Future US, Inc. is an American media corporation specializing in targeted magazines and websites in the video games and technology markets. Future US is headquartered in New York City with small offices in Minneapolis. Future US is owned by parent company, Future plc, a specialist media company based in the United Kingdom, its magazines and websites include: PC Gamer Official Xbox Magazine TechRadar Maximum PC Electronic Musician Guitar Player Guitar World Multichannel News Broadcasting & Cable TWICE Founded in 1985 in the UK by Chris Anderson Future Publishing was the fastest growing UK publisher of the nineties. From a start in computer and video games magazines, Future diversified into sports, entertainment and general interest magazines becoming the UK's fourth largest publisher. Anderson wanted to expand Future into the United States, bought struggling Greensboro video game magazine publisher GP Publications, publisher of Game Players magazine in 1993; the company launched a number of titles including PC Gamer, relocated from North Carolina to the Bay area, occupying various properties in Burlingame and South San Francisco.
When Anderson sold Future to Pearson PLC he retained GP, renamed Imagine Media, Inc. in June 1995, operated it as his sole company for a few years. However, when Future bought itself out from Pearson in an MBO, Anderson came back on board, when Future floated on the stock exchange in 1999 Imagine's print magazines were merged with Future Publishing to form the Future Network PLC, a company floated on the London Stock Exchange; the on-line properties, including IGN, were put into a separate company snowball.com. Buoyed by the Internet economy and the success of Business 2.0 in the US, Future rode the boom of the late nineties. During this period the company won the exclusive worldwide rights to produce the official magazine for Microsoft's Xbox video game console and cemented its position as a leader in the games market. In the spring of 2001, buffeted by economic factors and the market downturn, Future Network USA went through a strategic reset of its business that included the closure of some titles and Internet operations and the sale of Business 2.0 to AOL/Time Warner.
By early fall 2002, Imagine Media had refocused on its core business, publishing five games and technology magazines: Official Xbox Magazine, PC Gamer, PSM: 100% Independent PlayStation 2 Magazine, Maximum PC and MacAddict. It was that Imagine became Future Network USA, adopting the name of its parent company, Future plc. Future used this strong portfolio and its strength in creating media for young men as a platform for growth into the action sports and music markets. In December 2005, after three years of organic growth and strategic acquisition, Future Network USA became Future US, to reflect its diversification into markets beyond games and technology. In 2005, Future US made its first venture into the women's market with the launch of Scrapbook Answers and with the addition of Women's Health & Fitness and Decorating Spaces, to its portfolio of titles with the Future plc acquisition of Highbury House plc. On September 19, 2007, Nintendo and Future announced that Future US would obtain the publishing rights to Nintendo Power magazine.
This came into effect with the creation of issue #222. On October 1, 2007, it was announced that Future US would be making PlayStation: The Official Magazine, which ended up replacing PSM and first hit newsstands in November 2007. With this launch, Future US is the publisher of the official magazines of all three major console manufacturers in the US. In 2012, NewBay Media bought the Music division of Future US. In 2018, Future reacquired majority of the assets sold to NewBay by buying NewBay outright for US13.8 million. Future used this acquisition to expand its US footprint in B2B segment. CD-ROM Today Daily Radar Games Radar Decorating Spaces Do! Future Music Future Snowboarding Magazine Game Players Guitar One Guitar World Acoustic Guitar World Legends Guitar World's Bass Guitar Maximum Linux Men's Edge Mobile PC netPOWER Next Generation Magazine Nintendo Power Official Dreamcast Magazine PC Accelerator PlayStation: The Official Magazine Revolution Scrapbook Answers Skateboard Trade News Snowboard Trade News T3 The Net Total Movie Women's Health & Fitness Official website
Capture the flag
Capture the flag is a traditional outdoor game where two teams each have a flag and the objective is to capture the other team's flag, located at the team's "base," and bring it safely back to their own base. Enemy players can be "tagged" by players in their home territory and, depending on the rules, they may be out of the game, become members of the opposite team, sent back to their own territory, or frozen in place until freed by a member of their own team. Capture the Flag requires a playing field of some sort. In both indoor and outdoor versions, the field is divided into two designated halves, known as territories. Players form one for each territory; each side has a "flag", most a piece of fabric, but can be any object small enough to be carried by a person. Sometimes teams wear dark colors at night to make it more difficult for their opponents to see them. If one team has the opposing team's flag on their territory they may be tagged because they have the opposing team's flag; the objective of the game is for players to venture into the opposing team's territory, grab the flag and return with it to their territory without being tagged.
The flag is defended by tagging opposing players who attempt to take it. Within their territory players are "safe". Once they cross into the opposing team's territory they are vulnerable; the flag is placed in a visibly obvious location at the rear of a team's territory. In a more difficult version, the flag is hidden in a place, it might have some challenge involved. For example, the flag could be hidden in the leaves up in a tall tree, the players have to see the flag knock it out and bring it to their base. Different versions of Capture the Flag have different rules, both for handling the flag and for what happens to tagged players. A player, tagged may be eliminated from the game be forced to join the opposing team, sent back to their own territory, or be placed in "jail" with or without a guard; the jail is a predesignated area of the group's territory which exists for holding tagged players and is towards the back of the group's territory. While tagged players may be confined to jail for a limited, predetermined time, the most common form of the game involves the option for a "jailbreak".
In this version, players who are tagged remain in jail indefinitely. However, players from their own team may free them from jail by means of a jailbreak. Jailbreaks are accomplished by a player running from their own territory into the enemy's jail; such action may, depending on the rules, free all jailed players or those who are physically touched by the one performing the jailbreak. But in some variants team mates who got tagged can be jailed only 3 times or they are kicked from the game until the next round. In general freed players are obligated to return directly to their own territory before attempting offensive action. While they return to their own side, freed players acquire "free walk-backs", in which they are safe from tagging until they reach their home territory; the player performing the jail break, on the other hand, is neither safe, nor restricted from performing other actions such as attempting to grab the flag or moving about enemy territory. Sometimes, players in jail form chains, so that if a teammate tags one person in the chain, everyone is free.
Leaving jail without being freed is considered poor sportsmanship and is frowned upon leading to expulsion from the game. If all players on one team are jailed the other team will have all the time they want to find the other team's flag; the rules for the handling of the flag vary from game to game and deal with the disposition of the flag after a failed attempt at capturing it. In one variant, after a player is tagged while carrying the flag, it is returned to its original place. In another variant, the flag is left in the location; this latter variant makes offensive play easier, as the flag will tend, over the course of the game, to be moved closer to the dividing line between territories. In some games, it is possible for the players to throw the flag to teammates; as long as the flag stays in play without hitting the ground, it is allowed for the players to pass. When the flag is captured by one player, they're not safe from being tagged. Sometimes, the flag holder may not be safe at all in their home territory, until they obtain both flags, thus ending the game.
But they have the option to return to their own side or hand it off to a teammate who will carry it to the other side. In most versions, they may not throw the flag but only hand it off while running; the game is won when a player returns to their own territory with the enemy flag or both teams' flags. As a general rule, the flag carrier may not attempt to free any of their teammates from jail. Alterations may include "one flag" CTF in which there is a defensive team and an offensive team, or games with three or more flags. In the case of the latter, one can only win, not only one. Another variation is when the players put bandannas in their pockets with about six inches sticking out. Instead of tagging your opponents, you must pull your opponent's bandanna out of their pocket. No matter where a player is when their bandanna is pulled, they're captured and must, depending on the preferences of the players, go to jail, or return
Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
Military science fiction
Military science fiction is a subgenre of science fiction that features the use of science fiction technology weapons, for military purposes and principal characters that are members of a military organization involved in military activity. It exists in literature, comics and video games. A detailed description of the conflict, the tactics and weapons used for it, the role of a military service and the individual members of that military organization forms the basis for a typical work of military science fiction; the stories use features of actual past or current Earth conflicts, with countries being replaced by planets or galaxies of similar characteristics, battleships replaced by space battleships and certain events changed so that the author can extrapolate what might have occurred. Traditional military values of bravery, sense of duty, camaraderie are emphasized, the action is described from the point of view of a soldier; the technology is more advanced than that of the present and described in detail.
In some stories, technology is static, weapons that would be familiar to present-day soldiers are used, but other aspects of society have changed. For example, women may be accepted as equal partners for combat roles. In many military sci-fi stories, technological advances are basic to plot development, but battles are won more by cleverness or bravery than by technology. Several subsets of military science fiction overlap with space opera, concentrating on large-scale space battles with futuristic weapons. At one extreme, the genre is used to speculate about future wars involving space travel, or the effects of such a war on humans; the term "military space opera" is used to denote this subgenre, as used for example by critic Sylvia Kelso when describing Lois McMaster Bujold's Vorkosigan Saga. Another example of military space opera would be the Battlestar Galactica franchise; the key distinction of military science fiction from space opera is that the principal characters in a space opera are not military personnel, but civilians or paramilitary.
Military science fiction does not always include an outer space or multi-planetary setting like space opera. Precursors for military science fiction can be found in "future war" stories dating back at least to George Chesney's story "The Battle of Dorking". Other works of fiction followed, including H. G. Wells's "The Land Ironclads"; as science fiction became an established and separate genre, military science fiction established itself as a subgenre. One such work is H. Beam Piper's Uller Uprising. Robert A. Heinlein's Starship Troopers is another work of military SF, along with Gordon Dickson's Dorsai, these are thought to be responsible for popularizing this subgenre's popularity among young readers of the time; the Vietnam War resulted in veterans with combat experience deciding to write science fiction, including Joe Haldeman and David Drake. Throughout the 1970s, works such as Haldeman's The Forever War and Drake's Hammer's Slammers helped increase the popularity of the genre. Short stories were popular, collected in books like Combat SF, edited by Gordon R. Dickson.
This anthology includes one of the first Hammer's Slammers stories as well as one of the BOLO stories by Keith Laumer and one of the Berserker stories by Fred Saberhagen. This anthology seems to have been the first time SF-stories dealing with war as a subject were collected and marketed as such; the series of anthologies with the group title There Will be War edited by Pournelle and John F. Carr helped keep the category active, encouraged new writers to add to it. A number of authors have presented stories with political messages of varying types as major or minor themes of their works. David Drake has written of the horrors and futility of war, he has said, in the afterwords of several of his Hammer's Slammers books, that one of his reasons for writing is to educate those people who have not experienced war, but who might have to make the decision to start or endorse a war about what war is like, what the powers and limits of the military as an instrument of policy are. David Weber has said that: For me, military science-fiction is science-fiction, written about a military situation with a fundamental understanding of how military lifestyles and characters differ from civilian lifestyles and characters.
It is science-fiction which attempts to realistically portray the military within a science-fiction context. It is not'bug shoots', it is about human beings, members of other species, caught up in warfare and carnage. It isn't an excuse for simplistic solutions to problems. Space warfare in fiction Weapons in science fiction War novel
PC Zone, founded in 1993, was the first magazine dedicated to games for IBM-compatible personal computers to be published in the United Kingdom. Earlier PC magazines such as PC Leisure, PC Format and PC Plus had covered games but only as part of a wider remit; the precursor to PC Zone was the award-winning multiformat title Zero. The magazine was published by Dennis Publishing Ltd. until 2004, when it was acquired by Future plc along with Computer And Video Games for £2.5m. In July 2010 it was announced by Future plc; the last issue of PC Zone went on sale 2 September 2010. PC Zone was first published in April 1993 and cost £3.95. Billed as the first UK magazine dedicated to PC games, it was sold with two accompanying floppy disks carrying game demonstrations; the first editor was Paul Lakin. The magazine was split into four sections: Reviews, Blueprints and Regulars. Among the first titles to be reviewed were Dune 2, Lemmings 2 and Stunt Island; the Blueprints section involved previews of new games and Features consisted of an article written about a specific area of gaming interest, such as gaming audio.
Regulars included a news bulletin, competitions and a Buyer's Guide which featured recommended games. In its original incarnation, PC Zone recognised that its audience consisted of males in their late twenties and older, adopted a tone suited to that audience; this was in contrast to contemporary multiformat and console magazines aimed at children and teenagers. During this period, the PC was not yet recognised as a games platform in the UK, an attitude PC Zone arguably helped to change by championing a succession of notable games such as Star Control II, Star Wars: X-Wing, Ultima Underworld and Doom. By 1995, under the editorship of John Davison, the magazine had adopted a tone which referenced lad culture, made fashionable by magazines such as FHM and Dennis Publishing stablemate Maxim; this period was marked by several moderately controversial episodes, including the accidental inclusion of a pornographic Doom modification on a covermounted CD-ROM, an article about the infamously bug-ridden Frontier 2: First Encounters illustrated with a large photograph of a piece of excrement wrapped with a bow, a joystick group test which featured a model dressed as a nun, a one-page comic by regular contributor Charlie Brooker, graphically depicting animal cruelty which resulted in the offending issue being withdrawn from W H Smith newsagents.
Towards the end of the decade, during the editorship of Chris Anderson, the magazine underwent another redesign and a stricter scoring methodology was introduced. For a twelve-month period it was rare for a game to score above 90%, although this was relaxed, resulting in controversial 94% and higher scores for Black & White, Unreal II and others, it was around this time that the magazine retired the long-running Mr Cursor column, a series of humorous, quasi-autobiographical anecdotes written by a thinly-disguised Duncan MacDonald intended to be a counterpoint to the jargon-heavy nature of much of the rest of the editorial. Anderson was succeeded by Dave Woods. Most of the regular recurring features used in the current version of the magazine were introduced during this period, Woods' final contribution was the redesign which marked the handover of the title to Future plc and the editorship to Jamie Sefton; each issue of PC zone came with a DVD-ROM containing game demos, mods, freeware software and patches among other things.
The DVD Zone sleeve would have unique codes which gave readers access to game betas, in-game content, among other things. A new format of PC Zone was introduced in October 2005 for issue #159. By issue #220, the magazine cost £5.99 and included several regular features including Supertest, where reviewers discussed which game is best in its genre. The Buyer's Guide developed from an indexed list of every game reviewed in the publication, along with closing comments; when the longevity of the magazine made this impractical it was pared down to just the best from each genre, becoming shorter with each redesign. As of issue #220, the leaders in each genre are: Shooters: Half-Life 2: 97% / 91% / 82% Strategy: Empire: Total War: 94% Action/Adventure: Grand Theft Auto IV: 91% MMOs: World of Warcraft: 95% Sport: Football Manager 2010: 88% Simulation: X3: Reunion: 92% RPGs: The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion: 95% Driving/Racing: GTR 2: 92% Oddball: Spore: 95%The oldest game in the Buyer's Guide was Deus Ex, reviewed issue #93 and given 94%.
PC Zone prided itself on its reviews scoring system, based on the idea that 50% was an average grade. As a result, many publishers accused the magazine of being too harsh. Games that scored 75-89% were given a Recommended Award. Few games only ten a year, received the latter distinction. Games scoring under 20% were given the PC Zone Dump award; as a combined result of its honest scoring system and its age, PC Zone managed to acquire many UK and world print exclusives in terms of news and reviews. PC Zone contained world ex
Next Generation (magazine)
Next Generation was a video game magazine, published by Imagine Media. It was shared editorial with the UK's Edge magazine. Next Generation ran from January 1995 until January 2002, it was edited by Neil West. Other editors included Chris Charla, Tom Russo, Blake Fischer. Next Generation covered the 32-bit consoles including 3DO, Atari Jaguar, the then-still unreleased Sony Playstation and Sega Saturn. Unlike competitors GamePro and Electronic Gaming Monthly, the magazine was directed towards a different readership by focusing on the industry itself rather than individual games; the magazine was first published by GP Publications up until May 1995 when the publisher was acquired by Imagine Media. In September 1999, Next Generation was redesigned, its cover name shortened to NextGen; this would start. A year in September 2000, the magazine's width was increased from its standard 8 inches to 9 inches, however this wider format lasted less than a year. Subscribers of Next-Gen Magazine received issues of PlayStation Magazine when the magazine's life-cycle was terminated.
The brand was resurrected in 2005 by Future Publishing USA as an industry-led website, Next-Gen.biz. It carries much the same articles and editorial as the print magazine, in fact reprints many articles from Edge, the UK-based sister magazine to Next-Gen. In July 2008, Next-Gen.biz was rebranded as Edge-Online.com. Next Generation's content didn't focus on screenshots and cheat codes. Instead the content was more focused on game development from an artistic perspective. Interviews with people in the game industry featured questions about gaming in general rather than about the details of the latest game or game system they were working on. Next Generation was first published prior to the North American launch of the Sega Saturn and Sony PlayStation, much of the early content was in anticipation of those consoles. Apart from the regular columns, the magazine did not use bylines; the editors explained that they felt the magazine's entire staff should share the credit or responsibility for each article and review those written by individuals.
The review ranking system was based on a number of stars that ranked games based on their merits overall compared to what games were out there. Next Generation had a few editorial sections like "The Way Games Ought To Be" that would attempt to provide constructive criticism on standard practices in the video game industry; the magazine's construction and design was decidedly simple and clean, its back cover having no advertising on it a departure from most other gaming magazines. The first several years of Next Generation had a heavy matte laminated finish cover stock, unlike the glossy paper covers of its competitors; the magazine moved away from this cover style in early 1999, only for it to return again in late 2000. Complete collection of 85 front-cover images Next Generation Wayback link for Next Generation Online Wayback link for Imagine Publishing
First-person shooter is a video game genre centered around gun and other weapon-based combat in a first-person perspective. The genre shares common traits with other shooter games, which in turn makes it fall under the heading action game. Since the genre's inception, advanced 3D and pseudo-3D graphics have challenged hardware development, multiplayer gaming has been integral; the first-person shooter genre has been traced as far back as Maze War, development of which began in 1973, 1974's Spasim. And after more playful titles like MIDI Maze in 1987, the genre coalesced into a more violent form with 1992's Wolfenstein 3D, credited with creating the genre's basic archetype upon which subsequent titles were based. One such title, the progenitor of the genre's wider mainstream acceptance and popularity was Doom, one of the most influential games in this genre. Corridor shooter was another common name for the genre in its early years, since processing limitations of the era's hardware meant that most of the action in the games had to take place in enclosed areas.1998's Half-Life—along with its 2004 sequel Half-Life 2—enhanced the narrative and puzzle elements.
In 1999, the Half-Life mod Counter-Strike was released and, together with Doom, is one of the most influential first-person shooters. GoldenEye 007, released in 1997, was a landmark first-person shooter for home consoles, while the Halo series heightened the console's commercial and critical appeal as a platform for first-person shooter titles. In the 21st century, the first-person shooter is the most commercially viable video game genre, in 2016, shooters accounted for over 27% of all video game sales. Several first-person shooters have been popular games for eSports and competitive gaming competitions as well. First-person shooters are a type of three-dimensional shooter game, featuring a first-person point of view with which the player sees the action through the eyes of the player character, they are unlike third-person shooters, in which the player can see the character they are controlling. The primary design element is combat involving firearms. First person-shooter games are often categorized as being distinct from light gun shooters, a similar genre with a first-person perspective which use light gun peripherals, in contrast to first-person shooters which use conventional input devices for movement.
Another difference is that first-person light-gun shooters like Virtua Cop feature "on-rails" movement, whereas first-person shooters like Doom give the player more freedom to roam. The first-person shooter may be considered a distinct genre itself, or a type of shooter game, in turn a subgenre of the wider action game genre. Following the release of Doom in 1993, games in this style were termed "Doom clones". Wolfenstein 3D, released in 1992, the year before Doom, has been credited with introducing the genre, but critics have since identified similar though less advanced games developed as far back as 1973. There are occasional disagreements regarding the specific design elements which constitute a first-person shooter. For example, Deus Ex or BioShock may be considered as first-person shooters, but may be considered role-playing video games as they borrow from this genre extensively. Certain puzzle games like Portal are called first-person shooters, but lack any direct combat or shooting element, instead using the first-person perspective to help immerse players within the game to help solve puzzles.
Some commentators extend the definition to include combat flight simulators where the cockpit or vehicle takes place of the hands and weapons. Like most shooter games, first-person shooters involve an avatar, one or more ranged weapons, a varying number of enemies; because they take place in a 3D environment, these games tend to be somewhat more realistic than 2D shooter games, have more accurate representations of gravity, lighting and collisions. First-person shooters played on personal computers are most controlled with a combination of a keyboard and mouse; this system has been claimed as superior to that found in console games, which use two analog sticks: one used for running and sidestepping, the other for looking and aiming. It is common to display the character's hands and weaponry in the main view, with a head-up display showing health and location details, it is possible to overlay a map of the surrounding area. First-person shooters focus on action gameplay, with fast-paced and bloody firefights, though some place a greater emphasis on narrative, problem-solving and logic puzzles.
In addition to shooting, melee combat may be used extensively. In some games, melee weapons are powerful, a reward for the risk the player must take in maneuvering his character into close proximity to the enemy. In other situations, a melee weapon may be necessary as a last resort. "Tactical shooters" are more realistic, require teamwork and strategy to succeed. First-person shooters give players a choice of weapons, which have a large impact on how the player will approach the game; some game designs have realistic models of actual existing or historical weapons, incorporating their rate of fire, magazine size, ammunition amount and accuracy. Other first-person shooter games may incorporate imaginative variations of weapons, including future prototypes, "alien te