A standing ovation is a form of applause where members of a seated audience stand up while applauding after extraordinary performances of high acclaim. In Ancient Rome returning military commanders whose victories did not quite meet the requirements of a triumph but which were still praiseworthy were celebrated with an ovation instead, from the Latin ovo, "I rejoice"; the word's use in English to refer to sustained applause dates from at least 1831. Standing ovations are considered to be a special honor, it is used at the entrance or departure of a speaker or performer, where the audience members will continue the ovation until the ovated person leaves or begins their speech. Some audience members worldwide have observed that the standing ovation has come to be devalued, such as in the field of politics, in which on some occasions standing ovations may be given to political leaders as a matter of course, rather than as a special honour in unusual circumstances. Examples include party conferences in many countries, where the speech of the party leader is rewarded with a "stage managed" standing ovation as a matter of course, the State of the Union Address of the President of the United States.
It is routine, rather than exceptional, for this address to be introduced and followed by standing ovations, both from the President's own party and his political opponents. However, by tradition all ovations that occur before the speech begins, as opposed to those that interrupt it, are given in praise of the office itself, rather than the individual office-holder, the President is never introduced by name. Standing ovations are often given in a sporting context to reflect an outstanding individual performance
Reps Theatre is a Zimbabwe theatre and theatrical company based in the capital city of Harare. It is one of Zimbabwe's oldest amateur theatrical companies; the first performance comprised two works – "Fame and the Poet" and "Magic". The society performs European or American Theatre; the Repertory Players is an amateur society operating with paid staff – a theatre manager, book-keeper, security and cleaning staff. But all actors and technical personnel are unpaid volunteers. In 1960, it became involved in a legal dispute because of its non-racial policies; this incident was nicknamed as "The Battle of the Toilets". The Company was formed as a'play-reading group' with four members. In February 1931, the group started doing performances in the Duthie Hall. Over the next five years, numerous productions were performed under difficult conditions. In 1936, they were offered the Prince Edward School Beit Hall; the stage was better equipped, patrons could hire out a cushion for 3d each. The society would perform 38 plays over the next 11 years, but in 1947, their tenancy was terminated as the Hall was needed for school functions.
The society was given accommodation in the show grounds. The hall had been built as a cinema in World War II; the hall was renovated and reopened in September 1947 as the'Belveder Theatre'. The theatre held 240 people and proved to be popular because of the improved standard of play presentation. Over the next 12 years, 74 plays were performed. Two men who had a profound impact on the fortunes of Reps, were George Barnes. In 1952, Reps plans to build a new theatre were taking shape. George Barnes suggested; the idea was. By 1957, the Society had raised construction began; the new Reps Theatre was opened in September 1960 with a gala production of Juliet. This included a fanfare of trumpets from the BSAP band, incidental music from a section of the municipal orchestra, corsages for every lady in the audience, a formal opening ceremony by the Governor General of the Federation, Lord Dalhousie, after the show a champagne party in the foyer for the entire audience. In 1964, Adrian was appointed as the Theatre's first paid director, wasting no time in getting the Theatre out of the financial doldrums.
Noel McDonald, another producer of note, gave much of his time to REPS theatre. He inspired many young people to tread the boards and produced pantomimes and children's shows, his wife Mary produced numerous costumes for the shows and, despite sanctions, always managed to come up trumps. "The Battle of the Toilets" is the nickname for a saga that started when the committee decided to hold a secret ballot to determine whether the new theatre, due to open in a few months, should be open to all races. An overwhelming majority voted in favour of the non-racial policy and the Reps Committee agreed; the only problem was that the new theatre only had toilets for men and women, there were immediate objections from the Salisbury Public Works Committee. They pointed to Section 142 of the Building By-Laws which stated that "Europeans are prohibited from using the same sanitary conveniences as Asiatics, Natives and/or Coloured people, Asiatics, Natives and/or Coloured people are prohibited from using the same sanitary conveniences as Europeans".
On 17 June 1959, the Committee told Reps that, unless separate conveniences were provided they would not receive a Public building Certificate and the theatre would not open. The society was in a dilemma: the new toilets would be expensive and would delay opening. There was legal doubt about the validity of the Bylaw, a debate on the issue of'Public Conveniences' was shortly to be held in parliament; this law was ignored in many other public buildings in Salisbury. The City Council, pressed the issue and, on 14 December 1959, insisted to Reps that there should not only be separate toilets, but a separate lobby and entrance. With one month until the official opening, on 13 January 1960, the Reps Committee moved to avoid a confrontation and the opening was restricted to Europeans. Once the opening was behind them and encouraged by hints that the Public Works Committee was divided on the issue, Reps decided to stand firm; the chairman, Ken Towsey, wrote letters to the Mayor of Salisbury and Councillor J. J. Posselt, stressing the doubts on the Law's validity.
The Public Works Committee did not stand down and on 29 March 1960, the Council sought an interdict against Reps. This brought the confrontation to the fore: the Society had 30 days until the motion would be debated on the committee. Reps sought the advice of Advocate Macaulay, Q. C, his opinion, which demolished the arguments of the Public Work Committee, was a model of precise argument. The report was about seven pages, covered every aspect of the issue, it was said to read like an extract from Gilbert and Sullivan, as the following passage shows: "Even if the council had the power.. to regulate the use of sanitary conveniences, the Bye-Law would still be bad in law and void for vagueness and uncertainty and unreasonableness. It prohibits the use of one race of conveniences used by another race. How can any member of the public know whether the convenience has been used, at some time, by a member of another race? Once so used the convenience becomes incapable in law of being used by the ra
Lucian Gabriel Wiina Msamati is a British-Tanzanian film and theatre actor. He played Salladhor Saan in HBO series Game of Thrones and was the first black actor to play Iago at the Royal Shakespeare Company's 2015 production of Othello. Msamati was born in the United Kingdom and brought up in Zimbabwe by his Tanzanian parents, a doctor and a nurse, his primary education began at Olympio Primary School in Dar-es-Salaam and continued at Avondale Primary School in Harare, Zimbabwe. After secondary education at Prince Edward School in Harare, he studied towards a BA Honours Degree in French and Portuguese at the University of Zimbabwe from 1995 to 1997. After university he took a day-job as an advertising freelance radio presenter, he worked as a voice-over artist and after-dinner speaker. In 1994 Msamati and school friends, Shaheen Jassat and Gavin Peter, Kevin Hanssen, Roy Chizivano, Sarah Norman founded what would become Zimbabwe's acclaimed Over the Edge Theatre Company in Harare joined by Erica Glyn-Jones, Zane E. Lucas, Chipo Chung, Karin Alexander, Rob Hollands and Michael Pearce.
The company celebrated its 10th anniversary in December 2004, having flown the Zimbabwe flag across Europe, the US and South Africa. The last few years have seen individual members pursuing other interests. Though not disbanded, there are no immediate plans of an Over the Edge reunion. From 1998 to 2001, the company performed at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in Scotland, he most starred as Salieri in Amadeus at the Royal National Theatre. Msamati has appeared in several theatrical productions in London, UK, including: In November 2010 Msamati was appointed Artistic Director of British-African theatre company Tiata Fahodzi, until being succeeded in 2014 by Natalie Ibu, he has continued to work with Tiata Fahodzi, directing Boi Boi is Dead in February–March 2015. In spring 2015, Msamati became the first black actor to play Iago in a Royal Shakespeare Company production of Othello, he has appeared in several television productions, including episodes of the television series Ultimate Force and Spooks.
In 2008 he took on his most prominent role, playing JLB Matekoni in the BBC/HBO-produced series The No. 1 Ladies' Detective Agency. He has guest starred in episodes of the BBC television series Luther, Ashes to Ashes, Doctor Who and Death in Paradise, as well as playing the part of the pirate Salladhor Saan in the HBO series Game of Thrones. Msamati appeared in the film The International. Other film credits include Lumumba, directed by Raoul Peck. Msamati appeared as Matthew in the BBC Radio 4 drama Burned To Nothing by Rex Obano, he permanently moved to the UK in 2003, now resides in London. Lucian Msamati on IMDb
Much Ado About Nothing
Much Ado About Nothing is a comedy by William Shakespeare thought to have been written in 1598 and 1599, as Shakespeare was approaching the middle of his career. The play was included in the First Folio, published in 1623. By means of "noting", Benedick and Beatrice are tricked into confessing their love for each other, Claudio is tricked into rejecting Hero at the altar on the erroneous belief that she has been unfaithful. At the end and Beatrice join forces to set things right, the others join in a dance celebrating the marriages of the two couples. In Messina, a messenger brings news that Don Pedro, a prince from Aragon, will return that night from a successful battle, Claudio being among his soldiers. Beatrice, niece of Leonato, a governor of Messina, asks the messenger about Benedick, Don Pedro's companion, makes sarcastic remarks about his ineptitude as a soldier. Leonato explains that "There is a kind of merry war betwixt Signor Benedick and her."Upon the arrival of the soldiers, Leonato welcomes Don Pedro and invites him to stay for a month and Beatrice resume their "merry war " and Pedro's illegitimate brother Don John is introduced.
Claudio's feelings for Hero, Leonato's only daughter, are rekindled upon seeing her, Claudio soon announces to Benedick his intention to court her. Benedick, who despises marriage, tries to dissuade his friend but Don Pedro encourages the marriage. Benedick swears. Don Pedro tells him that when he has found the right person he shall get married. A masquerade ball is planned in celebration of the end of the war, giving a disguised Don Pedro the opportunity to woo Hero on Claudio's behalf. Don John uses this situation to get revenge on his brother Don Pedro by telling young Claudio that Don Pedro is wooing Hero for himself. A furious Claudio confronts Don Pedro, but the misunderstanding is resolved and Claudio wins Hero's hand in marriage. Meanwhile, Benedick dances with Beatrice. Beatrice proceeds to tell this "mystery man" that Benedick is "the prince's jester, a dull fool." Benedick, enraged by her words, swears. Don Pedro and his men, bored at the prospect of waiting a week for the wedding, harbour a plan to match-make between Benedick and Beatrice.
They arrange for Benedick to overhear a conversation in which they declare that Beatrice is madly in love with him but afraid to tell him. Meanwhile and her maid Ursula ensure Beatrice overhears them discuss Benedick's undying love for her; the tricks have the desired effect: both Benedick and Beatrice are delighted to think they are the object of unrequited love, both accordingly resolve to mend their faults and reconcile. Meanwhile, Don Pedro's brother Don John, the "bastard prince", plots to stop the wedding, embarrass his brother and wreak misery on Leonato and Claudio, he informs Don Pedro and Claudio that Hero is unfaithful, arranges for them to see John's associate Borachio enter her bedchamber where he has an amorous liaison. Claudio and Don Pedro are taken in, Claudio vows to humiliate Hero publicly. At the wedding the next day, Claudio denounces Hero before the stunned guests and storms off with Don Pedro. Hero faints, her humiliated father Leonato expresses the wish. The presiding friar intervenes.
He suggests the family must fake Hero's death in order to extract Claudio's remorse. Prompted by the day's stressful events and Beatrice confess their love for each other. Beatrice asks Benedick to kill Claudio as proof of his devotion, since he has slandered her kinswoman. Benedick at first denies her request. Leonato and his brother Antonio challenge him to a duel. Benedick does the same. Benedick is one of the few who believe Hero. Luckily, on the night of Don John's treachery, the local Watch apprehended Borachio and his ally Conrade. Despite the comic ineptness of the Watch, they have overheard the duo discussing their evil plans; the Watch arrest the villains and obtain a confession, informing Leonato of Hero's innocence. Though Don John has fled the city, a force is sent to capture him. Claudio, stricken with remorse at Hero's supposed death, agrees to her father's demand that he marry Antonio's daughter, "almost the copy of my child that's dead" and carry on the family name. At the wedding, the bride is revealed to be Hero.
Claudio is overjoyed. Beatrice and Benedick, prompted by their friends' interference and publicly confess their love for each other; as the play draws to a close, a messenger arrives with news of Don John's capture – but Benedick proposes to postpone his punishment to another day so that the couples can enjoy their new-found happiness. Don Pedro is lonely, thus Benedick gives him the advice "Get thee a wife." Stories of lovers deceived into believing each other false were common currency in northern Italy in the sixteenth century. Shakespeare's immediate source could have been one of the Novelle by Matteo Bandello of Mantua, dealing with the tribulations of Sir Timbreo and his betrothed Fenicia Lionata in Messina after King Piero's defeat of Charles of Anjou through the translation into French by François de Belleforest. Another version featuring lovers Ariodante and Ginevra, with the servant Dalinda impersonating Ginevra on the balcony, appears in Book
Zimbabwe the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of 16 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English and Ndebele the most used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade; the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia; the state endured a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces. Zimbabwe joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then-government, from which it withdrew in December 2003; the sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa.
It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity under the former Rhodesian administration. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator"; the country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état.
On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed. On 30 July 2018 Zimbabwe held its general elections, won by the ZANU-PF party led by Emmerson Mnangagwa. Nelson Chamisa, leading the main opposition party MDC Alliance contested the election results and filed a petition to the Constitution Court of Zimbabwe; the court confirmed Mnangagwa's victory. The name "Zimbabwe" stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, an ancient ruined city in the country's south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the word. Many sources hold that "Zimbabwe" derives from dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as "houses of stones"; the Karanga-speaking Shona people live around Great Zimbabwe in the modern-day province of Masvingo. Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and references chiefs' houses or graves.
Zimbabwe was known as Southern Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia. The first recorded use of "Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference dates from 1960 as a coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema, whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to use the name in 1961; the term "Rhodesia"—derived from the surname of Cecil Rhodes, the primary instigator of British colonisation of the territory during the late 19th century—was perceived by African nationalists as inappropriate because of its colonial origin and connotations. According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in 1960 to choose an alternative name for the country, proposing names such as "Matshobana" and "Monomotapa" before his suggestion, "Zimbabwe", prevailed. A further alternative, put forward by nationalists in Matabeleland, had been "Matopos", referring to the Matopos Hills to the south of Bulawayo, it was unclear how the chosen term was to be used—a letter written by Mawema in 1961 refers to "Zimbabweland" — but "Zimbabwe" was sufficiently established by 1962 to become the preferred term of the black nationalist movement.
In a 2001 interview, black nationalist Edson Zvobgo recalled that Mawema mentioned the name during a political rally, "and it caught hold, and, that". The black nationalist factions subsequently used the name during the Second Chimurenga campaigns against the Rhodesian government during the Rhodesian Bush War of 1964–1979. Major factions in this camp included the Zimbabwe African National Union, the Zimbabwe African People's Union. Archaeological records date human settlement of present-day Zimbabwe to at least 100,000 years ago; the earliest known inhabitants were San people, who left behind arrowheads and cave paintings. The first Bantu-speaking farmers arrived during the Bantu expansion around 2000 years ago. Societies speaking proto-Shona languages fir
Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière, was a French playwright and poet regarded as one of the greatest writers in the French language and universal literature. His extant works include comedies, tragicomedies, comédie-ballets and more, his plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed at the Comédie-Française more than those of any other playwright today. His influence is such that the French language itself is referred to as the "language of Molière". Born into a prosperous family and having studied at the Collège de Clermont, Molière was well suited to begin a life in the theatre. Thirteen years as an itinerant actor helped him polish his comic abilities while he began writing, combining Commedia dell'arte elements with the more refined French comedy. Through the patronage of aristocrats including Philippe I, Duke of Orléans—the brother of Louis XIV—Molière procured a command performance before the King at the Louvre. Performing a classic play by Pierre Corneille and a farce of his own, The Doctor in Love, Molière was granted the use of salle du Petit-Bourbon near the Louvre, a spacious room appointed for theatrical performances.
He was granted the use of the theatre in the Palais-Royal. In both locations Molière found success among Parisians with plays such as The Affected Ladies, The School for Husbands and The School for Wives; this royal favour brought a royal pension to the title Troupe du Roi. Molière continued as the official author of court entertainments. Despite the adulation of the court and Parisians, Molière's satires attracted criticism from churchmen. For Tartuffe's impiety, the Catholic Church denounced this study of religious hypocrisy followed by the Parliament's ban, while Don Juan was withdrawn and never restaged by Molière, his hard work in so many theatrical capacities took its toll on his health and, by 1667, he was forced to take a break from the stage. In 1673, during a production of his final play, The Imaginary Invalid, Molière, who suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis, was seized by a coughing fit and a haemorrhage while playing the hypochondriac Argan, he finished the performance but died a few hours later.
Molière was born in Paris, the son of Jean Poquelin and Marie Cressé, the daughter of a prosperous bourgeois family. Upon seeing him for the first time, a maid exclaimed, "Le nez!", a reference to the infant's large nose. Molière was called "Le Nez" by his family from that time, he lost his mother when he was ten and he does not seem to have been close to his father. After his mother's death, he lived with his father above the Pavillon des Singes on the rue Saint-Honoré, an affluent area of Paris, it is that his education commenced with studies at a Parisian elementary school. In 1631, Jean Poquelin purchased from the court of Louis XIII the posts of "valet de chambre ordinaire et tapissier du Roi", his son assumed the same posts in 1641. The title required an initial cost of 1,200 livres. Molière studied as a provincial lawyer some time around 1642 in Orléans, but it is not documented that he qualified. So far he had followed his father's plans. In June 1643, when Molière was 21, he decided to abandon his social class and pursue a career on the stage.
Taking leave of his father, he joined the actress Madeleine Béjart, with whom he had crossed paths before, founded the Illustre Théâtre with 630 livres. They were joined by Madeleine's brother and sister; the new theatre troupe went bankrupt in 1645. Molière had become head of the troupe, due in part to his acting prowess and his legal training. However, the troupe had acquired large debts for the rent of the theatre, for which they owed 2000 livres. Historians differ as to whether the lover of a member of his troupe paid his debts, it was at this time that he began to use the pseudonym Molière inspired by a small village of the same name in the Midi near Le Vigan. It was likely that he changed his name to spare his father the shame of having an actor in the family. After his imprisonment, he and Madeleine began a theatrical circuit of the provinces with a new theatre troupe. Few plays survive from this period; the most noteworthy are Le Docteur Amoureux. In the course of his travels he met Armand, Prince of Conti, the governor of Languedoc, who became his patron, named his company after him.
This friendship ended when Armand, having contracted syphilis from a courtesan, turned towards religion and joined Moliè