Assemblage is an artistic form or medium created on a defined substrate that consists of three-dimensional elements projecting out of or from the substrate. It is similar to a two-dimensional medium, it is part of the visual arts, it uses found objects, but is not limited to these materials. The origin of the art form dates to the cubist constructions of Pablo Picasso c. 1912–1914. The origin of the word can be traced back to the early 1950s, when Jean Dubuffet created a series of collages of butterfly wings, which he titled assemblages d'empreintes. However, Marcel Duchamp, Pablo Picasso and others had been working with found objects for many years prior to Dubuffet. Russian artist Vladimir Tatlin created his "counter-reliefs" in the mid 1910s. Alongside Tatlin, the earliest woman artist to try her hand at assemblage was Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven, the Dada Baroness. In Paris in the 1920s Alexander Calder, Jose De Creeft and others began making 3-dimensional works from metal scraps, found metal objects and wire.
In the U. S. one of the earliest and most prolific assemblage artists was Louise Nevelson, who began creating her sculptures from found pieces of wood in the late 1930s. In the 1950s and 60s assemblage started to become more known and used. Artists like Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns started using scrappy materials and objects to make anti-aesthetic art sculptures, a big part of the ideas that make assemblage what it is; the painter Armando Reverón is one of the first to use this technique when using disposable materials such as bamboo, wires, or kraft paper. In the thirties he made a skeleton with wings of mucilage, adopting this style years before other artists. Reverón made instruments and set pieces such as a telephone, a sofa, a sewing machine, a piano and music books with their scores. In 1961, the exhibition "The Art of Assemblage" was featured at the New York Museum of Modern Art; the exhibition showcased the work of early 20th-century European artists such as Braque, Marcel Duchamp and Kurt Schwitters alongside Americans Man Ray, Joseph Cornell, Robert Mallary and Robert Rauschenberg, included less well known American West Coast assemblage artists such as George Herms, Bruce Conner and Edward Kienholz.
William C Seitz, the curator of the exhibition, described assemblages as being made up of preformed natural or manufactured materials, objects, or fragments not intended as art materials. Arman, French artist and painter. Hans Bellmer, a German artist known for his life-sized female dolls, produced in the 1930s. Wallace Berman, an American artist known for his verifax collages. André Breton, a French artist, regarded as a principal founder of Surrealism. John Chamberlain, a Chicago artist known for his sculptures of welded pieces of wrecked automobiles. Greg Colson, an American artist known for his wall sculptures of stick maps, constructed paintings, solar systems and intersections. Joseph Cornell, who lived in New York City, is known for his delicate boxes glass-fronted, in which he arranged surprising collections of objects, images of renaissance paintings and old photographs. Many of his boxes, such as the famous Medici Slot Machine boxes, are interactive and are meant to be handled. Rosalie Gascoigne, a New Zealand-born Australian sculptor.
Raoul Hausmann, an Austrian artist and writer and a key figure in Berlin Dada, his most famous work is the assemblage Der Geist Unserer Zeit – Mechanischer Kopf, c. 1920. Romuald Hazoumé, a contemporary artist from the Republic of Bénin, who exhibits in Europe and the U. K. George Herms, an American artist known for his assemblages, works on papers, theater pieces. Louis Hirshman, a Philadelphia artist known for his use of 3D materials on flat substrates for caricatures of the famous, as well as for collages and assemblages of everyday life and surreal scenes. Robert H. Hudson, an American artist. Jasper Johns, an American Pop artist, painter and sculptor. Edward Kienholz, an American artist who collaborated with his wife, Nancy Reddin Kienholz, creating free-standing, large-scale "tableaux" or scenes of modern life such as the Beanery, complete with models of persons, made of discarded objects. Lubo Kristek, a Czech artist known for his critical assemblages of bones, material cast out by the sea and mobile phones.
Jean-Jacques Lebel, in 1994 installed a large assemblage entitled Monument à Félix Guattari in the Forum of the Centre Pompidou. Janice Lowry, American artist known for biographical art in the form of assemblage, artist books, journals, which combined found objects and materials with writings and sketches. Ondrej Mares, a Czech-Australian artist and sculptor best known for his'Kachina' figures – a series of works. Markus Meurer, a German artist, known for his sculptures from found objects Louise Nevelson, an American artist, known for her abstract expressionist "boxes" grouped together to form a new creation, she used found objects or everyday discarded things in her "assemblages" or assemblies, one of, three stories high. Minoru Ohira, a Japanese-born artist. Meret Oppenheim, a German-born Swiss artist, identified with the Surrealist movement. Wolfgang Paalen, an Austrian-German-Mexican surrealist artist and theorist, founder of the magazine DYN and known for several assembled objects, f.e. Nuage articulé Robert Rauschenberg
In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art, which has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork. The five main fine arts were painting, architecture and poetry, with performing arts including theatre and dance; the old master print and drawing were included as related forms to painting, just as prose forms of literature were to poetry. Today, the range of what would be considered fine arts includes additional modern forms, such as film, video production/editing and conceptual art. One definition of fine art is "a visual art considered to have been created for aesthetic and intellectual purposes and judged for its beauty and meaningfulness painting, drawing, watercolor and architecture." In that sense, there are conceptual differences between the applied arts. As conceived, as understood for much of the modern era, the perception of aesthetic qualities required a refined judgment referred to as having good taste, which differentiated fine art from popular art and entertainment.
The word "fine" does not so much denote the quality of the artwork in question, but the purity of the discipline according to traditional Western European canons. Except in the case of architecture, where a practical utility was accepted, this definition excluded the "useful" applied or decorative arts, the products of what were regarded as crafts. In contemporary practice these distinctions and restrictions have become meaningless, as the concept or intention of the artist is given primacy, regardless of the means through which this is expressed. According to some writers the concept of a distinct category of fine art is an invention of the early modern period in the West. Larry Shiner in his The Invention of Art: A Cultural History locates the invention in the 18th century: "There was a traditional “system of the arts” in the West before the eighteenth century. In that system, an artist or artisan was a skilled maker or practitioner, a work of art was the useful product of skilled work, the appreciation of the arts was integrally connected with their role in the rest of life.
“Art”, in other words, meant the same thing as the Greek word techne, or in English “skill”, a sense that has survived in phrases like “the art of war”, “the art of love”, “the art of medicine.” Similar ideas have been expressed by Paul Oskar Kristeller, Pierre Bourdieu, Terry Eagleton, though the point of invention is placed earlier, in the Italian Renaissance. The decline of the concept of "fine art" is dated by George Kubler and others to around 1880, when it "fell out of fashion" as, by about 1900, folk art came to be regarded as of equal significance. ""fine art" was driven out of use by about 1920 by the exponents of industrial design... who opposed a double standard of judgment for works of art and for useful objects". This was among theoreticians; the separation of arts and crafts that exists in Europe and the US is not shared by all other cultures. In Japanese aesthetics, the activities of everyday life are depicted by integrating not only art with craft but man-made with nature. Traditional Chinese art distinguished within Chinese painting between the landscape literati painting of scholar gentlemen and the artisans of the schools of court painting and sculpture.
A high status was given to many things that would be seen as craft objects in the West, in particular ceramics, jade carving and embroidery. Latin American art was dominated by European colonialism until the 20th-century, when indigenous art began to reassert itself inspired by the Constructivist Movement, which reunited arts with crafts based upon socialist principles. In Africa, Yoruba art has a political and spiritual function; as with the art of the Chinese, the art of the Yoruba is often composed of what would ordinarily be considered in the West to be craft production. Some of its most admired manifestations, such as sculpture and textiles, fall in this category. Drawing is one of the major forms of the visual arts. Common instruments include: graphite pencils and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, charcoals, pastels, stylus, or various metals like silverpoint. There are a number including cartooning and creating comics. There remains debate whether the following is considered a part of “drawing” as “fine art”: "doodling", drawing in the fog a shower and leaving an imprint on the bathroom mirror, or the surrealist method of "entopic graphomania", in which dots are made at the sites of impurities in a blank sheet of paper, the lines are made between the dots.
Mosaics are images formed with small pieces of glass, called tesserae. They can be functional. An artist who designs and makes mosaics is called a mosaicist. Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing on paper. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, called a print; each print is considered an original, as opposed to a copy. The reasoning behind this is that the print is not a reproduction of another work of art in a different medium — for instance, a painting — but rather an image designed from inception as a print. An individual print is referred to as an impression. Prints ar
Work of art
A work of art, art piece, piece of art or art object is an aesthetic physical item or artistic creation. Apart from "work of art", which may be used of any work regarded as art in its widest sense, including works from literature and music, these terms apply principally to tangible, portable forms of visual art: An example of fine art, such as a painting or sculpture An object, designed for its aesthetic appeal, such as a piece of jewellery An object, designed for aesthetic appeal as well as functional purpose, as in interior design and much folk art An object created for principally or functional, religious or other non-aesthetic reasons which has come to be appreciated as art A non-ephemeral photograph, film or visual computer program, such as a video game or computer animation A work of installation art or conceptual art. Used more broadly, the term is less applied to: A fine work of architecture or landscape design A production of live performance, such as theater, opera, performance art, musical concert and other performing arts, other ephemeral, non-tangible creations.
This article is concerned with the terms and concept as used in and applied to the visual arts, although other fields such as aural-music and written word-literature have similar issues and philosophies. The term objet d'art is reserved to describe works of art that are not paintings, drawings or large or medium-sized sculptures, or architecture; the term oeuvre is used to describe the complete body of work completed by an artist throughout a career. A work of art in the visual arts is a physical two- or three- dimensional object, professionally determined or otherwise considered to fulfill a independent aesthetic function. A singular art object is seen in the context of a larger art movement or artistic era, such as: a genre, aesthetic convention, culture, or regional-national distinction, it can be seen as an item within an artist's "body of work" or oeuvre. The term is used by: museum and cultural heritage curators, the interested public, the art patron-private art collector community, art galleries.
Physical objects that document immaterial or conceptual art works, but do not conform to artistic conventions can be redefined and reclassified as art objects. Some Dada and Neo-Dada conceptual and readymade works have received inclusion; some architectural renderings and models of unbuilt projects, such as by Vitruvius, Leonardo da Vinci, Frank Lloyd Wright, Frank Gehry, are other examples. The products of environmental design, depending on intention and execution, can be "works of art" and include: land art, site-specific art, gardens, landscape architecture, installation art, rock art, megalithic monuments. Legal definitions of "work of art" are used in copyright law. Marcel Duchamp critiqued the idea that the work of art should be a unique product of an artist's labour, representational of their technical skill or artistic caprice. Theorists have argued that objects and people do not have a constant meaning, but their meanings are fashioned by humans in the context of their culture, as they have the ability to make things mean or signify something.
Artist Michael Craig-Martin, creator of An Oak Tree, said of his work – "It's not a symbol. I have changed the physical substance of the glass of water into that of an oak tree. I didn't change its appearance; the actual oak tree is physically present, but in the form of a glass of water." Some art theorists and writers have long made a distinction between the physical qualities of an art object and its identity-status as an artwork. For example, a painting by Rembrandt has a physical existence as an "oil painting on canvas", separate from its identity as a masterpiece "work of art" or the artist's magnum opus. Many works of art are denied "museum quality" or artistic merit, become accepted and valued in museum and private collections. Works by the Impressionists and non-representational abstract artists are examples. Some, such as the "Readymades" of Marcel Duchamp including his infamous urinal Fountain, are reproduced as museum quality replicas. There is an indefinite distinction, for current or historical aesthetic items: between "fine art" objects made by "artists".
Contemporary and archeological indigenous art, industrial design items in limited or mass production, places created by environmental designers and cultural landscapes, are some examples. The term has been available for debate and redefinition. Anti-art Artistic media Cultural artifact Opus number Outline of aesthetics The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction Western canon Richard Wollheim and Its Objects, 2nd ed. 1980, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-29706-0. The classic philosophical enquiry into what a work of art is. Media related to Art at Wikimedia Commons
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks and teeth of animals, that consists of dentine, one of the physical structures of teeth and tusks. The chemical structure of the teeth and tusks of mammals is the same, regardless of the species of origin; the trade in certain teeth and tusks other than elephant is widespread. It has been valued since ancient times in art or manufacturing for making a range of items from ivory carvings to false teeth, fans and joint tubes. Elephant ivory is the most important source, but ivory from mammoth, hippopotamus, sperm whale, killer whale and wart hog are used as well. Elk have two ivory teeth, which are believed to be the remnants of tusks from their ancestors; the national and international trade in ivory of threatened species such as African and Asian elephants is illegal. The word ivory derives from the ancient Egyptian âb, âbu, through the Latin ebor- or ebur. Both the Greek and Roman civilizations practiced ivory carving to make large quantities of high value works of art, precious religious objects, decorative boxes for costly objects.
Ivory was used to form the white of the eyes of statues. There is some evidence of either walrus ivory used by the ancient Irish. Solinus, a Roman writer in the 3rd century claimed that the Celtic peoples in Ireland would decorate their sword-hilts with the'teeth of beasts that swim in the sea'. Adomnan of Iona wrote a story about St Columba giving a sword decorated with carved ivory as a gift that a penitent would bring to his master so he could redeem himself from slavery; the Syrian and North African elephant populations were reduced to extinction due to the demand for ivory in the Classical world. The Chinese have long valued ivory for utilitarian objects. Early reference to the Chinese export of ivory is recorded after the Chinese explorer Zhang Qian ventured to the west to form alliances to enable the eventual free movement of Chinese goods to the west. Southeast Asian kingdoms included tusks of the Indian elephant in their annual tribute caravans to China. Chinese craftsmen carved ivory to make everything from images of deities to the pipe stems and end pieces of opium pipes.
The Buddhist cultures of Southeast Asia, including Myanmar, Thailand and Cambodia, traditionally harvested ivory from their domesticated elephants. Ivory was prized for containers due to its ability to keep an airtight seal, it was commonly carved into elaborate seals utilized by officials to "sign" documents and decrees by stamping them with their unique official seal. In Southeast Asian countries, where Muslim Malay peoples live, such as Malaysia and the Philippines, ivory was the material of choice for making the handles of kris daggers. In the Philippines, ivory was used to craft the faces and hands of Catholic icons and images of saints prevalent in the Santero culture. Tooth and tusk ivory can be carved into a vast variety of objects. Examples of modern carved ivory objects are okimono, jewelry, flatware handles, furniture inlays, piano keys. Additionally, warthog tusks, teeth from sperm whales and hippos can be scrimshawed or superficially carved, thus retaining their morphologically recognizable shapes.
Ivory usage in the last thirty years has moved towards mass production of souvenirs and jewelry. In Japan, the increase in wealth sparked consumption of solid ivory hanko – name seals – which before this time had been made of wood; these hanko can be carved out in a matter of seconds using machinery and were responsible for massive African elephant decline in the 1980s, when the African elephant population went from 1.3 million to around 600,000 in ten years. Prior to the introduction of plastics, ivory had many ornamental and practical uses because of the white color it presents when processed, it was used to make cutlery handles, billiard balls, piano keys, Scottish bagpipes, buttons and a wide range of ornamental items. Synthetic substitutes for ivory in the use of most of these items have been developed since 1800: the billiard industry challenged inventors to come up with an alternative material that could be manufactured. Ivory can be taken from dead animals – however, most ivory came from elephants that were killed for their tusks.
For example, in 1930 to acquire 40 tons of ivory required the killing of 700 elephants. Other animals which are now endangered were preyed upon, for example, which have hard white ivory prized for making artificial teeth. In the first half of the 20th century, Kenyan elephant herds were devastated because of demand for ivory, to be used for piano keys. During the Art Deco era from 1912 to 1940, dozens of European artists used ivory in the production of chryselephantine statues. Two of the most frequent users of ivory in their sculptured artworks were Ferdinand Preiss and Claire Colinet. Owing to the rapid decline in the populations of the animals that produce it, the importation and sale of ivory in many countries is banned or restricted. In the ten years preceding a decision in 1989 by CITES to ban international trade in African elephant ivory, the population of African elephants declined from 1.3 million to around 600,000. It was found by investigators from the Environmental Investigation Agency that CITES sales of stockpiles from Singapore and
The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, painting, printmaking, crafts, video and architecture. Many artistic disciplines involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Included within the visual arts are the applied arts such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art. Current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term'artist' was restricted to a person working in the fine arts and not the handicraft, craft, or applied art media; the distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement, who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms. Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts, maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of the arts; the increasing tendency to privilege painting, to a lesser degree sculpture, above other arts has been a feature of Western art as well as East Asian art.
In both regions painting has been seen as relying to the highest degree on the imagination of the artist, the furthest removed from manual labour – in Chinese painting the most valued styles were those of "scholar-painting", at least in theory practiced by gentleman amateurs. The Western hierarchy of genres reflected similar attitudes. Training in the visual arts has been through variations of the apprentice and workshop systems. In Europe the Renaissance movement to increase the prestige of the artist led to the academy system for training artists, today most of the people who are pursuing a career in arts train in art schools at tertiary levels. Visual arts have now become an elective subject in most education systems. Drawing is a means of using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques, it involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface using dry media such as graphite pencils and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, charcoals and markers.
Digital tools that simulate the effects of these are used. The main techniques used in drawing are: line drawing, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling and blending. An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draughtsman. Drawing goes back at least 16,000 years to Paleolithic cave representations of animals such as those at Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain. In ancient Egypt, ink drawings on papyrus depicting people, were used as models for painting or sculpture. Drawings on Greek vases geometric developed to the human form with black-figure pottery during the 7th century BC. With paper becoming common in Europe by the 15th century, drawing was adopted by masters such as Sandro Botticelli, Raphael and Leonardo da Vinci who sometimes treated drawing as an art in its own right rather than a preparatory stage for painting or sculpture. Painting taken is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier and a binding agent to a surface such as paper, canvas or a wall. However, when used in an artistic sense it means the use of this activity in combination with drawing, composition, or other aesthetic considerations in order to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner.
Painting is used to express spiritual motifs and ideas. Like drawing, painting has its documented origins on rock faces; the finest examples, believed by some to be 32,000 years old, are in the Chauvet and Lascaux caves in southern France. In shades of red, brown and black, the paintings on the walls and ceilings are of bison, cattle and deer. Paintings of human figures can be found in the tombs of ancient Egypt. In the great temple of Ramses II, his queen, is depicted being led by Isis; the Greeks much of their work has been lost. One of the best remaining representations are the Hellenistic Fayum mummy portraits. Another example is mosaic of the Battle of Issus at Pompeii, based on a Greek painting. Greek and Roman art contributed to Byzantine art in the 4th century BC, which initiated a tradition in icon painting. Apart from the illuminated manuscripts produced by monks during the Middle Ages, the next significant contribution to European art was from Italy's renaissance painters. From Giotto in the 13th century to Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael at the beginning of the 16th century, this was the richest period in Italian art as the chiaroscuro techniques were used to create the illusion of 3-D space.
Painters in northern Europe too were influenced by the Italian school. Jan van Eyck from Belgium, Pieter Bruegel the Elder from the Netherlands and Hans Holbein the Younger from Germany are among the most successful painters of the times, they used the glazing technique with oils to achieve luminosity. The 17th century witnessed the emergence of the great Dutch masters such as the versatile Rembrandt, remembered for his portraits and Bible scenes, Vermeer who specialized in interior scenes of Dutch life; the Baroque started from the late 16th century to the late 17th century. Main artists of the Baroque included Caravaggio. Peter Paul Rubens was a flemish painter who studied in Italy, work