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Outline of linguistics

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to linguistics: Linguistics is the scientific study of natural language. Someone who engages in this study is called a linguist. Linguistics applied. Linguistics can be described as all of the following: An academic discipline – a body of knowledge given to—or received by—a disciple. A field of science – a recognized category of specialized expertise within science, embodying its own terminology and scientific journals. A social science – a field of academic scholarship that explores aspects of human societies related to the languages they speak. Theoretical linguistics - the study of language in abstract and model form Cognitive linguistics - the study of language and cognition Generative linguistics - the theory of grammar as a mental system that generates complete sentences Functional theories of grammar - language as used and coming from use Quantitative linguistics - the study of mathematical language laws and corresponding general theories Phonology - the usage of vocalized sounds and systems of sounds to form language Graphemics - the study of language writing systems Morphology - the property of sound and meaning change in language Syntax - the property of grammar that governs sentence structure Lexis - the complete set of words in a language Semantics - the study of meaning as encoded in language Pragmatics - the study of how context contributes to meaning Descriptive linguistics - describing how a particular language is used Anthropological linguistics - the place of language in its wider social and cultural context, its role in making and maintaining cultural practices and societal structures Historical linguistics - study of historical language change over time Comparative linguistics - comparing languages to find similarities and historical connections Phonetics - the study of the speech faculty Graphetics - the study of writing shapes as assigned to sounds or ideas Etymology - the study of word histories and origins Sociolinguistics - the study of society's effects on language Applied linguistics - finding solutions to real-life problems related to language Computational linguistics - the use of computation applied to language databasing, analysis and synthesis Forensic linguistics - language science applied to the processes of law and justice Internet linguistics - the study of language usage on the Internet Language assessment - assessing first or second language faculty in individuals Language documentation - comprehensive description of the grammar and use practices of languages of a particular group Language revitalization - is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one Language education - teaching specific language and language science Linguistic anthropology - study of how language influences social life Psycholinguistics - is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use and produce language Language acquisition - the study of how children and adults acquire language knowledge and ability Language development - the study of early language formation Second-language acquisition - the study of how a second language is learned Neurolinguistics - study of language from a neuroscience perspective Evolutionary linguistics - is a subfield of psycholinguistics that studies the psychosocial and cultural factors involved in the origin of language and the development of linguistic universals Sub-fields of structure-focused linguistics include: Phonetics – study of the physical properties of speech production and perception Phonology – study of sounds as discrete, abstract elements in the speaker's mind that distinguish meaning Morphology – study of internal structures of words and how they can be modified Syntax – study of how words combine to form grammatical sentences Semantics – study of the meaning of words and fixed word combinations, how these combine to form the meanings of sentences Pragmatics – study of how utterances are used in communicative acts – and the role played by context and nonlinguistic knowledge in the transmission of meaning Discourse analysis – analysis of language use in texts Linguistic typology – comparative study of the similarities and differences between language structures in the world's languages.

Applied linguistics – study of language-related issues applied in everyday life, notably language policies and education. Biolinguistics – study of natural as well as human-taught communication systems in animals, compared to human language. Clinical linguistics – application of linguistic theory to the field of Speech-Language Pathology. Computational linguistics – study of linguistic issues in a way that is'computationally responsible', i.e. taking careful note of computational consideration of algorithmic specification and computational complexity, so that the linguistic theories devised can be shown to exhibit certain desirable computational properties implementations. Developmental linguistics – study of the development of linguistic ability in individuals the acquisition of language in childhood. Evolutionary linguistics – study of the origin and subsequent development of language by the human species. Historical linguistics – study of language change over time. Called diachronic linguistics.

Language geography – study of the geographical distribution of languages and linguistic features. Neurolinguistics – study of the structures in the human brain that underlie grammar and communication. Psycholinguistics – study of the c

HMS Meteor (1797)

HMS Meteor was the merchant ship Lady Cathcart launched at Leith in 1794. The Royal Navy purchased her in 1797, used her as a gun-brig escorting convoys in the North Sea, sold her in 1802, she returned to mercantile service under her original name and continued to trade along the British coast. She was last listed in 1822. Lady Cathcart entered Lloyd's Register in 1792 with R. Bruce and master, trade Leith–London. In 1797 Lloyd's Register still carried Lady Cathcart with unchanged information. After the onset of war with France Britain's merchant fleet provided French, Dutch privateers with a target-rich environment; the Royal Navy needed escort vessels and a quick fix was to buy existing merchant vessels and man them, deploy them. Between March and April the Admiralty purchased 10 brigs at Lady Cathcart among them; the Royal Navy designated these as GB №__, but gave them names before they sailed. The Royal Navy acquired Lady Cathcart in March 1797 at Leith and commissioned her as GB No.34 that month under the command of Lieutenant Alexander Pearson for the North Sea.

She underwent fitting at Leith between 11 July. She spent her brief naval career escorting convoys. After the Treaty of Amiens ended the war with France, the Admiralty had Meteor come into Sheerness and paid her off; the "Principal Officers and Commissioners of His Majesty's Navy" offered Meteor, of 154 tons, lying at Sheerness, for sale on 24 February 1802. She was sold that month; the Register of Shipping carried Lady Cathacart, of 165 tons, launched at Leith in 1794, from 1802 to 1818. On 20 August 1816 Lloyd's List reported that Lady Cathcart, of Shields, had been sailing from Dundalk to Norway when she was driven on shore and bilged near Lough Swilly; however she continued to trade for another six years. Citations References Winfield, Rif. British Warships in the Age of Sail 1793–1817: Design, Construction and Fates. Seaforth. ISBN 1-86176-246-1

Emma E. Booker Elementary School

Emma E. Booker Elementary School is a public elementary school in Sarasota, which opened in the fall of 1989, it is one of the Booker Schools, with a high school of the same name nearby. It is a part of Sarasota County Schools; the Booker Schools were named for Emma E. Booker, an African-American educator who began teaching at Sarasota County's first black school, Sarasota Grammar School, in 1918. Around that time, Ms. Booker began to take college classes during the summer school break. By 1923, she had become principal of the school, which had no physical building and used rented halls for classes, her students "sat at desks made of orange crates, learning from hand-me-down books discarded from the white schools."Julius Rosenwald, a part-owner of Sears, established the Rosenwald Fund in 1917 to help underfunded African-American schools in the South. Within the first few years of its establishment, the Fund provided the means for the first African-American school in Sarasota, located on 7th Street and Lemon Avenue, as Emma Booker had made the plight of the school known.

The school opened with eight grades during the 1924-25 school year. On opening day, Emma Booker led her teachers and students from the Knights of Pythias rental hall to the new school. After 20 years of summer college attendance, she attained her bachelor's degree in 1937; the Booker Schools were named in her honor in the late 1930s and were expanded to include a high school. When Emma E. Booker Elementary School was named in her honor, the paper said: "Emma Booker perservered encouraging students, underwriting their continued education and pressuring intransigent administrators to provide for blacks the same educational opportunities available to whites."From 1939 to 1989, the Booker Schools all shared a campus at Myrtle Street and Orange Avenue in Sarasota. In 1966, 12 years after the U. S. Supreme Court case Brown vs. Board of Education ended school segregation, there were only 36 African-American students enrolled in the all-white high schools. In 1967, the Sarasota County School Board shut down Booker High School, resulting in the students there having to attend the all-white Sarasota High School.

The Newtown community protested the Booker school closure by boycotting the public schools and sending their children to "freedom schools" at local churches. Booker High School reopened in 1970 and became a Visual and Performing Arts magnet school shortly thereafter; the combined Booker School campus was split into the Emma E. Booker Elementary School in 1989 and to the Booker Middle School in 2003, with the Booker High School being refurbished at the previous location; the school received international attention following a visit by United States President George W. Bush on the morning of September 11, 2001, it was at the school that Bush learned of the second plane crashing into the World Trade Center, where he made his first public comments about the September 11 attacks. The first plane crash at the World Trade Center happened about ten minutes before the president arrived at the school. A press pool photographer heard a radio message that White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer would be needed to answer questions about a "crash" and that there was a call on hold from Condoleezza Rice.

Bush entered the second-grade classroom of Sandra Kay Daniels where he introduced the class to Education Secretary Rod Paige and shook hands with Mrs. Daniels, he and the teacher sat down facing the seated students to read the children's story, The Pet Goat. At about 9:05 a.m. White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card whispered into Bush's ear, "A second plane has hit the second tower. America is under attack." Bush appeared tense but remained seated for seven minutes and continued to listen while the children read in unison through the story, sometimes repeating lines to meet Mrs. Daniels's standards; the reading concluded with the phrase "more to come" and Bush asked the class, "What does that mean -'more to come'?" After a student replied, he praised the students' reading skills and encouraged them to continue practicing, before he excused himself and left the room. According to Bill Sammon in Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism from Inside the White House, Ari Fleischer was in the back of the classroom holding a pad on which he had written, "Don't say anything yet."

Sammon contends that, although Bush was not wearing his glasses, he was able to read this message, it went unnoticed by the media. Sammon further stated: Bush wondered whether he should excuse himself and retreat to the holding room, where he might be able to find out what the hell was going on, but what kind of message would that send—the president abruptly getting up and walking out on a bunch of inner-city second-graders at their moment in the national limelight? Bush was scheduled for a short press conference in the school library after spending about 20 minutes total in the classroom; this was delayed by several minutes. When Bush appeared, he announced, "This is a difficult moment for America," and instead of the planned topic, addressed the country for several minutes about the plane crashes and the government's immediate response, he left the school for Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport. Bush's critics, notably Michael Moore in his film Fahrenheit 9/11, have argued that the fact that Bush continued reading the book after being notified that the attack was ongoing shows that he was indecisive.

A 9/11 Commission Staff Report entitled Improvising a Homeland Defense said: "The President felt he should project strength and calm until he could better understand what was happening."A week Bush wrote to the school's principal, apologizing for not being able to stay longer. Osama bin Laden made reference to the story in an unauthenticated videotaped speech release

It's Now or Never (album)

It's Now or Never is the debut and only studio album by Ukrainian metalcore band Make Me Famous, released in March 2012 through Sumerian Records. The album received mixed reviews. James Shotwell from Under the Gun Review said "Overall, the record is not bad, there are some notable tracks. I just can’t get over the fact that they sound so much like Asking Alexandria, who I love by the way, it somewhat bothers me that they remind me of them so much; when looking for a new band to sink my teeth into I try to look for unique songs, clever lyrics and solid musicianship. I can find some of these elements, this band has great potential, but I’m not sure they have made it there quite yet."Todd Lyons from criticized the album saying "Make Me Famous, with their debut It's Now Or Never, have become famous by igniting high-octane hatred across the metal diaspora. Hundreds of metal blogs Make Me Famous is worse than a hot lead high colonic; this begs the question, are they THAT bad? Yes."Kill Hipsters said that it ripped off Asking Alexandria and panned their song titles saying "You’ve heard it all before from other bands that were around long before Make Me Famous were.

Influences are plentiful on this album. Denis doesn’t make it a secret that the bands he was covering on his YouTube channel he’s ripped off on his bands album. In-fact if you visit Denis’ YouTube channel you can see the wide variety of covers he did of songs from artists like Woe, Is Me, Attack Attack!, Asking Alexandria and more. The fact this album sounds like a direct rip-off of Asking Alexandria and Attack Attack! doesn’t help the situation. The song titles in true cliche style have ridiculous song titles, I thought everyone had moved on from that, but it looks like Denis didn’t get the memo." "It's Now or Never" credits adapted from AllMusic

Black Crusade (role-playing game)

Black Crusade is a role-playing game published in 2011 that uses the Warhammer 40,000 Roleplay system. Black Crusade has a martial focus; the player characters are followers of Chaos. In Black Crusade, players take the role of Chaos-corrupted characters. Black Crusade is the corrupted version of published Warhammer 40,000 roleplaying games. Characters are cast in the role of the villain, with the players working against the human empire and for the forces of Chaos in the sector. Black Crusade - Core Rulebook, including a pre-written adventure The Game Master's Kit - A game master's screen for Black Crusade and a booklet that includes a pre-written adventure, additional NPCs, expanded rules Hand of Corruption - An adventure in three acts for Black Crusade The Tome of Fate - A supplement that focuses on Tzeentch, the Chaos God of Change; the first of four books focusing on the Ruinous Powers The Tome of Blood - A supplement that focuses on Khorne, the Lord of Skulls. The second of four books focusing on the Ruinous Powers The Tome of Excess - A supplement that focuses of Slaanesh, the Prince of Pleasure.

The third of four books focusing on the Ruinous Powers. The Tome of Decay - A supplement that focuses of Grandfather Nurgle, the Master of Plagues; the last of four books focusing on the Ruinous Powers

Guy Hoffman (baseball)

Guy Alan Hoffman is a former Major League Baseball pitcher. He played high school baseball at Marquette High School in Illinois, he graduated from Marquette in 1974. He played all or part of six seasons in the major leagues from 1979 to 1988, chiefly as a reliever. After his MLB career, he played three seasons for the Orix BlueWave in Japan from 1989 until 1991 Hoffman signed with the Chicago White Sox as an undrafted amateur free agent on July 17, 1978, he made his professional debut for the Appleton Foxes of the Midwest league. Hoffman was part of a well stocked pitching staff that included prospects like Britt Burns and LaMarr Hoyt. Hoffman went 2-0 with two saves; the next season, Hoffman was promoted to the Iowa Oaks, a team well stocked as well with future major league talent like Harold Baines, Kevin Bell, Rusty Kuntz, Marv Foley, Thad Bosley. Though the Sparks finished 69-67, Hoffman went 6-0 with a 3.34 E. R. A and 34 strikeouts. Being undefeated over the course of two minor league seasons was good enough for the White Sox to promote Hoffman to the major league roster.

On July 4th, 1979, Hoffman made his MLB debut. Comin on in relief of starting pitcher Ross Baumgarten, Hoffman pitched two innings, giving up one hit, walking two, striking out one in Chicago's 16-4 win over the Cleveland Indians. Though Hoffman allowed the hit that scored Duane Kuiper, Kuiper was still Baumgarten's responsibility. In his first full inning of work, Hoffman struck out Toby Harrah, allowed a hit to Cliff Johnson retired Gary Alexander and Dave Rosello to leave Kuiper stranded. However, the major league experience proved to be a wake up call for Hoffman, who went 0-5, earning the first loses of his professional career, he was sent back to the minors for more seasoning, his career began to have it's up and downs. He appeared in just 11 games for the White Sox in 1983, spending the rest of the season in the minors. At the end of the 1984 season, the White Sox gave Hoffman his outright release. In 1985, he signed with the Chicago Cubs. While Hoffman did get 6 wins versus 2 loses for the Cubs, he still struggled to stay in the majors.

Before spring training of the 1987 season, the Cubs traded Hoffman to the Cincinnati Reds for third baseman Wade Rowdon. At the age of thirty. Hoffman had his most productive season in the majors, going 9-10 and starting 22 games, the most he'd start in the majors. Despite his success, the Reds released Hoffman at the end of the season, the following spring, his signed with the Texas Rangers. Much like with the Cubs, Hoffman only played in a handful of games for Texas. Hoffman appeared in his final MLB game on September 21st, 1988 against the team he made his MLB debut with, the Chicago White Sox. Hoffman just faced two battered before being replaced by Ed Vande Berg; the Rangers lost 6-1. Hoffman went to Japan to play three seasons for the Orix Braves. Hoffman went 20-19 over three seasons before retiring at the age of 34 in 1991. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference