styled according to academic protocol as Excelentísimo y Ilustrísimo Señor Profesor Doctor Don, Rector Magnífico de la Universidad de Salamanca. In a few "Crown lands" of the Austrian Empire, one seat in the Landtag was reserved for the rector of the capital's university, notably: Graz in Steiermark, Innsbruck in Tirol, Wien in Nieder-Österreich. Today Austrian universities are headed by a Rectorate consisting of one Rector and 3-5 additional Vizerectors; the Rector is the CEO of the university. The heads of Czech universities are called the rektor; the rector acts in the name of the university and decides the university's affairs unless prohibited by law. The rector is nominated by the University Academic Senate and appointed by the President of the Czech Republic.
The nomination must be agreed by a simple majority of all senators, while a dismissal must be agreed by at least three fifths of all senators. The vote to elect or repeal a rector is secret; the term of office is four years and a person may hold it for at most two consecutive terms. The rector appoints vice-rectors. Rectors' salaries are determined directly by the Minister of Education. Among the most important rectors of Czech universities were reformer Jan Hus, physician Jan Jesenius and representative of Enlightenment Josef Vratislav Monse. Jiřina Popelová became the first female Rector in 1950; the rectors are addressed "Your Magnificence Rector". In Danish, rektor is the title used in referring to the heads of universities, schools of commerce and construction, etc. Rektor may be used for the head of any educational institution above the primary school level, where the head is referred to as a'skoleinspektør'. In universities, the second-ranked official of governance is known as prorektor. Most English universities are formally headed by "chancellors".
In a few colleges, the equivalent person is called a "president", "provost", or "warden". At two Oxford colleges, Lincoln College and Exeter College, the head is called "rector". At Oxford and Cambridge, the university's overall head is called "chancellor", but this is chiefly a ceremonial position while the academic head of each university is the "vice-chancellor". At St Chad's College, one of the two so-called "recognised colleges" of the University of Durham, there is a "rector" as titular head while the academic head is the "principal"; the University of London has a chancellor (a
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, judgement and memory. It is defined as the faculty of an entity's thoughts and consciousness, it holds the power of imagination and appreciation, is responsible for processing feelings and emotions, resulting in attitudes and actions. There is a lengthy tradition in philosophy, religion and cognitive science about what constitutes a mind and what are its distinguishing properties. One open question regarding the nature of the mind is the mind–body problem, which investigates the relation of the mind to the physical brain and nervous system. Older viewpoints included idealism, which considered the mind somehow non-physical. Modern views center around physicalism and functionalism, which hold that the mind is identical with the brain or reducible to physical phenomena such as neuronal activity, though dualism and idealism continue to have many supporters. Another question concerns. For example, whether mind is exclusive to humans, possessed by some or all animals, by all living things, whether it is a definable characteristic at all, or whether mind can be a property of some types of human-made machines.
Whatever its nature, it is agreed that mind is that which enables a being to have subjective awareness and intentionality towards their environment, to perceive and respond to stimuli with some kind of agency, to have consciousness, including thinking and feeling. The concept of mind is understood in many different ways by many different cultural and religious traditions; some see mind as a property exclusive to humans whereas others ascribe properties of mind to non-living entities, to animals and to deities. Some of the earliest recorded speculations linked mind to theories concerning both life after death, cosmological and natural order, for example in the doctrines of Zoroaster, the Buddha, Plato and other ancient Greek and Islamic and medieval European philosophers. Important philosophers of mind include Plato, Descartes, Locke, Hume, Hegel, Searle, Fodor and Chalmers. Psychologists such as Freud and James, computer scientists such as Turing and Putnam developed influential theories about the nature of the mind.
The possibility of nonbiological minds is explored in the field of artificial intelligence, which works in relation with cybernetics and information theory to understand the ways in which information processing by nonbiological machines is comparable or different to mental phenomena in the human mind. The mind is portrayed as the stream of consciousness where sense impressions and mental phenomena are changing; the original meaning of Old English gemynd was the faculty of memory, not of thought in general. Hence call to mind, come to mind, keep in mind, to have mind of, etc; the word retains this sense in Scotland. Old English had other words to express "mind", such as hyge "mind, spirit"; the meaning of "memory" is shared with Old Norse. The word is from a PIE verbal root *men-, meaning "to think, remember", whence Latin mens "mind", Sanskrit manas "mind" and Greek μένος "mind, anger"; the generalization of mind to include all mental faculties, volition and memory develops over the 14th and 15th centuries.
The attributes that make up the mind are debated. Some psychologists argue that only the "higher" intellectual functions constitute mind reason and memory. In this view the emotions — love, hate and joy — are more primitive or subjective in nature and should be seen as different from the mind as such. Others argue that various rational and emotional states cannot be so separated, that they are of the same nature and origin, should therefore be considered all part of it as mind. In popular usage, mind is synonymous with thought: the private conversation with ourselves that we carry on "inside our heads." Thus we "make up our minds," "change our minds" or are "of two minds" about something. One of the key attributes of the mind in this sense is that it is a private sphere to which no one but the owner has access. No one else can "know our mind." They can only interpret or unconsciously communicate. Broadly speaking, mental faculties are the various functions of the mind, or things the mind can "do".
Thought is a mental act that allows humans to make sense of things in the world, to represent and interpret them in ways that are significant, or which accord with their needs, goals, plans, desires, etc. Thinking involves the symbolic or semiotic mediation of ideas or data, as when we form concepts, engage in problem solving and making decisions. Words that refer to similar concepts and processes include deliberation, ideation and imagination. Thinking is sometimes described as a "higher" cognitive function and the analysis of thinking processes is a part of cognitive psychology, it is deeply connected with our capacity to make and use tools. Memory is the ability to preserve and subsequently recall, information or experience. Although memory has traditionally been a persistent theme in philosophy, the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries