Construction engineering is a professional discipline that deals with the designing, planning and management of infrastructures such as roads, bridges, railroads, buildings, dams and other projects. Civil engineering is a related field. Construction engineers learn some of the design aspects similar to civil engineers as well as project site management aspects. At the educational level, civil engineering students concentrate on the design work, more analytical, gearing them toward a career as a design professional; this requires them to take a multitude of challenging engineering science and design courses as part of obtaining a 4-year accredited degree. Education for construction engineers is focused on construction procedures, costs and personnel management, their primary concern is to deliver a project on time within budget and of the desired quality. The difference between a construction engineer and a civil engineer is that construction engineering students take basic design courses as well as construction management courses.
Being a sub-discipline of Civil Engineering, construction Engineers apply their knowledge and business and management skills obtained from their undergraduate degree to oversee projects that include bridges and housing projects. Construction Engineers are involved in the design and management/ allocation of funds in these projects, they are charged with risk analysis and planning. A career in design work does require a professional engineer license. Individuals who pursue this career path are advised to sit for the Engineer in Training exam, also,referred to as the Fundamentals of Engineering Exam while in college as it takes five years' post-graduate to obtain the PE license. Entry-level construction engineers position is project engineers or assistant project engineers, they are responsible for preparing purchasing requisitions, processing change orders, preparing monthly budgeting reports and handling meeting minutes. The construction management position does not require a PE license. Construction engineers are problem solvers.
They contribute to the creation of infrastructure that best meets the unique demands of its environment. They must be able to understand infrastructure life cycles; when compared and contrasted to design engineers, construction engineers bring to the table their own unique perspectives for solving technical challenges with clarity and imagination. While individuals considering this career path should have a strong understanding of mathematics and science, many other skills are highly desirable, including critical and analytical thinking, time management, people management and good communication skills. Individuals looking to obtain a construction engineering degree must first ensure that the program is accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology. ABET accreditation is assurance that a college or university program meets the quality standards established by the profession for which it prepares its students. In the US there are twenty-five programs that exist in the entire country so careful college consideration is advised.
A typical construction engineering curriculum is a mixture of engineering mechanics, engineering design, construction management and general science and mathematics. This leads to a Bachelor of Science degree; the B. S. degree along with some design or construction experience is sufficient for most entry level positions. Graduate schools may be an option for those who want to go further in depth of the construction and engineering subjects taught at the undergraduate level. In most cases construction engineering graduates look to either civil engineering, engineering management or business administration as a possible graduate degree. Job prospects for construction engineers have a strong cyclical variation. For example, starting in 2008 and continuing until at least 2011, job prospects have been poor due to the collapse of housing bubbles in many parts of the world; this reduced demand for construction, forced construction professionals towards infrastructure construction and therefore increased the competition faced by established and new construction engineers.
This increased competition and a core reduction in quantity demand is in parallel with a possible shift in the demand for construction engineers due to the automation of many engineering tasks, overall resulting in reduced prospects for construction engineers. In early 2010, the United States construction industry had a 27% unemployment rate, this is nearly three times higher than the 9.7% national average unemployment rate. The construction unemployment rate is comparable to the United States 1933 unemployment rate—the lowest point of the Great Depression—of 25%; the average salary for a civil engineer in the UK depends on the sector and more the level of experience of the individual. A 2010 survey of the remuneration and benefits of those occupying jobs in construction and the built environment industry showed that the average salary of a civil engineer in the UK is £29,582. In the United States, as of May 2013, the average was $85,640; the average salary varies depending on experience, for example the average annual salary for a civil engineer with between 3 and 6 years' experience is £23,813.
For those with between 14 and 20 years' experience the average is £38,214. Architectural engineering Building officials Civil engine
Architectural Engineering known as Building Engineering or Architecture Engineering, is the application of engineering principles and technology to building design and construction. Definitions of an architectural engineer may refer to: An engineer in the structural, electrical, construction or other engineering fields of building design and construction. A licensed engineering professional in parts of the United States. Architectural engineers are those who work with other engineers and architects for the designing and construction of buildings. Structural engineering involves the design of the built environment; those concentrating on buildings are sometimes informally referred to as "building engineers". Structural engineers require expertise in strength of materials, structural analysis, in predicting structural load such as from weight of the building and contents, extreme events such as wind, rain and seismic design of structures, referred to as earthquake engineering. Architectural Engineers sometimes incorporate structural as one aspect of their designs.
Mechanical engineering and electrical engineering engineers are specialists referred to as when engaged in the building design fields. Known as "building services engineering" in the United Kingdom and Australia. Mechanical engineers design and oversee the heating and air conditioning and rain gutter systems. Plumbing designers include design specifications for simple active fire protection systems, but for more complicated projects, fire protection engineers are separately retained. Electrical engineers are responsible for the building's power distribution, telecommunication, fire alarm, lightning protection and control systems, as well as lighting systems In many jurisdictions of the United States, the architectural engineer is a licensed engineering professional. A graduate of an architectural engineering university program preparing students to perform whole-building design in competition with architect-engineer teams. Formal architectural engineering education, following the engineering model of earlier disciplines, developed in the late 19th century, became widespread in the United States by the mid-20th century.
With the establishment of a specific "architectural engineering" NCEES Professional Engineering registration examination in the 1990s, first offering in April 2003, architectural engineering became recognized as a distinct engineering discipline in the United States. In most license-regulated jurisdictions, architectural engineers are not entitled to practice architecture unless they are licensed as architects, may be restricted from the practice of structural engineering on specific types of higher importance buildings such as hospitals. Regulations and customary practice vary by region or city. In some countries, the practice of architecture includes planning and overseeing the building's construction, architecture, as a profession providing architectural services, is referred to as "architectural engineering". In Japan, a "first-class architect" plays the dual role of architect and building engineer, although the services of a licensed "structural design first-class architect" are required for buildings over a certain scale.
In some languages, such as Korean and Arabic, "architect" is translated as "architectural engineer". In some countries, an "architectural engineer" is entitled to practice architecture and is referred to as an architect; these individuals are also structural engineers. In other countries, such as Germany, Austria and most of the Arab countries, architecture graduates receive an engineering degree. In Spain, an "architect" has a technical university education and legal powers to carry out building structure and facility projects. In Brazil and engineers used to share the same accreditation process. Now the Brazilian architects and urbanists have their own accreditation process. Besides traditional architecture design training, Brazilian architecture courses offer complementary training in engineering disciplines such as structural, electrical and mechanical engineering. After graduation, architects focus in architectural planning, yet they can be responsible to the whole building, when it concerns to small buildings, applied to buildings, urban environment, built cultural heritage, landscape planning, interiorscape planning and regional planning.
In Greece licensed architectural engineers are graduates from architecture faculties that belong to the Polytechnic University, obtaining an "Engineering Diploma". They graduate after 5 years of studies and are entitled architects once they become members of the Technical Chamber of Greece; the Technical Chamber of Greece has more than 100,000 members encompassing all the engineering disciplines as well as architecture. A prerequisite for being a member is to be licensed as a qualified engineer or architect
Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor; these points are on the surface of the Earth, they are used to establish maps and boundaries for ownership, such as building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales. Surveyors work with elements of geometry, regression analysis, engineering, programming languages, the law, they use equipment, such as total stations, robotic total stations, theodolites, GNSS receivers, retroreflectors, 3D scanners, handheld tablets, digital levels, subsurface locators, drones, GIS, surveying software. Surveying has been an element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history; the planning and execution of most forms of construction require it. It is used in transport, communications and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership.
It is an important tool for research in many other scientific disciplines. The International Federation of Surveyors defines the function of surveying as: A surveyor is a professional person with the academic qualifications and technical expertise to conduct one, or more, of the following activities. Surveying has occurred since humans built the first large structures. In ancient Egypt, a rope stretcher would use simple geometry to re-establish boundaries after the annual floods of the Nile River; the perfect squareness and north-south orientation of the Great Pyramid of Giza, built c. 2700 BC, affirm the Egyptians' command of surveying. The Groma instrument originated in Mesopotamia; the prehistoric monument at Stonehenge was set out by prehistoric surveyors using peg and rope geometry. The mathematician Liu Hui described ways of measuring distant objects in his work Haidao Suanjing or The Sea Island Mathematical Manual, published in 263 AD; the Romans recognized land surveying as a profession.
They established the basic measurements under which the Roman Empire was divided, such as a tax register of conquered lands. Roman surveyors were known as Gromatici. In medieval Europe, beating the bounds maintained the boundaries of a village or parish; this was the practice of gathering a group of residents and walking around the parish or village to establish a communal memory of the boundaries. Young boys were included to ensure the memory lasted as long as possible. In England, William the Conqueror commissioned the Domesday Book in 1086, it recorded the names of all the land owners, the area of land they owned, the quality of the land, specific information of the area's content and inhabitants. It did not include maps showing exact locations. Abel Foullon described a plane table in 1551, but it is thought that the instrument was in use earlier as his description is of a developed instrument. Gunter's chain was introduced in 1620 by English mathematician Edmund Gunter, it enabled plots of land to be surveyed and plotted for legal and commercial purposes.
Leonard Digges described a Theodolite that measured horizontal angles in his book A geometric practice named Pantometria. Joshua Habermel created a theodolite with a compass and tripod in 1576. Johnathon Sission was the first to incorporate a telescope on a theodolite in 1725. In the 18th century, modern techniques and instruments for surveying began to be used. Jesse Ramsden introduced the first precision theodolite in 1787, it was an instrument for measuring angles in vertical planes. He created his great theodolite using an accurate dividing engine of his own design. Ramsden's theodolite represented a great step forward in the instrument's accuracy. William Gascoigne invented an instrument that used a telescope with an installed crosshair as a target device, in 1640. James Watt developed an optical meter for the measuring of distance in 1771. Dutch mathematician Willebrord Snellius introduced the modern systematic use of triangulation. In 1615 he surveyed the distance from Alkmaar to Breda 72 miles.
He underestimated this distance by 3.5%. The survey was a chain of quadrangles containing 33 triangles in all. Snell showed, he showed how to resection, or calculate, the position of a point inside a triangle using the angles cast between the vertices at the unknown point. These could be measured more than bearings of the vertices, which depended on a compass, his work established the idea of surveying a primary network of control points, locating subsidiary points inside the primary network later. Between 1733 and 1740, Jacques Cassini and his son César undertook the first triangulation of France, they included a re-surveying of the meridian arc, leading to the publication in 1745 of the first map of France constructed on rigorous principles. By this time triangulation methods were well established for local map-making, it was only towards the end of the 18th century that detailed triangulation network surveys mapped whole countries. In 1784, a team from Gene
Structural engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering in which structural engineers are trained to design the'bones and muscles' that create the form and shape of man made structures. Structural engineers need to understand and calculate the stability and rigidity of built structures for buildings and nonbuilding structures; the structural designs are integrated with those of other designers such as architects and building services engineer and supervise the construction of projects by contractors on site. They can be involved in the design of machinery, medical equipment, vehicles where structural integrity affects functioning and safety. See glossary of structural engineering. Structural engineering theory is based upon applied physical laws and empirical knowledge of the structural performance of different materials and geometries. Structural engineering design uses a number of simple structural elements to build complex structural systems. Structural engineers are responsible for making creative and efficient use of funds, structural elements and materials to achieve these goals.
Structural engineering dates back to 2700 B. C. E; when the step pyramid for Pharaoh Djoser was built by Imhotep, the first engineer in history known by name. Pyramids were the most common major structures built by ancient civilizations because the structural form of a pyramid is inherently stable and can be infinitely scaled; the structural stability of the pyramid, whilst gained from its shape, relies on the strength of the stone from which it is constructed, its ability to support the weight of the stone above it. The limestone blocks were taken from a quarry near the build site and have a compressive strength from 30 to 250 MPa. Therefore, the structural strength of the pyramid stems from the material properties of the stones from which it was built rather than the pyramid's geometry. Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans, such as stonemasons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. No theory of structures existed, understanding of how structures stood up was limited, based entirely on empirical evidence of'what had worked before'.
Knowledge was retained by guilds and supplanted by advances. Structures were repetitive, increases in scale were incremental. No record exists of the first calculations of the strength of structural members or the behavior of structural material, but the profession of structural engineer only took shape with the Industrial Revolution and the re-invention of concrete (see History of Concrete; the physical sciences underlying structural engineering began to be understood in the Renaissance and have since developed into computer-based applications pioneered in the 1970s. 1452–1519 Leonardo da Vinci made many contributions 1638: Galileo Galilei published the book Two New Sciences in which he examined the failure of simple 1660: Hooke's law by Robert Hooke 1687: Isaac Newton published Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica which contains the Newton's laws of motion 1750: Euler–Bernoulli beam equation 1700–1782: Daniel Bernoulli introduced the principle of virtual work 1707–1783: Leonhard Euler developed the theory of buckling of columns 1826: Claude-Louis Navier published a treatise on the elastic behaviors of structures 1873: Carlo Alberto Castigliano presented his dissertation "Intorno ai sistemi elastici", which contains his theorem for computing displacement as partial derivative of the strain energy.
This theorem includes the method of "least work" as a special case 1874: Otto Mohr formalized the idea of a statically indeterminate structure. 1922: Timoshenko corrects the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation 1936: Hardy Cross' publication of the moment distribution method, an important innovation in the design of continuous frames. 1941: Alexander Hrennikoff solved the discretization of plane elasticity problems using a lattice framework 1942: R. Courant divided a domain into finite subregions 1956: J. Turner, R. W. Clough, H. C. Martin, L. J. Topp's paper on the "Stiffness and Deflection of Complex Structures" introduces the name "finite-element method" and is recognized as the first comprehensive treatment of the method as it is known today The history of structural engineering contains many collapses and failures. Sometimes this is due to obvious negligence, as in the case of the Pétion-Ville school collapse, in which Rev. Fortin Augustin "constructed the building all by himself, saying he didn't need an engineer as he had good knowledge of construction" following a partial collapse of the three-story schoolhouse that sent neighbors fleeing.
The final collapse killed 94 people children. In other cases structural failures require careful study, the results of these inquiries have resulted in improved practices and greater understanding of the science of structural engineering; some such studies are the result of forensic engineering investigations where the original engineer seems to have done everything in accordance with the state of the profession and acceptable practice yet a failure still eventuated. A famous case of structural knowledge and practice being advanced in this manner can be found in a series of failures involving box girders which collapsed in Australia during the 1970s. Structural engineering depends upon a detailed knowledge of applied mechanics, materials science and applied mathematics to understand and predict how structures support and resist self-weight and imposed loads. To apply the knowledge a structural engineer requires detailed knowledge of relevant empirical a
Biochemical engineering known as bioprocess engineering, is a field of study with roots stemming from chemical engineering and biological engineering. It deals with the design and advancement of unit processes that involve biological organisms or organic molecules and has various applications in areas of interest such as biofuels, pharmaceuticals and water treatment processes; the role of a biochemical engineer is to take findings developed by biologists and chemists in a laboratory and translate that to a large-scale manufacturing process. For thousands of years, humans have made use of the chemical reactions of biological organisms in order to create goods. In the mid-1800s, Louis Pasteur was one of the first people to look into the role of these organisms when he researched fermentation, his work contributed to the use of pasteurization, still used to this day. By the early 1900s, the use of microorganisms had expanded, was used to make industrial products. Up to this point, biochemical engineering hadn't developed as a field yet.
It wasn't until 1928 when Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin that the field of biochemical engineering was established. After this discovery, samples were gathered from around the world in order to continue research into the characteristics of microbes from places such as soils, forests and streams. Today, biochemical engineers can be found working in a variety of industries, from food to pharmaceuticals; this is due to the increasing need for efficiency and production which requires knowledge of how biological systems and chemical reactions interact with each other and how they can be used to meet these needs. Biochemical engineering is not a major offered by most universities and is instead an area of interest under the chemical engineering major in most cases; the following universities offer degrees in biochemical engineering. Brown University - Providence, RI Christian Brothers University - Memphis, TN Colorado School of Mines - Golden, CO Rowan University - Glassboro, NJ University of Colorado Boulder - Boulder, CO University of Georgia - Athens, GA Biotechnology and biochemical engineering are related to each other as biochemical engineering can be considered a sub-branch of biotechnology.
One of the primary focuses of biotechnology is in the medical field, where biochemical engineers work to design pharmaceuticals, artificial organs, biomedical devices, chemical sensors, drug delivery systems. Biochemical engineers use their knowledge of chemical processes in biological systems in order to create tangible products that improve people's health. Specific areas of studies include metabolic and tissue engineering; the study of cell cultures is used in biochemical engineering and biotechnology due to its many applications in developing natural fuels, improving the efficiency in producing drugs and pharmaceutical processes, creating cures for disease. Other medical applications of biochemical engineering within biotechnology are genetics testing and pharmacogenomics. Biochemical engineers focus on designing systems that will improve the production, packaging and distribution of food; some processed foods include wheat and milk which undergo processes such as milling and pasteurization in order to become products that can be sold.
There are three levels of food processing: primary and tertiary. Primary food processing involves turning agricultural products into other products that can be turned into food, secondary food processing is the making of food from available ingredients, tertiary food processing is commercial production of ready-to eat or heat-and-serve foods. Drying, pickling and fermenting foods were some of the oldest food processing techniques used to preserve food by preventing yeasts and bacteria to cause spoiling. Methods for preserving food have evolved to meet current standards of food safety but still use the same processes as the past. Biochemical engineers work to improve the nutritional value of food products, such as in golden rice, developed to prevent vitamin A deficiency in certain areas where this was an issue. Efforts to advance preserving technologies can ensure lasting retention of nutrients as foods are stored. Packaging plays a key role in preserving as well as ensuring the safety of the food by protecting the product from contamination, physical damage, tampering.
Packaging can make it easier to transport and serve food. A common job for biochemical engineers working in the food industry is to design ways to perform all these processes on a large scale in order to meet the demands of the population. Responsibilities for this career path include designing and performing experiments, optimizing processes, consulting with groups to develop new technologies, preparing project plans for equipment and facilities. Biofuel from algae Biological hydrogen production Bioprocess engineering Bioreactor landfill Electrochemical energy conversion Industrial biotechnology Moss bioreactor Photobioreactor