Outline of underwater diving

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to underwater diving:

 Two divers wearing lightweight demand helmets stand back-to-back on an underwater platform holding on to the railings. The photo also shows the support vessel above the surface in the background.
Surface-supplied divers riding a stage to the underwater workplace

Underwater diving – as a human activity, is the practice of descending below the water's surface to interact with the environment.


What type of thing is underwater diving?[edit]

Underwater diving can be described as all of the following:

  • A human activity – intentional, purposive, conscious and subjectively meaningful sequence of actions. Underwater diving is practiced as part of an occupation, or for recreation, where the practitioner submerges below the surface of the water or other liquid for a period which may range between seconds to the order of a day at a time, either exposed to the ambient pressure or isolated by a pressure resistant suit, to interact with the underwater environment for pleasure, competitive sport, or as a means to reach a work site for profit or in the pursuit of knowledge, and may use no equipment at all, or a wide range of equipment which may include breathing apparatus, environmental protective clothing, aids to vision, communication, propulsion, maneuverability, buoyancy and safety equipment, and tools for the task at hand.

Diving activity, by type[edit]

Diving procedures[edit]

Technical divers at a midwater decompression stop
Divers decompressing in the water at the end of a dive
Divers doing a buddy check
Sidemount diver pushing a cylinder in front
Solo diver surveying dive site. The bailout cylinder can be seen slung at the diver's left side

Modes of underwater diving[edit]

Surface-supplied diver with helmet, bailout set and umbilcal cable

There are several modes of diving distinguished by the equipment and procedures used:

  • Freediving – underwater diving without breathing apparatus
  • Scuba diving – diving while breathing from self-contained underwater breathing apparatus
  • Surface-supplied diving – underwater diving breathing gas supplied from the surface
  • Saturation diving – diving for periods long enough to bring all tissues into equilibrium with the partial pressures of the inert components of the breathing gas
  • Atmospheric pressure diving (currently represented by Atmospheric diving suit) – diving where the diver is isolated from the ambient pressure by an articulated pressure resistant diving suit.
  • Unmanned diving – diving by mechanisms under the direct or indirect control of remote human operators for observation, data collection or manipulation of the environment using on-board actuator devices.

Underwater diving, by environment[edit]

Ice Diving - View from the top

Occupational diving[edit]

Diver wearing a diving helmet is welding a repair patch on a submarine
Underwater welding.
NAUI Nitrox diver certification card
Pearl diver in Japan
Nesconset fire department scuba rescue team on training exercise
Salvaging a ship's propeller
Diver wearing a diving helmet is sanding a repair patch on a submarine
A diver at work on hull maintenance
Sponge diver putting on his diving suit in Tarpon Springs, Florida.

Recreational diving[edit]

Diver returning from a 600 ft (183 m) technical dive
Two underwater hockey players competing for the puck
Underwater photograper
Divers on the wreck of the Zenobia

Diving and support equipment, tools and weapons[edit]

Small high=pressure breathing air compressor
A small scuba filling and blending station supplied by a compressor and storage bank
 Hydrospace Explorer Trimix and rebreather dive computer. Suunto Mosquito with aftermarket strap and iDive DAN recreational dive computers
Three representative wrist-mount dive computers
International code flag Alpha indicates that a diver is underwater nearby
A closed bell used for saturation diving
Lifting bag used to move a heavy object underwater
The Newtsuit atmospheric diving suit
US Navy Diver using Kirby Morgan 37 diving helmet
Helmeted diver entering the water. He has a back mounted Draeger DM40 rebreather system in addition to the surface supply air hose
Scuba diver with bifocal lenses in half mask
A diver wearing an Ocean Reef full face mask
U.S. Navy divers in dry suits prepare to dive
Two men operating a rotary diver's air pump

Diving and support equipment[edit]

Underwater tools and weapons[edit]

Soviet SPP-1 underwater pistol
Airlift dredging
ROV at work in an underwater oil and gas field. The ROV is operating a subsea torque tool (wrench) on a valve on the subsea structure.

Science of underwater diving[edit]

Physics of underwater diving[edit]

Views through a flat mask, above and below water
  • Physics of underwater diving – Aspects of physics which affect the underwater diver
    • Buoyancy – Upward force that opposes the weight of an object immersed in fluid
    • Diffusion – A statistical movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
      • Molecular diffusion – The thermal motion of liquid or gas particles at temperatures above absolute zero
      • Permeation – The penetration of a liquid, gas, or vapor through a solid
    • Force – Any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object
      • Weight – The force on an object due to gravity
    • Ideal gas law – The equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas
      • Combined gas law – An ideal gas law combining Charles's law, Boyle's law, and Gay-Lussac's law
      • Amontons' law – The relationship of pressure to temperature in a fixed volume of gas
      • Boyle's law – The relationship between pressure and volume in a gas at constant temperature
      • Charles's law – The relationship between volume and temperature of a gas at constant pressure
      • Gay-Lussac's law – Any one of several discoveries about thermal expansion of gases and the relationship between temperature, volume and pressure
    • Pressure – Force distributed perpendicularly over an area
    • Psychrometric constant – The relation of the partial pressure of water in air to temperature
    • Solubility – The capacity of a specific solvent to hold a specific solute in solution in specified conditions
      • Henry's law – The relation of equilibrium solubility of a gas in a liquid to its partial pressure in the contacting gas phase
      • Solution – A homogeneous mixture which assumes the phase of the solvent
      • Supersaturation – The state of a solution that contains more solute than can be dissolved at equilibrium
    • Surface tension – The tendency of a liquid surface to shrink to reduce surface area
      • Hydrophobe – A molecule or surface that has no attraction to water
      • Surfactant – A substance that lowers the surface tension between a liquid and another material
    • Underwater vision – The effects of the underwater environment on (human) vision
      • Snell's law alias Law of refraction – The relation between the angles of incidence and refraction of waves crossing the interface between isotropic media
    • Work of breathing (WOB) – The energy expended to inhale and exhale a breathing gas

The diving environment[edit]

Plunging breaker
Lago Licancabur, site of world's highest ever altitude dive.

Physiology of underwater diving[edit]

Diagram of the human circulatory system
Decompression profiles based on the Thermodynamic model compared with the US Navy table for the same depth and bottom time
Diagram of the human respiratory system

Diving medicine, disorders and treatment[edit]

Oxygen therapy in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber is often delivered via built in breathing systems.
Monoplace chambers can be used for hyperbaric oxygen therapy if the patient is stable

Diving medicine[edit]

Diving disorders and treatment[edit]

Mask squeeze - a mild form of barotrauma
Staged image showing how victims may black out quietly underwater, often going unnoticed.

Diving safety related articles[edit]

A dive team listens to a safety brief from their dive supervisor
Early testing for oxygen toxicity in divers
Tags in place in a powerplant after it was shut down
Folding lockout hasp, allowing six padlocks to lock out one device.
Checklists reduce the risk of omitting a step in a procedure

Diving safety[edit]

Notable diving incidents and fatalities[edit]

The decompression chamber at the moment the Byford Dolphin accident occurred. D1–D4 are divers; T1 and T2 are dive tenders.

Legal aspects of diving[edit]

Geography of diving[edit]

Recreational dive sites[edit]

Poor Knights Islands
Satellite image of part of the Great Barrier Reef
Wreck of the Fujikawa Maru
USNS Vandenberg in 2015.
Wreck of the RMSRhone
The wreck of the tugboat MV Rozi rests on the seabed at 35 meters
The wreck of Salem Express in 2010, 19 years after she sank.
Bow of the Spiegel Grove
Anti-aircraft gun on the stern of the Thistlegorm
Deck of the Um Al Faroud
Entrance to the cave system at Dos Ojos
Diving at Piccaninnie ponds
Diving at Stoney Cove
  • Recreational dive sites – specific places that recreational divers go to enjoy the underwater environment or are used for training purposes

Reef dive sites[edit]

Cave dive sites[edit]

Freshwater dive sites[edit]

Diver training sites[edit]

Wreck dive sites[edit]

  • Wreck diving regions
  • Wreck sites
    • HMS A1 – The Royal Navy's first British-designed submarine
    • HMS A3 – A-class submarine of the Royal Navy
    • USS Aaron Ward – Gleaves-class destroyer of the United States Navy
    • Abessinia – German ship wrecked at the Farne Islands in 1921. Now a dive site
    • Aeolian Sky – Greek registered freighter sunk off Dorset after a collision
    • Albert C. Field – Canadian cargo ship, sunk off the Needles during World War II
    • SS America – Steam packet wrecked off Isle Royale in Lake Superior
    • Andrea Doria – Genoa registered passenger liner of the Italian line sunk after a collision off Massachusetts
    • Antilla – Hamburg America Line cargo ship scuttled in 1940 off Aruba
    • Antilles – French cruise ship that ran aground and sank off Mustique
    • Aquila – British built cargo ship sunk off Ambon
    • HMS Boadicea – B-class destroyer of the Royal Navy, sunk by enemy action in Lyme Bay
    • Bianca C – Passenger ship sunk off Grenada
    • Booya – Three masted steel schooner wrecked in Darwin, Australia
    • Breda – Dutch ship sunk off Scotland in 1940, now a recreational dive site.
    • HMAS Brisbane – Perth-class guided missile destroyer of the Royal Australian Navy sunk as a dive site off the Queensland coast
    • Bungsberg – German cargo ship sunk near Tallinn, Estonia
    • HMAS Canberra – Adelaide class guided missile frigate of the Royal Australian Navy scuttled as dive site off Barwon Heads, Victoria
    • Carl D. Bradley – Self-unloading Great Lakes freighter that sank in a Lake Michigan storm
    • Carnatic – British steamship wrecked in the gulf of Suez
    • SS Cedarville – Great lakes bulk carrier wrecked in a collision
    • SMS Dresden – German light cruiser scuttled in Scapa Flow
    • Dunraven – British cargo vessel wrecked in the Gulf of Suez
    • Eastfield – Ship sunk off Cornwall 1n 1917, now a dive site
    • HMT Elk – British trawler sunk off Plymouth in 1940, now a recreational dive site.
    • Ellengowan – Schooner rigged single screw steamer which sank at moorings in Darwin, Australia
    • RMS Empress of Ireland – Ocean liner which sank near the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River after a collision
    • HMS Falmouth – Town-class light cruiser of the Royal Navy sunk off Flamborough Head, Yorkshire by German submarines
    • Fifi – Tugboat that caught fire and sank in Bahrain
    • SS Francisco Morazan – German built cago ship wrecked in Lake Michigan
    • Fujikawa Maru – Japanese armed transport ship sunk in Truk lagoon
    • Japanese destroyer Fumizuki (1925) – Mutsuki-class destroyer of the Imperial Japanese Navy sunk at Truk
    • USNS General Hoyt S. Vandenberg – US Navy transport ship sunk as artificial reef at Key West
    • HMS Ghurka – Tribal-class destroyer of the Royal Navy sunk off Dungeness by a German mine
    • Glen Strathallan –British ship scuttled in Plymouth sound as a dive site
    • Gothenburg – British steamship wrecked on the Great Barrier Reef
    • Herzogin Cecilie – German-built four-masted barque wrecked near Salcombe
    • Hilma Hooker – Shipwreck in Bonaire in the Caribbean Netherlands
    • Hispania – Swedish steamship wrecked in the Sound of Mull, now a dive site
    • HMS Hood – Royal Sovereign-class battleship of the Royal Navy scuttled in Portland Harbour
    • HMAS Hobart – Guided missile destroyer of the Royal Australian Navy scuttled off Yankalilla Bay
    • Igara – Bulk carrier wrecked off the east coast of Malaysia and partly salvaged
    • James Eagan Layne – Liberty ship sunk off Cornwall, now a dive site
    • Captain Keith Tibbetts – Former Cuban Navy Koni II-class frigate scuttled in shallow water in Cayman Brac
    • King Cruiser – Car ferry of that sank off the West Coast of Southern Thailand
    • SMS Kronprinz – German battleship scuttled in Scapa Flow
    • Kyarra – Cargo and passenger luxury liner torpedoed and sunk near Swanage
    • HMS Laforey – Royal Navy destroyer sunk by a mine off Sussex
    • USAT Liberty – United States Army cargo ship torpedoed by Japanese submarine and beached on the island of Bali.
    • Louis Sheid – Belgian ship sunk off Devon on 1939. Now a recreational dive site
    • USS LST-507 – US Tank landing ship sunk off the south coast of England, now a dive site
    • SMS Markgraf – German battleship scuttled in Scapa Flow
    • Mikhail Lermontov – Soviet cruise liner wrecked in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand
    • HMS M2 – Royal Navy submarine monitor wrecked in Lyme Bay
    • Maine – British ship sunk in 1917 near Dartmouth, Devon. Now a recreational dive site
    • Maloja – UK registered passenger steamship sunk by a mine off Dover
    • HMS Maori – Royal Navy Tribal class destroyer sunk in Malta
    • Marguerite – French ship sunk in Lyme Bay in 1917. Now a dive site
    • SS Mauna Loa – Cargo steam-ship sunk in the bombing of Darwin
    • USAT Meigs – United States Army transport ship sunk in Darwin Harbour
    • Mendi – Passenger steamship that sank after a collision south of the Isle of Wight
    • SS Milwaukee – Great lakes train ferry that foundered in a storm
    • USCGC Mohawk – US Coastguard cutter sunk as artificial reef off south-west Florida
    • Mohegan – Steamer wrecked off the coast of the Lizard Peninsula, Cornwall
    • RMS Moldavia – British ship sunk in 1918 off Beachy Head, now a dive site
    • HMS Montagu – Pre-dreadnought battleship of the British Royal Navy wrecked on Lundy Island
    • MV RMS Mulheim – German owned container ship wrecked at Land's End, United Kingdom
    • Nagato – Super-dreadnought sunk by nuclear test in Bikini atoll
    • Oceana – Cargo and passenger ship sunk off Beachy Head after a collision
    • USS Oriskany – Cargo and passenger ship sunk off Beachy Head after a collision
    • Oslofjord – Ocean liner sunk after hitting a mine off the River Tyne
    • Maltese patrol boat P29 – Ship scuttled as dive site off Malta
    • Maltese patrol boat P31 – Minesweeper/patrol boat scuttled for use as a recreational dive site
    • Pedernales – Lake tanker damaged by a torpedo at Arubs, where part of the ship remains
    • Persier – British ship sunk in Plymouth Sound in 1945. Now a dive site
    • HMAS Perth – Guided missile destroyer of the Australian Navy, sunk as a dive site off Western Australia
    • Piłsudski – Polish passenger ship sunk off the Yorkshire coast
    • Pool Fisher – British merchant vessel that sank off the Isle of Wight
    • HMS Port Napier – Royal Navy minelayer destroyed in Loch Alsh, Scotland, by an explosion following an engine room fire
    • Preußen – German steel-hulled five-masted ship-rigged windjammer sunk in Crab Bay after a collision
    • President Coolidge – American ocean liner sunk by mines in the New Hebrides
    • PS Queen Victoria – Paddle steamer wrecked off the Baily Lighthouse, Ireland
    • Radaas – Ship sunk in 1917 near Portland Bill, now a dive site
    • Rainbow Warrior – Greenpeace vessel bombed by French intelligence service operatives in Auckland harbour, refloated and scuttled as a dive site
    • SS Regina – Steel ship that foundered in Lake Huron in a storm
    • RMS Rhone – Royal Mail Ship wrecked off Salt Island in the British Virgin Islands in a hurricane
    • Rondo – Ship sunk in Sound of Mull in 1935, now a recreational dive site
    • Rosehill – Steam collier torpedoed and sunk near Fowey, Cornwall
    • Royal Adelaide – Iron sailing ship wrecked on Chesil Beach
    • Royal Charter – Steam clipper wrecked off Porth Alerth on the coast of Anglesey
    • Rozi – Tugboat scuttled as a dive site off Malta
    • HMS Safari – Royal Navy S-class submarine sunk in the English Channel while on tow to shipbreakers
    • Salem Express – Car and passenger ferry wrecked off the Egyptian coast
    • USS Saratoga – US Navy aircraft carrier sunk by nuclear weapon testing at Bikini atoll
    • USS Scuffle – Admirable class minesweeper sunk as an artificial reef off Cozumel
    • HMS Scylla – Royal Navy frigate sunk as artificial reef off Whitsand Bay, Cornwall
    • HMS Sidon – Royal Navy submarine sunk in Portland Harbour by explosion of a faulty torpedo
    • USS Spiegel Grove – US Navy dock landing ship sunk off Key Largo as an artificial reef
    • Stanegarth – Steam tugboat scuttled as a dive feature at Stoney Cove
    • Stanwood – British ship sunk off Falmouth in 1939, now a recreational dive site
    • Stella – Passenger ferry wrecked off the Casquets
    • HMAS Swan – Australian "River" class destroyer sunk as a dive site off the coast of Dunsborough, Western Australia
    • USS Tarpon – US Navy Submarine which foundered south of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, while under tow to the scrap yard.
    • Thesis – Steamship wrecked in 1889 in the Sound of Mull, Scotland. Now a recreational dive site.
    • Thistlegorm – British armed merchantman sunk in the Red Sea at Ras Muhammad
    • Toa Maru – Japanese transport ship sunk by a submatine off Gizo, Solomon Islands
    • Torrey Canyon – Suezmax Class oil tanker wrecked off the western coast of Cornwall
    • U-40 – German submarine sunk by a mine in the English Channel
    • U-352 – German submarine sunk by depth charges south of Morehead City, North Carolina
    • U-1195 – German submarine sunk by antisubmarine mortar to the southeast of the Isle of Wight
    • Um El Faroud – Libyan owned tanker scuttled as dive site off Malta
    • Varvassi – Greek freighter wrecked at The Needles in a storm after engine failure
    • SS Vienna – Steamship sunk after a collision in Lake Superior
    • Walter L M Russ – German freighter wrecked in St George's Channel
    • Washingtonian (1913) – American freighter that sank off Delaware after a collision
    • HMNZS Wellington – Leander class frigate sunk as artificial reef off Wellington, New Zealand
    • USS Yancey – Andromeda-class attack cargo ship sunk as an artificial reef off North Carolina
    • Yongala – Australian registered passenger ship that sank off Cape Bowling Green, Queensland, Australia
    • Zenobia – RO-RO ferry that capsized and sank near Larnaca, Cyprus
    • Zealandia – Australian cargo and passenger steamship sunk in the bombing of Darwin
    • Zingara – Cargo vessel wrecked in the Straits of Tiran in the Red Sea

Notable underwater salvage operations[edit]

Salvage of Royal George

Frogman operations[edit]

Italian Maiale manned torpedo "Siluro San Bartolomeo" displayed at the Royal Navy Submarine Museum, Gosport, UK.

History of underwater diving[edit]

Siebe's improved design in 1873.

History of underwater diving – the history of the practice of descending below the water's surface to interact with the environment

Diver training, certification, registration and standards[edit]

Commercial diver training at Blue Rock Quarry

Diver training[edit]

Diver certification organisations[edit]

Organisations setting international standards and codes of practice for diving and diver training[edit]

Underwater diving organisations[edit]

Diver membership organisations[edit]

Diver membership organisations

Diver nature conservation organisations[edit]

Diving industry trade associations[edit]

Underwater environmental research organisations[edit]

Diving medical research organisations[edit]

Underwater diving publications[edit]

Books and manuals[edit]

Codes of practice[edit]

(National or international codes of practice for diving)


(National or international standards relating to diving equipment or practices)

  • EN 14143-2003 – Respiratory equipment - Self-contained re-breathing diving apparatus

Journals and magazines[edit]

Recreational dive site guides[edit]

(Notable dive site guides with Wikipedia article)

Persons influential in underwater diving[edit]

Researchers in diving medicine and physiology[edit]

John Scott Haldane c. 1910
Paul Bert


Scott Carpenter
Sylvia Earle displays samples to aquanaut inside TEKTITE
Albert Falco in 2011
Michael Gernhardt
Karen Kohanowich
Sunita Williams

Pioneers of diving[edit]

Jacques Cousteau
  • James F. Cahill – American scuba diving industry pioneer
  • Alphonse and Théodore Carmagnolle – French inventors of the first anthropomorphic armoured diving suit
  • Charles Condert – Inventor of an unsuccessful early scuba system
  • Jacques Cousteau – French inventor of open circuit scuba, pioneer diver, author, film-maker and marine researcher
  • Charles Anthony Deane – Pioneering diving engineer and inventor of a surface supplied diving helmet
  • Guglielmo de Lorena – Italian inventor of a diving bell used for archaeological work on the Roman ships of lake Nemi
  • Auguste Denayrouze – French inventor of a demand air supply regulator for underwater diving
  • Frédéric Dumas – French pioneer of scuba diving
  • Ted Eldred – Australian inventor of the single hose diving regulator
  • Maurice Fernez – French inventor and pioneer in underwater breathing apparatus, respirators and gas masks
  • Émile Gagnan – French engineer and co-inventor of the open circuit demand scuba regulator
  • Bret Gilliam – a pioneering technical diver and author
  • Edmond Halley – English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist
  • Hans Hass – Austrian biologist, film-maker, and underwater diving pioneer
  • Stig Insulán – Inventor of an adjustable automatic exhaust valve for variable volume dry suits
  • Jim Jarret – Diver who test dived the first successful atmospheric diving suits
  • Yves Le Prieur – French naval officer and inventor of a free-flow scuba system
  • John Lethbridge – English wool merchant who invented a diving machine in 1715
  • William Hogarth Main – Cave diver and scuba configuration experimentalist
  • Phil Nuytten – Canadian deep-ocean explorer, scientist, and inventor of the Newtsuit
  • Joseph Salim Peress – pioneering British diving engineer, inventor of some of the first truly usable atmospheric diving suits
  • Benoît Rouquayrol – French inventor of an early diving demand regulator
  • Dick Rutkowski – American pioneer in hyperbaric and diving medicine and use of mixed breathing gases for diving
  • Joe Savoie – Inventor of the neck dam for lightweight helmets
  • Augustus Siebe – German-born British engineer mostly known for his contributions to diving equipment
  • Charles Spalding – Scottish confectioner and amateur diving bell designer
  • Robert Sténuit – Belgian journalist, writer, underwater archeologist and the first aquanaut
  • Arne Zetterström – Diver involved in experimental work with Hydrox breathing gas

Underwater scientists, environmentalists and archaeologists[edit]

Eugenie Clarke in 2011
Sylvia Earle prepares to dive in a JIM suit
Honor Frost
  • Michael Arbuthnot – underwater archaeologist and film-maker
  • Robert Ballard – retired US Navy officer and a professor of oceanography known for maritime archaeology and archaeology of shipwrecks
  • George Bass – American pioneer of underwater archaeology
  • Mensun Bound – British marine archaeologist
  • Eugenie Clark – American ichthyologist, shark researcher and scientific scuba diver
  • James P. Delgado – American maritime archaeologist, explorer and author
  • Sylvia Earle – American marine biologist, explorer, and author
  • John Christopher Fine – American marine biologist, wreck diver and author
  • George R. Fischer – American underwater archaeologist
  • Anders Franzén – Swedish marine technician and amateur naval archaeologist
  • Honor Frost – pioneer in underwater archaeology
  • David Gibbins – underwater archaeologist and novelist
  • Graham Jessop – British commercial diver and marine archaeologist
  • Robert F. Marx – pioneer American scuba diver known for work with shipwrecks and treasure hunting
  • Charles T. Meide – American underwater archaeologist
  • Mark M. Newell – American underwater and terrestrial archaeologist and anthropologist
  • John Peter Oleson – classical archaeologist and historian of ancient technology
  • Margaret Rule – British archaeologist who led the Mary Rose project
  • Dee Scarr – environmentalist, marine naturalist, and scuba diver
  • Gunter Schöbel – German archaeologist and director of the Pfahlbau Museum Unteruhldingen
  • Stephanie Schwabe – German geomicrobiologist, diver and underwater researcher
  • E. Lee Spence – underwater archaeologist
  • Robert Sténuit – Belgian journalist, writer, underwater archeologist and the first aquanaut
  • Peter Throckmorton – American photojournalist and a pioneer underwater archaeologist

Record breakers[edit]

Scuba records[edit]

  • John Bennett (diver) – British technical diver and former record holder lost in commercial diving incident
  • Pascal Bernabé – French claimant to scuba diving depth record
  • Jim Bowden (diver) – record breaking technical and cave diver
  • Mark Ellyatt – British technical diver and previous depth record holder
  • Sheck Exley – American cave and deep diving pioneer and record breaker
  • Ahmed Gabr – Egyptian diver and scuba depth record holder
  • Nuno Gomes – South African diver and holder of scuba depth record
  • Simon Mitchell – New Zealand physician and author on diving medicine
  • Claudia Serpieri – Italian technical diver and depth record holder
  • David Shaw – Australian technical diver and former record holder killed in a diving incident


Herbert Nitsch
Natalia Molchanova

Underwater filmmakers[edit]

Hans Hass
  • Eduard Admetlla i Lázaro – Catalan scuba diving pioneer and underwater filmmaker
  • Samir Alhafith – Australian technical diver, cave explorer and underwater filmmaker
  • Henri Bource – Dutch scuba diver, underwater filmmaker, musician and shark attack survivor
  • Scott Cassell – American underwater film maker.
  • Jacques Cousteau – French inventor of open circuit scuba, pioneer diver, author, film-maker and marine researcher
  • Ben Cropp – Australian documentary filmmaker, conservationist and spearfisherman
  • Hans Hass – Austrian biologist, film-maker, and underwater diving pioneer
  • Jill Heinerth – Canadian diver, writer and underwater filmmaker
  • Kevin Juergensen – Filmmaker, diver, and CEO of Juergensen Marine
  • Henry Kaiser (musician) – American guitarist, film director, and scientific diver
  • Ron and Valerie Taylor – Australian divers and shark cinematographers
  • Stan Waterman – Cinematographer and underwater film producer
  • Andrew Wight – Australian screenwriter and producer

Underwater photographers[edit]

Tamara Benitez
Agnes Milowka
Peter Scoones
Brian Skerry
  • Tamara Benitez – Filipina cinematographer
  • Georges Beuchat – French inventor, diver and businessman
  • Adrian Biddle – English cinematographer
  • Jonathan Bird – American photographer, cinematographer, director and television host.
  • Eric Cheng – Taiwanese American entrepreneur and professional photographer
  • Neville Coleman – Australian naturalist, underwater photographer, writer, publisher and educator
  • Jacques Cousteau – French inventor of open circuit scuba, pioneer diver, author, film-maker and marine researcher
  • John D. Craig – American businessman, writer, soldier, and diver
  • Ben Cropp – Australian documentary filmmaker, conservationist and spearfisherman
  • Bernard Delemotte – French diver and photographer
  • David Doubilet – French diver and photographer
  • John Christopher Fine – American marine biologist, wreck diver and author
  • Dermot FitzGerald – Irish businessman
  • Rodney Fox – Australian diver, film maker and conservationist
  • Ric Frazier – American photographer
  • Stephen Frink – Underwater photographer and publisher
  • Peter Gimbel – American filmmaker and underwater photojournalist
  • Monty Halls – British TV broadcaster, diver and naturalist
  • Hans Hass – Austrian biologist, film-maker, and underwater diving pioneer
  • Henry Way Kendall – American particle physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics
  • Rudie Kuiter – Dutch-born Australian underwater photographer, taxonomist, and marine biologist
  • Joseph B. MacInnis – Canadian physician, author, poet and aquanaut
  • Luis Marden – American photographer, explorer, writer, filmmaker, diver, navigator, and linguist
  • Agnes Milowka – Australian cave diver
  • Noel Monkman – New Zealand born Australian filmmaker specialising in underwater photography
  • Steve Parish – British born Australian photographer and publisher
  • Zale Parry – American pioneer scuba diver, underwater photographer and actress
  • Pierre Petit – Early French photographer. First to attempt underwater photography
  • Leni Riefenstahl – German film director, producer, screenwriter, editor, photographer, actress and dancer
  • Peter Scoones – Underwater cameraman
  • Brian Skerry – American photojournalist
  • Wesley C. Skiles – American cave diver and underwater cinematographer
  • E. Lee Spence – underwater archaeologist
  • Philippe Tailliez – French pioneer of scuba diving and underwater photographer
  • Ron and Valerie Taylor – Australian divers and shark cinematographers
  • Albert Tillman – American educator and underwater diver.
  • John Veltri – American filmmaker and underwater photographer
  • Stan Waterman – Cinematographer and underwater film producer
  • J. Lamar Worzel – American geophysicist and underwater photographer

Underwater explorers[edit]

Combat divers, frogmen and saboteurs[edit]

Lionel Crabb
  • Lionel Crabb – Royal Navy frogman and MI6 diver
  • Ian Edward Fraser – British military diver. Recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Sydney Knowles – British naval frogman during and after WWII
  • John H. Lang – American who served with the Canadian Army in World War I and then with the United States Navy through World War II
  • Alain Mafart – French military officer convicted for his part in the bombing of the Rainbow Warrior
  • Teseo Tesei – Italian naval officer during WWII and pioneering military diver

Authors of books about diving[edit]

Bob Halstead

Underwater art and artists[edit]

Christ of the Abyss at San Fruttuoso, Liguria

Other (to be allocated)[edit]

  • John Chatterton – American wreck diver, co-host for History Channel's Deep Sea Detectives series
  • Leigh Bishop – Diver known for shipwreck exploration and photography
  • Jean-Michel Cousteau – French oceanographic explorer, environmentalist, educator, and film producer
  • Billy Deans (diver) – American pioneering wreck and technical diver
  • Oscar Gugen – A founder of the British Sub-Aqua Club
  • Bob Halstead – Underwater photographer, author, journalist and commentator on the recreational diving industry.
  • Keith Jessop – British salvage diver and treasure hunter
  • Willard Franklyn Searle – US Navy ocean engineer and developer of diving and salvage equipment and systems
  • Bill Nagle – American wreck diving pioneer

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Scientific Committee of CMAS (1988). Flemming, N. C.; Max, M. D., eds. Code of Practice for Scientific Diving: Principles for the Safe Practice of Scientific Diving in Different Environments (PDF). UNESCO Technical Papers in Marine Science 53. Paris, France: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Div. of Marine Sciences. ISSN 0503-4299. OCLC 18056894. 

External links[edit]