Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow. Many types of competitive skiing events are recognized by the International Olympic Committee, the International Ski Federation. Skiing has a history of five millennia. Although modern skiing has evolved from beginnings in Scandinavia, it may have been practiced more than 100 centuries ago in what is now China, according to an interpretation of ancient paintings; the word "ski" is one of a handful of words. It comes from the Old Norse word "skíð" which means "split piece of wood or firewood". Asymmetrical skis were used in northern Sweden until at least the late 19th century. On one foot, the skier wore a long straight non-arching ski for sliding, a shorter ski was worn on the other foot for kicking; the underside of the short ski was either plain or covered with animal skin to aid this use, while the long ski supporting the weight of the skier was treated with animal fat in a similar manner to modern ski waxing.
Early skiers used spear. The first depiction of a skier with two ski poles dates to 1741. Skiing was used for transport until the mid-19th century, but since has become a recreation and sport. Military ski races were held in Norway during the 18th century, ski warfare was studied in the late 18th century; as equipment evolved and ski lifts were developed during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, two main genres of skiing emerged—Alpine skiing and Nordic skiing. The main difference between the two is the type of ski binding. Called "downhill skiing", Alpine skiing takes place on a piste at a ski resort, it is characterized by fixed-heel bindings that attach at both the toe and the heel of the skier's boot. Ski lifts, including chairlifts, bring skiers up the slope. Backcountry skiing can be accessed by helicopter, snowcat and snowmobile. Facilities at resorts can include night skiing, après-ski, glade skiing under the supervision of the ski patrol and the ski school. Alpine skiing branched off from the older Nordic type of skiing around the 1920s when the advent of ski lifts meant that it was not necessary to walk any longer.
Alpine equipment has specialized to the point. The Nordic disciplines include cross-country skiing and ski jumping, which both use bindings that attach at the toes of the skier's boots but not at the heels. Cross-country skiing may be practiced in undeveloped backcountry areas. Ski jumping is practiced in certain areas that are reserved for ski jumping. Telemark skiing is a ski turning technique and FIS-sanctioned discipline, named after the Telemark region of Norway, it uses equipment similar to Nordic skiing, where the ski bindings are attached only at the toes of the ski boots, allowing the skier's heel to be raised throughout the turn. The following disciplines are sanctioned by the FIS. Many are included in the Winter Olympic Games. Cross-country – Encompasses a variety of formats for cross-country skiing races over courses of varying lengths. Races occur on homologated, groomed courses designed to support classic and free-style events, where skate skiing may be employed; the main competitions are the FIS Cross-Country World Cup and the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, various cross-country skiing events have been incorporated into the Winter Olympics since its inception in 1924.
The discipline incorporates: cross-country ski marathon events, sanctioned by the Worldloppet Ski Federation. Paralympic cross-country skiing and paralympic biathlon are both included in the Winter Paralympic Games. Ski jumping – Contested at the FIS Ski Jumping World Cup, the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, the FIS Ski Jumping Grand Prix, the FIS Ski Flying World Championships. Ski jumping has been a regular Olympic discipline at every Winter Games since 1924. Freeriding skiing – This category of skiing includes any practice of the sport on non-groomed terrain. Nordic combined – A combination of cross-country skiing and ski jumping, this discipline is contested at the FIS Nordic Combined World Cup, the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, at the Winter Olympics. Alpine skiing – Includes downhill, giant slalom, super giant slalom, para-alpine events. There are combined events where the competitors must complete one run of each event, for example, the Super Combined event consists of one run of super-G and one run of slalom skiing.
The dual slalom event, where racers ski head-to-head, was invented in 1941 and has been a competitive event since 1960. Alpine skiing is contested at the FIS Alpine Ski World Cup, the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships, the Winter Olympics. Para-alpine skiing is contested at the World Para Alpine Skiing Championships and the Winter Paralympics. Speed skiing – Dating from 1898, with official records beginning in 1932 with an 89-mile-per-hour run by Leo Gasperi, this became an FIS discipline in the 1960s, it is contested at the FIS Speed Ski World Cup, was demonstrated at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville. Freestyle skiing – Includes mogul skiing, ski cross, half-pipe, slopestyle; the main freestyle competitions are the FIS Freestyle Skiing World Cup and t
A construction worker is a tradesperson, laborer, or professional employed in the physical construction of the built environment and its infrastructure. The term construction worker is a generic term and most construction workers are described by the type of work they perform. Construction workers may colloquially be referred to as "hard hat workers" or "hard hats", as they wear hardhats for safety. Construction workers work under a construction foreman. While most construction workers learn on the job as an informal apprentice to an experienced tradesman, formal apprenticeship programs are common in developed countries with trade unions; the division of labor of construction encompasses a diverse range of manual labor. Among the most common construction trades are those of carpenter, heavy equipment operator, laborer, plasterer, pipefitter, sheet metal worker, steel fixer, welder. Construction safety is important to ensure a safe environment for the workers. All construction workers need to be educated on safety at each construction site to minimize injury.
In 2008, a Human Rights Watch report described unsafe and unfair working conditions and failure on the part of the Chinese government to enforce labor standards in the construction industry. The International Labour Organization estimated that, at the end of 2006, 90% of the 40 million construction workers in China were migrant workers. Many of the migrant workers turned to construction work after their farming communities collapsed into poverty. In the United States, illegal immigrant labor is prevalent in the construction industry; because of the questionable legal status of these workers, employers have the ability to commit crimes such as wage theft and violation of workplace standards without fear of facing consequences. Similar abuse of immigrant labor is a problem in Qatar during the lead up to the 2022 FIFA World Cup where workers from poor countries in the Indian Sub-continent are forced to work in desert conditions for as little as €6.20 a day. Construction and Maintenance at Curlie
Stella Nina McCartney, OBE is an English fashion designer. She is a daughter of American photographer and animal rights activist Linda McCartney and former Beatles member Sir Paul McCartney. Like her parents, McCartney is a firm supporter of animal rights and is known for her use of vegetarian and animal-free alternatives in her work. McCartney was born in Lambeth, the second child of American photographer Linda McCartney and former Beatle Paul McCartney, she is named after her maternal great-grandmothers. As a little girl, McCartney travelled the globe with her parents and their group Wings, along with her siblings: older half-sister Heather, older sister Mary, younger brother James. According to her father, the name of Wings was inspired by Stella's difficult delivery; as his daughter was being born by emergency caesarean section, Paul sat outside the operating room and prayed that she be born "on the wings of an angel". Despite their fame, the McCartneys wanted their children to lead as normal a life as possible, so Stella and her siblings attended local state schools in East Sussex, one of them being Bexhill College.
McCartney has said that while attending state school, she was a victim of bullying, as well as being a bully herself. McCartney became interested in designing clothes as a youth. At age thirteen, she designed her first jacket. Three years she interned for Christian Lacroix, working on her first haute couture collection, honing her skillsworking for Edward Sexton, her father's Savile Row tailor for a number of years, she studied her foundation at Ravensbourne College of Design and Communication, followed by Fashion Design at Central Saint Martins in the early 1990s: she graduated in 1995. Her graduation collection was modelled by friends and supermodels Naomi Campbell, Yasmin Le Bon and Kate Moss – for free – at the graduation runway show; the collection was shown to a song penned by her famous father, called "Stella May Day". A lifelong vegetarian, McCartney does not use any fur in her designs; the Guardian described her in 2015 as a "vocal" supporter of animal rights. She supports PETA; some of McCartney's designs have text.
A pair of her vinyl and ultrasuede boots were marketed as being vegan-friendly, although her use of oil-based synthetics still raised ecological concerns. In 2001, McCartney launched her own fashion house under her name in a joint venture with Gucci Group and showed her first collection in Paris. McCartney now operates 17 freestanding stores in locations including Manhattan’s Soho, London’s Mayfair, LA’s West Hollywood, Paris’ Palais Royal, Barcelona's Passeig de Gracia and Milan, opened doors in Rome and Houston. In 2003, McCartney launched Stella. In January 2007, McCartney launched a skincare line, CARE; the 100% organic line includes seven products, from a cleansing milk made with lemon balm and apricot to green tea and linden blossom floral water. In 2008, she launched a new lingerie line. In November 2010, the Stella McCartney Kids collection was launched for newborns and children up to age 12. In June 2012, McCartney invited the Soul Rebels Brass Band to perform at her 2013 spring fashion presentation hosted at the New York Marble Cemetery in New York City on 11 June 2012.
Other guests invited to the party included Anne Hathaway, Jim Carrey, Anna Wintour, Annie Leibovitz, Lauren Hutton, Amy Poehler, Solange Knowles, P'Trique, Greta Gerwig and André Leon Talley. In 2012, McCartney was part of the book "The sustainable Fashion Handbook"In November 2016, McCartney launched her first menswear collection; the collection is made up of pyjama-like casual outfits. McCartney said. In April 2018, after 17 years of partnership with Kering, Stella McCartney has decided to purchase the fashion giant's stake of her company and take the reins of her global fashion empire. McCartney was the designer of Meghan Markle's wedding reception dress, she created 46 replicas of the dress, 23 in lily white and 23 in onyx black, for her Made With Love capsule collection each priced at £3,500. On 15 October 2018, Stella McCartney announced the launch of Stella McCartney Cares Foundation – a charity dedicated to breast cancer; the cause is close to McCartney, since she lost her mother to the disease in 1998.
The charity will donate 1,000 of the brand’s Louis Listening post-operative mastectomy compression bras to women undergoing breast cancer treatment. McCartney launched a joint-venture line with Adidas, establishing a long-term partnership with the corporation in September 2004; this line is a sports performance collection for women. In January 2010, McCartney announced she would be collaborating with Disney to create an Alice in Wonderland-inspired jewelry collection. In July of the same year, together with PETA and eco designer Atom Cianfarani, McCartney worked to petition the British Ministry of Defence to cease the use of Canadian Black Bears as the fur for their guards' hats; as of yet, the Military has not taken up the change. In July 2011 she participated at the catwalk of The Brandery fashion show in Barcelona. In December 2018, Stella McCartney announced to launch a new fashion industry charter for climate action, in collaboration with the United Nations. To help fashion companies welcome sustainable business practices.
In September 2010, Stella McCartney was appointed Team GB’s Creative Director for the 2012 Olympics by Adidas – the first time in the history of the games that a leadi
A boilersuit is a loose fitting garment covering the whole body except for the head and feet. The 1989 edition of the Oxford English Dictionary lists the word boilersuit first on 28 October 1928 in the Sunday Express newspaper; the garment is known as coveralls in North America, or as an overall elsewhere in the UK. A more tight-fitting garment, otherwise similar to a boilersuit is called a jumpsuit; the "siren suit" favoured by Winston Churchill during the Second World War was similar to a boilersuit. A boilersuit is a one-piece garment with full-length sleeves and legs like a jumpsuit, but less tight-fitting, its main feature is that it has no gap between jacket and trousers or between lapels, no loose jacket tails. It has a long thin pocket down the outside of the right thigh to hold long tools, it has a front fastening extending the whole length of the front of the body up to the throat, with no lapels. It may be fastened with a zip, velcro, or snap fasteners. Boilersuits with an attached hood are available.
The word "boilersuit" may refer to disposable garments such as DuPont's Tyvek suits. Boilersuits are so called. To check for steam leaks or to clean accumulated soot from inside the firebox of a steam locomotive, someone had to climb inside, through the firehole. A one-piece suit avoids the potential problem of loosened soot entering the lower half of one's clothing through the gap in the middle; as the firehole opening is only just large enough for a fit individual to negotiate, a one-piece suit avoids the problem of the waistband snagging on the firehole as one bends to wriggle through, or of jacket tails snagging if one has to come out backwards. Coveralls are most worn as protective clothing over "street" clothes at work, but sometimes instead of ordinary jacket and trousers. Coveralls are sometimes used as prison uniforms in the U. S and other countries. SWAT units use boilersuits as a uniform, for instance the French police unit Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité or the Austrian units EKO Cobra and WEGA.
Similar coveralls made of Nomex in olive drab are used by the crews of armoured fighting vehicles in the US Army and Marine Corps, where the men and their suits are sometimes called "CVCs", an abbreviation of "Combat Vehicle Crewman". More form fitting coveralls with many zippered pockets made of cotton treated for flame resistance, but made of Nomex since the late 1960s, have been used as flight suits since the beginning of World War II. Japanese politicians have been known to use boiler suits to convey an image of preparedness. Coveralls called student boilersuits are used by university students in some Nordic countries as a sort of party-uniform, with insignia on the back and colour varying with programme and university. For fans of the horror genre of film, the boiler suit is irrevocably associated with the slasher subgenre, being worn by both Michael Myers of the Halloween films and by Jason Voorhees of the Friday the 13th franchise. For fans of popular music, Pete Townshend of The Who wore a white boiler suit during performances and in publicity photographs from 1969-71.
The Church of Scientology has punished Sea Org members in the Rehabilitation Project Force by making them wear black boiler suits. Flight suit Jumpsuit Siren suit Speedsuit Onesie
Gandy dancer is a slang term used for early railroad workers in the United States, more formally referred to as "section hands", who laid and maintained railroad tracks in the years before the work was done by machines. The British equivalents of the term gandy dancer are "navvy" builders of canals or "inland navigations", for builders of railway lines, "platelayer" for workers employed to inspect and maintain the track. In the Southwestern United States and Mexico and Mexican-American track workers were colloquially "traqueros". In the United States, early section crews were made up of recent immigrants and ethnic minorities who vied for steady work despite poor wages and working conditions, hard physical labor; the Chinese, Mexican Americans, Native Americans in the Western United States, the Irish in the Midwestern United States, East Europeans and Italians in the Northeastern United States all worked as gandy dancers. Though all gandy dancers sang railroad songs, it may be that African American gandy dancers from the Southern United States, with a long tradition of using song to coordinate work, were unique in their use of task-related work chants.
There are various theories about the derivation of the term, but most refer to the "dancing" movements of the workers using a specially manufactured 5-foot "lining" bar, which came to be called a "gandy", as a lever to keep the tracks in alignment. The term has an uncertain origin. A majority of early northern railway workers were Irish, so an Irish or Gaelic derivation for the English term seems possible. Others have suggested that the term gandy dancer was coined to describe the movements of the workers themselves, i.e. the constant "dancing" motion of the track workers as they lunged against their tools in unison to nudge the rails timed by a chant. But most researchers have identified a "Gandy Shovel Company" or, variously, "Gandy Manufacturing Company" or "Gandy Tool Company" reputed to have existed in Chicago as the source of the tools from which gandy dancers took their name; some sources list the goods manufactured by the company, i.e. "tamping bars, claw bars and shovels." But others have cast doubt on the existence of such a company.
The Chicago Historical Society has been asked for information on the company so many times that they have said, "It's like a legend, " but they have never been able to find a Gandy company in their old records. Though rail tracks were held in place by wooden ties and the mass of the crushed rock beneath them, each pass of a train around a curve would, through centripetal force and vibration, produce a tiny shift in the tracks, requiring that work crews periodically realign the track. If allowed to accumulate, such shifts could cause a derailment. For each stroke, a worker would lift his lining bar and force it into the ballast to create a fulcrum throw himself forward using the bar to check his full weight so the bar would push the rail toward the inside of the curve; the process is explained at the Encyclopedia Alabama folklore section: "Each workman carried a lining bar, a straight pry bar with a sharp end. The thicker bottom end was shaped to a chisel point; when lining track, each man would face one of the rails and work the chisel end of his lining bar down at an angle into the ballast under it.
All would take a step toward their rail and pull up and forward on their pry bars to lever the track—rails and all—over and through the ballast." Workers needed to periodically level the track by jacking it up in the low spots. Standing shoulder to shoulder, they raised the track with square-ended picks and pushed ballast under the railroad ties. With repeated impacts from the work crew of eight, ten, or more, any progress made in shifting the track would not become visible until after a large number of repetitions; as maintenance of way workers, besides lining bars gandy dancers used special sledge hammers called spike mauls to drive spikes, shovels or ballast forks to move track ballast, large clamps called "rail dogs" to carry rails, ballast tamper bars or picks to adjust the ballast. The same ground crews performed the other aspects of track maintenance, such as removing weeds, unloading ties and rails, replacing worn rails and rotten ties; the work was difficult and the pay was low, but it was one of the only jobs available for southern black men and newly arriving immigrants at that time.
Black men working on the railroad were held in high esteem among their peers. There’s a blues song that says "when you marry, marry a railroad man, every day Sunday, a dollar in your hand." In 1918, in an article for Harper's Magazine about the Industrial Workers of the World, Robert W. Bruere explained the economic circumstances that sometimes drove gandy dancers and other itinerant workers to join that organization: The division superintendent of a great Western railroad explained to me his reluctant part in the creation of the disintegrating conditions out of which the migratory workers and the rebellious propaganda of the I. W. W. have sprung. "The men down East," he said, "the men who have invested their money in our road, measure our administrative efficiency by money return—by net earnings and dividends. Many of our shareholders have never seen the country.
Western dress codes
Western dress codes are dress codes in Western culture about what clothes are worn in what setting. Classifications are traditionally divided into formal attire, semi-formal attire, informal attire, with the first two sometimes in turn divided into day and evening wear. A level below these are sometimes referred to as casual attire in combinations such as "smart casual" or "business casual" in order to indicate higher expectation than none at all; the more formal traditional Western dress code interpretations -, formal i.e. "white tie" and semi-formal i.e. "black tie" - have remained codified for men with fixed definitions unchanged since the 20th century with roots in 19th century customs. For women, changes in fashion have been more dynamic. Yet, although casual inventions and reinterpretations of the classifications have occurred and fluctuated, the general formal traditions have persisted for more than a century. Dress codes are sometimes expected by peer pressure, or followed intuitively.
As with other cultures, versions of ceremonial dresses, military uniforms, religious clothing, academic dresses, national dresses appropriate to the formality level are permitted and worn as exceptions to the uniformity in the form of headgear. Conversely, since most cultures have at least intuitively applied some level equivalent to the more formal ones in Western dress code traditions, the latter's versatile framework open to amalgation of international and local customs have influenced its competitiveness as international standard range from formal to casual; the background of traditional contemporary Western dress codes as fixed in 20th century relied on several steps of replacement of preexisting formal wear, while in turn increasing the formality levels of the less formal alternatives. Thus was the case with the ceasing of the justacorps, extensively worn from the 1660s until the 1790s, followed by the same fate of the 18th century frock, in turn followed by the frock coat. Before the modern system of formal, semi-formal, informal was consolidated in the 20th century, the terms were looser.
In the 19th century, during the Victorian and Edwardian periods, the principal classifications of clothing were full dress and undress, less the intermediate half dress. Full dress covered the most formal option: frock coat for day attire, dress coat for evening attire; when morning dress became common, it was considered less formal than a frock coat, when the frock coat was phased out, morning dress never achieved full dress status. Therefore, in the 21st century, full dress refers to white tie only. Today's semi-formal black tie was described as informal attire, while the "lounge suit," now standard business attire, was considered casual attire. Half dress, when used, was variously applied at different times, but was used to cover modern morning dress. Undress in turn was loose in meaning, corresponding to anything from a dressing gown to a lounge suit or its evening equivalent of dinner clothes; the table below summarises the traditional Western dress codes: Please note that the definitions listed above are the strict, traditional definitions, which may not be followed in common use.
For example, formal is used to mean any of the first three, informal to indicate what is classified here as casual. Typical events: Weddings, state dinners and affairs, formal balls, royal events, etc. Note that the use of white tie and morning dress has become rare in some countries, where black tie or a lounge suit is worn to the above events. Typical events: Theatre opening nights, charity balls, etc. There is some variation in style depending on whether it is winter. See black tie and stroller for more details. In the last few decades, in place of the traditional white tie or morning dress, black tie has been seen in the United States at formal day wedding; however and clothing experts continue to discourage or condemn the wearing of black tie as too informal for weddings, or any event before 7 p.m. such as by Emily Post and Amy Vanderbilt, the latter arguing that "no man should be caught in a church in a tuxedo." Typical events: Diplomatic and business meetings, many social occasions, everyday wear Business wear is included in the informal category consisting of a business suit and tie.
Informal dress code encompasses all suits, but not all suits are considered business appropriate in fabric, cut, or color. Casual attire, although not traditionally part of Western dress codes, are sometimes applied colloquially. Related to this category is smart casual, etc.. Western dress codes portal Military uniform School uniform Sondag, Glen. Anything Other Than Naked. London Street Press. Pp. 200 pages. ISBN 1-936183-83-8
Personal protective equipment
Personal protective equipment is protective clothing, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection. The hazards addressed by protective equipment include physical, heat, chemicals and airborne particulate matter. Protective equipment may be worn for job-related occupational safety and health purposes, as well as for sports and other recreational activities. "Protective clothing" is applied to traditional categories of clothing, "protective gear" applies to items such as pads, shields, or masks, others. The purpose of personal protective equipment is to reduce employee exposure to hazards when engineering controls and administrative controls are not feasible or effective to reduce these risks to acceptable levels. PPE is needed. PPE has the serious limitation that it does not eliminate the hazard at the source and may result in employees being exposed to the hazard if the equipment fails. Any item of PPE imposes a barrier between the working environment.
This can create additional strains on the wearer. Any of these can discourage wearers from using PPE therefore placing them at risk of injury, ill-health or, under extreme circumstances, death. Good ergonomic design can help to minimise these barriers and can therefore help to ensure safe and healthy working conditions through the correct use of PPE. Practices of occupational safety and health can use hazard controls and interventions to mitigate workplace hazards, which pose a threat to the safety and quality of life of workers; the hierarchy of hazard controls provides a policy framework which ranks the types of hazard controls in terms of absolute risk reduction. At the top of the hierarchy are elimination and substitution, which remove the hazard or replace the hazard with a safer alternative. If elimination or substitution measures cannot apply, engineering controls and administrative controls, which seek to design safer mechanisms and coach safer human behavior, are implemented. Personal protective equipment ranks last on the hierarchy of controls, as the workers are exposed to the hazard, with a barrier of protection.
The hierarchy of controls is important in acknowledging that, while personal protective equipment has tremendous utility, it is not the desired mechanism of control in terms of worker safety. Personal protective equipment can be categorized by the area of the body protected, by the types of hazard, by the type of garment or accessory. A single item, for example boots, may provide multiple forms of protection: a steel toe cap and steel insoles for protection of the feet from crushing or puncture injuries, impervious rubber and lining for protection from water and chemicals, high reflectivity and heat resistance for protection from radiant heat, high electrical resistivity for protection from electric shock; the protective attributes of each piece of equipment must be compared with the hazards expected to be found in the workplace. More breathable types of personal protective equipment may not lead to more contamination but do result in greater user satisfaction. Respirators serve to protect the user from breathing in contaminants in the air, thus preserving the health of one's respiratory tract.
There are two main types of respirators. One type of respirator functions by filtering out chemicals and gases, or airborne particles, from the air breathed by the user; the filtration may be either active. Gas masks and particulate respirators are examples of this type of respirator. A second type of respirator protects users by providing respirable air from another source; this type includes self-contained breathing apparatus. In work environments, respirators are relied upon when adequate ventilation is not available or other engineering control systems are not feasible or inadequate. In the United Kingdom, an organization that has extensive expertise in respiratory protective equipment is the Institute of Occupational Medicine; this expertise has been built on a long-standing and varied research programme that has included the setting of workplace protection factors to the assessment of efficacy of masks available through high street retail outlets. The Health and Safety Executive, NHS Health Scotland and Healthy Working Lives have jointly developed the RPE Selector Tool, web-based.
This interactive tool provides descriptions of different types of respirators and breathing apparatuses, as well as "dos and don'ts" for each type. In the United States, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health provides recommendations on respirator use, in accordance to NIOSH federal respiratory regulations 42 CFR Part 84; the National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory of NIOSH is tasked towards conducting studies on respirators and providing recommendations. Occupational skin diseases such as contact dermatitis, skin cancers, other skin injuries and infections are the second-most common type of occupational disease and can be costly. Skin hazards, which lead to occupational skin disease, can be classified into four groups. Chemical agents can come into contact with the skin through direct contact with contaminated surfaces, deposition of aerosols, immersion or splashes. Physical agents such as extreme temperatures and ultraviolet or solar radiation can be damaging to the skin over prolonged exposure.
Mechanical trauma occurs in the form of friction, abrasions and contusions. Biological agents such as parasites, microorganisms and animals can have varied eff