Slovenia the Republic of Slovenia, is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, it has a population of 2.07 million. One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, of NATO; the capital and largest city is Ljubljana. Slovenia has a mountainous terrain with a continental climate, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate, of the northwest, which has an Alpine climate. Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia; the country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, significant karst underground watercourses.
Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Slovenia is uneven. Slovenia has been the crossroads of Slavic and Romance languages and cultures. Although the population is not homogeneous, Slovenes comprise the majority; the South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Slovenia is a secularized country, but Catholicism and Lutheranism have influenced its culture and identity; the economy of Slovenia is small and export-oriented and has been influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis which started in 2009; the main economic field is services, followed by construction. The current territory of Slovenia has formed part of many different states, including the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Republic of Venice, the French-administered Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon I, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. In October 1918 the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes and Serbs.
In December 1918 they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During World War II Germany and Hungary occupied and annexed Slovenia, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state. In 1945 Slovenia became a founding member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed in 1963 as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In the first years after World War II this state was allied with the Eastern Bloc, but it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact and in 1961 became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement. In June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia became the first republic that split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country. In 2004, it entered the European Union. Slovenia's name means the "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene and other South Slavic languages; the etymology of Slav itself remains uncertain. The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is derived from the word slovo denoting "people who speak," i. e. people who understand each other.
This is in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people". The word slovo and the related slava and slukh originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew-, cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος, as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo, English loud; the modern Slovene state originates from the Slovene National Liberation Committee held on 19 February 1944. They named the state as Federal Slovenia, a unit within the Yugoslav federation. On 20 February 1946, Federal Slovenia was renamed the People's Republic of Slovenia, it retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to Socialist Republic of Slovenia. On 8 March 1990, SR Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the Republic of Slovenia. Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. There is evidence of human habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ± 700 BP, found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near Cerkno, is considered a kind of flute, the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world.
In the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon, such as pierced bones, bone points, a needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. In 2002, remains of pile dwellings over 4,500 years old were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world, it shows that wooden wheels appeared simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe. In the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situl
Demeter Bitenc was a Slovenian film actor. He appeared in 75 films beginning in 1953, he was born in Slovenia. Island of the Amazons Apache Gold Target for Killing The Seventh Continent Poppea's Hot Nights The Ravine Private Vices, Public Pleasures Cross of Iron The Secret of Nikola Tesla War and Remembrance Outsider Long Dark Night Demeter Bitenc on IMDb Demeter Bitenc at AllMovie
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership can be citizen ownership of equity. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, with social ownership being the common element shared by its various forms. Socialist systems are divided into market forms. Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money with engineering and technical criteria based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism. Non-market socialism aims to circumvent the inefficiencies and crises traditionally associated with capital accumulation and the profit system. By contrast, market socialism retains the use of monetary prices, factor markets and in some cases the profit motive, with respect to the operation of owned enterprises and the allocation of capital goods between them.
Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm, or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend. The socialist calculation debate concerns the feasibility and methods of resource allocation for a socialist system. Socialist politics has been both nationalist in orientation. Originating within the socialist movement, social democracy has embraced a mixed economy with a market that includes substantial state intervention in the form of income redistribution, a welfare state. Economic democracy proposes a sort of market socialism where there is more decentralized control of companies, currencies and natural resources; the socialist political movement includes a set of political philosophies that originated in the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 18th century and out of concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism. By the late 19th century, after the work of Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels, socialism had come to signify opposition to capitalism and advocacy for a post-capitalist system based on some form of social ownership of the means of production.
By the 1920s, social democracy and communism had become the two dominant political tendencies within the international socialist movement. By this time, socialism emerged as "the most influential secular movement of the twentieth century, worldwide, it is a political ideology, a wide and divided political movement" and while the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally socialist state led to socialism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model, some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism or a non-planned administrative or command economy. Socialist parties and ideas remain a political force with varying degrees of power and influence on all continents, heading national governments in many countries around the world. Today, some socialists have adopted the causes of other social movements, such as environmentalism and progressivism. In 21st century America, the term socialism, without clear definition, has become a pejorative used by conservatives to taint liberal and progressive policies and public figures.
For Andrew Vincent, "he word ‘socialism’ finds its root in the Latin sociare, which means to combine or to share. The related, more technical term in Roman and medieval law was societas; this latter word could mean companionship and fellowship as well as the more legalistic idea of a consensual contract between freemen". The term "socialism" was created by Henri de Saint-Simon, one of the founders of what would be labelled "utopian socialism". Simon coined the term as a contrast to the liberal doctrine of "individualism", which stressed that people act or should act as if they are in isolation from one another; the original "utopian" socialists condemned liberal individualism for failing to address social concerns during the industrial revolution, including poverty, social oppression and gross inequalities in wealth, thus viewing liberal individualism as degenerating society into supporting selfish egoism that harmed community life through promoting a society based on competition. They presented socialism as an alternative to liberal individualism based on the shared ownership of resources, although their proposals for socialism differed significantly.
Saint-Simon proposed economic planning, scientific administration and the application of modern scientific advancements to the organisation of society. By contrast, Robert Owen proposed the organisation of ownership in cooperatives; the term "socialism" is attributed to Pierre Leroux and to Marie Roch Louis Reybaud in France. The modern definition and usage of "socialism" settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term among the group of words "co-operative", "mutualist" and "associationist", used as synonyms; the term "communism" fell out of use during this period, despite earlier distinctions between socialism and communism from the 1840s. An early distinction between socialism and communism was that the former aimed to only socialise production while the latter aimed to socialise both production and consumption. However, M
70th Academy Awards
The 70th Academy Awards ceremony, organized by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, took place on March 23, 1998, at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles beginning at 6:00 p.m. PST / 9:00 p.m. EST. During the show, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 24 categories honoring films released in 1997; the ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Gil Cates and directed by Louis J. Horvitz. Actor Billy Crystal hosted the show for the sixth time, he first presided over the 62nd ceremony held in 1990, he had hosted the previous year's gala. Nearly a month earlier in an event held at the Regent Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California on February 28, the Academy Awards for Technical Achievement were presented by host Ashley Judd. Titanic won a record-tying eleven awards including Best Director for Best Picture. Other winners included As Good as It Gets, Good Will Hunting and L. A. Confidential with two awards, The Full Monty, Geri's Game, The Long Way Home and Virtue, Men in Black and A Story of Healing with one.
The telecast garnered more than 57 million viewers in the United States, making it the most watched Oscars broadcast in history. The nominees for the 70th Academy Awards were announced on February 10, 1998, at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Robert Rehme, president of the Academy, actress Geena Davis. Titanic received the most nominations with a record-tying fourteen. A. Confidential came in second with nine apiece; the winners were announced during the awards ceremony on March 23, 1998. With eleven awards, Titanic tied with Ben-Hur for the most Academy Awards in Oscar history, it became the first film to win Best Picture without a screenwriting nomination since 1965's The Sound of Music. Best Actress winner Helen Hunt became the first performer to win an Oscar while concurrently starring in a television series. Both won for their roles in As Good as It Gets, making it the seventh film to win both lead acting awards. Nominated for their performances as Rose DeWitt Bukater in Titanic, Best Actress nominee Kate Winslet and Best Supporting Actress nominee Gloria Stuart became the first pair of actresses nominated for portraying the same character in the same film.
At age 87, Stuart became the oldest performer nominated for a competitive Oscar. Born in 1910 made her the last female acting nominee to be born in the 1910's Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, indicated with a double dagger. Stanley Donen The following individuals performed musical numbers. In December 1997, the Academy hired veteran Oscar telecast producer Gil Cates to oversee the 1998 ceremony. "Gil has become the consummate Oscar show producer garnering top television ratings for the telecast," said AMPAS President Robert Rehme in a press release announcing the selection. "His shows are full of wit and surprise." A few days actor and comedian Billy Crystal was chosen to emcee the upcoming telecast. Cates explained his reason to bring back the veteran comedian saying, "Billy's performance last year was spectacular. There is nobody like him." In an article published in USA Today he requested to Cates and AMPAS five months after the previous year's ceremony that he would like to take a break from hosting duties.
However, pressure from the Academy and several friends and family members made him reconsider his decision. His sixth stint would make him second only to Bob Hope in number of ceremonies hosted. To commemorate the seventieth anniversary of the Academy Awards, 70 actors who have received both competitive and honorary awards appeared seated onstage together during a segment called Oscar's Family Album; each former winner was acknowledged by announcer Norman Rose with the films she won for. At the end of the segment newly minted winners Kim Bassinger, Helen Hunt, Robin Williams joined them; this marked the largest gathering of former winners since the 50th ceremony held in 1978. Several others participated in the production of the ceremony. Bill Conti served as musical director for the telecast. Dancer Daniel Ezralow choreographed a dance number showcasing the nominees for Best Original Comedy or Musical Score. Bart the Bear made a surprise appearance during the presentation of the Best Sound Effects Editing award with Mike Myers.
At the time of the nominations announcement on February 10, the combined gross of the five Best Picture nominees was $579 million with an average of $116 million per film. Titanic was the highest earner among the Best Picture nominees with $338.7 million in domestic box office receipts. The film was followed by As Good as It Gets, Good Will Hunting, L. A. Confidential, The Full Monty. Of the top 50 grossing movies of the year, 40 nominations went to 15 films on the list. Only Titanic, As Good as It Gets, Good Will Hunting, In & Out were nominated for directing, screenwriting, or Best Picture; the other top 50 box office hits that earned nominations were Men in Black, The Lost World: Jurassic Park, Air Force One, My Best Friends Wedding, Face/Off, Con Air, Hercules, The Fifth Element and Starship Troopers. The show received a positive reception from most media publications. Television critic Howard Rosenberg of the Los Angeles Times lauded Crystal's performance writing that he "would earn top billing as that unusual comedian as artful at
A warrant officer is an officer in a military organisation, designated an officer by a warrant, as distinguished from a commissioned officer, designated an officer by a commission, a non-commissioned officer, designated an officer by virtue of seniority. The rank was first used in the 13th century in the Royal Navy and is today used in most services in many countries, including the Commonwealth nations and the United States. Outside the United States, warrant officers are included in the "other ranks" category, equivalent to the US "E" category and rank between non-commissioned officers and commissioned officers; the warrant officers in Commonwealth navies rank between chief petty officer and sub-lieutenant, in Commonwealth air forces between flight sergeant and pilot officer, in Commonwealth armies between staff sergeant and second lieutenant. Warrant officers in the United States are in the "W" category. Chief warrant officers are commissioned by the President of the United States and take the same oath as regular commissioned officers.
They may be technical experts with a long service as enlisted personnel, or direct entrants, notably for U. S. Army helicopter pilots; the warrant officer corps began in the nascent Royal Navy. At that time, noblemen with military experience took command of the new navy, adopting the military ranks of lieutenant and captain; these officers had no knowledge of life on board a ship—let alone how to navigate such a vessel—and relied on the expertise of the ship's master and other seamen who tended to the technical aspects of running the ship. As cannon came into use, the officers required gunnery experts. Literacy was one thing that most warrant officers had in common, this distinguished them from the common seamen: according to the Admiralty regulations, "no person shall be appointed to any station in which he is to have charge of stores, unless he can read and write, is sufficiently skilled in arithmetic to keep an account of them correctly". Since all warrant officers had responsibility for stores, this was enough to debar the illiterate.
In origin, warrant officers were specialist professionals whose expertise and authority demanded formal recognition. In the 18th century they fell into two clear categories: on the one hand, those privileged to share with the commissioned officers in the wardroom and on the quarterdeck. Somewhere between the two, were the standing officers; these classes of warrant officer messed in the wardroom with the commissioned officers: the master: the senior warrant officer, a qualified navigator and experienced seaman who set the sails, maintained the ship's log and advised the captain on the seaworthiness of the ship and crew. In the early 19th century, they were joined in the wardroom by naval chaplains, who had warrant officer status; the standing officers were: the boatswain: responsible for maintenance of the ship's boats, rigging and cables. Other warrant officers included surgeon's mates, boatswain's mates and carpenter's mates, armourers and clerks. Masters-at-arms, who had overseen small-arms provision on board, had by this time taken on responsibility for discipline.
By the end of the century, the rank structure could be illustrated as follows: In 1843, the wardroom warrant officers were given commissioned status, while in 1853 the lower-grade warrant officers were absorbed into the new rate of chief petty officer, both classes thereby ceasing to be warrant officers. On 25 July 1864 the standing warrant officers were divided into two grades: warrant officers and chief warrant officers. By the time of the First World War, their ranks had been expanded with the adoption of modern technology in the Royal Navy to include telegraphists, shipwrights, artificer engineers, etc. Both warrant officers and commissioned warrant officers messed in the warrant officers' mess rather than the wardroom. Warrant officers and commissioned warrant officers carried swords, were saluted by ratings, ranked between sub-lieutenants and midshipmen. In 1949, the ranks of warrant officer and commissioned warrant officer were changed to "commissioned officer" and "senior commissioned officer", the latter ranking with but after the rank of lieutenant, they were admitted to the wardroom, the warrant officers' messes closing down.
Collectively, these officers were known as "branch officers", being retitled "special duties" officers in 1956. In 1998, the special dutie
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motion pictures. The Academy's corporate management and general policies are overseen by a Board of Governors, which includes representatives from each of the craft branches; the roster of the Academy's 6,000 motion picture professionals is a "closely guarded secret". While the great majority of its members are based in the United States, membership is open to qualified filmmakers around the world; the Academy is known around the world for its annual Academy Awards and popularly known as "The Oscars". In addition, the Academy holds the Governors Awards annually for lifetime achievement in film; the Academy plans to open the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures in Los Angeles in 2019. The notion of the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences began with Louis B. Mayer, head of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, he said he wanted to create an organization that would mediate labor disputes without unions and improve the industry's image.
He met with actor Conrad Nagel, director Fred Niblo, the head of the Association of Motion Picture Producers, Fred Beetson to discuss these matters. The idea of this elite club having an annual banquet was discussed, but no mention of awards at that time, they established that membership into the organization would only be open to people involved in one of the five branches of the industry: actors, writers and producers. After their brief meeting, Mayer gathered up a group of thirty-six people involved in the film industry and invited them to a formal banquet at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles on January 11, 1927; that evening Mayer presented to those guests what he called the International Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Everyone in the room that evening became a founder of the Academy. Between that evening and when the official Articles of Incorporation for the organization were filed on May 4, 1927, the "International" was dropped from the name, becoming the "Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences".
Several organizational meetings were held prior to the first official meeting held on May 6, 1927. Their first organizational meeting was held on May 11. At that meeting Douglas Fairbanks, Sr. was elected as the first president of the Academy, while Fred Niblo was the first vice-president, their first roster, composed of 230 members, was printed. That night, the Academy bestowed its first honorary membership, to Thomas Edison; the Academy was broken down into five main groups, or branches, although this number of branches has grown over the years. The original five were: Producers, Directors and Technicians; the initial concerns of the group had to do with labor." However, as time went on, the organization moved "further away from involvement in labor-management arbitrations and negotiations." One of several committees formed in those initial days was for "Awards of Merit," but it was not until May 1928 that the committee began to have serious discussions about the structure of the awards and the presentation ceremony.
By July 1928 the board of directors had approved a list of 12 awards to be presented. During July the voting system for the Awards was established, the nomination and selection process began; this "award of merit for distinctive achievement" is. The initial location of the organization was 6912 Hollywood Boulevard. In November 1927, the Academy moved to the Roosevelt Hotel at 7010 Hollywood Boulevard, the month the Academy's library began compiling a complete collection of books and periodicals dealing with the industry from around the world. In May 1928, the Academy authorized the construction of a state of the art screening room, to be located in the Club lounge of the hotel; the screening room was not completed until April 1929. With the publication of Report on Incandescent Illumination in 1928, the Academy began a long history of publishing books to assist its members. Another early initiative concerned training Army Signal Corps officers. In 1929, Academy members in a joint venture with the University of Southern California created America's first film school to further the art and science of moving pictures.
The school's founding faculty included Fairbanks, D. W. Griffith, William C. deMille, Ernst Lubitsch, Irving Thalberg, Darryl F. Zanuck.1930 saw another move, to 7046 Hollywood Boulevard, in order to accommodate the enlarging staff, by December of that year the library was acknowledged as "having one of the most complete collections of information on the motion picture industry anywhere in existence." They would remain at that location until 1935, when further growth would cause them to move once again. This time, the administrative offices would move to one location, to the Taft Building at the corner of Hollywood and Vine, while the library would move to 1455 North Gordon Street. In 1934, the Academy began publication of the Screen Achievement Records Bulletin, which today is known as the Motion Picture Credits Database; this is a list of film credits up for an Academy Award, as well as other films released in Los Angeles County, using research materials from the Academy's Margaret Her
Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz known as Tito, was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and statesman, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980. During World War II, he was the leader of the Partisans regarded as the most effective resistance movement in occupied Europe. While his presidency has been criticized as authoritarian and concerns about the repression of political opponents have been raised, most Yugoslavs considered him popular and a benevolent dictator, he was a popular public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad. Viewed as a unifying symbol, his internal policies maintained the peaceful coexistence of the nations of the Yugoslav federation, he gained further international attention as the chief leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, alongside Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Nicolae Ceaușescu of Romania, Sukarno of Indonesia, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. Broz was born to a Croat Slovene mother in the village of Kumrovec, Austria-Hungary. Drafted into military service, he distinguished himself, becoming the youngest sergeant major in the Austro-Hungarian Army of that time.
After being wounded and captured by the Imperial Russians during World War I, he was sent to a work camp in the Ural Mountains. He participated in some events of the Russian Revolution in subsequent Civil War. Upon his return home, Broz found himself in the newly established Kingdom of Yugoslavia, where he joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, he was General Secretary of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and went on to lead the World War II Yugoslav guerrilla movement, the Partisans. After the war, he was the Prime President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. From 1943 to his death in 1980, he held the rank of Marshal of Yugoslavia, serving as the supreme commander of the Yugoslav military, the Yugoslav People's Army. With a favourable reputation abroad in both Cold War blocs, he received some 98 foreign decorations, including the Legion of Honour and the Order of the Bath. Tito was the chief architect of the second Yugoslavia, a socialist federation that lasted from November 1943 until April 1992.
Despite being one of the founders of Cominform, he became the first Cominform member to defy Soviet hegemony in 1948 and the only one in Joseph Stalin's time to manage to leave Cominform and begin with its own socialist program with elements of market socialism. Economists active in the former Yugoslavia, including Czech-born Jaroslav Vanek and Croat-born Branko Horvat, promoted a model of market socialism dubbed the Illyrian model, where firms were owned by their employees and structured on workers' self-management and competed with each other in open and free markets. Josip Broz was born on 7 May 1892 in Kumrovec, a village in the northern Croatian region of Hrvatsko Zagorje which at that time was part of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, he was the seventh or eighth child of Franjo Broz and Marija née Javeršek, his parents having lost a number of children in early infancy. He was raised as a Roman Catholic, his father, was a Croat whose family had lived in the village for three centuries, while his mother Marija, was a Slovene from the village of Podsreda.
The villages were only 16 kilometres apart, his parents had been married on 21 January 1881. Franjo Broz had inherited a 4.0-hectare estate and a good house, but he was unable to make a success of farming. Josip spent a significant proportion of his pre-school years living with his maternal grandparents at Podsreda, where he became a favourite of his grandfather Martin Javeršek, by the time he returned to Kumrovec to commence school he spoke Slovene better than Croatian, had learned to play the piano. Despite his mixed parentage, Broz referred to himself as a Croat. In July 1900, at the age of eight, Broz entered primary school at Kumrovec, but only completed four years of school, failing the 2nd grade graduating in 1905; as a result of his limited schooling, throughout his life he was poor at spelling. After leaving school, he worked for a maternal uncle on the family farm. In 1907, his father wanted him to emigrate to the United States, but could not raise the money for the voyage. Instead, aged 15 years, Josip left Kumrovec and travelled about 97 kilometres south to Sisak where his cousin Jurica Broz was doing army service.
Jurica helped him get a job in a restaurant, but Broz soon tired of that work and approached a Czech locksmith, Nikola Karas, for a three-year apprenticeship, which included training and room and board. As his father could not afford to pay for his work clothing, Josip paid for it himself. Soon after, his younger brother Stjepan became apprenticed to Karas. During his apprenticeship he was encouraged to mark May Day in 1909, read and sold Slobodna Reč, a socialist newspaper. After completing his apprenticeship in September 1910, Broz used his contacts to gain employment in Zagreb and at the age of 18 joined the Metal Workers' Union and participated in his first labour protest, he joined the Social Democratic Party of Croatia and Slavonia. He returned home in December 1910 and in early 1911 began a series of moves, first seeking work in Ljubljana Trieste and Zagreb, where he worked repairing bicycles and joined his first strike action on May Day 1911. After a brief period of work in Ljubljana, between May 1911 and May 1912 he worked in a factory in Kamnik in the Kamnik–Savinja Alps, a