Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is a city in western New York state and the county seat of Erie County, on the eastern shores of Lake Erie at the head of the Niagara River. As of 2014, Buffalo is New York states 2nd-most populous city after New York City, the metropolitan area has a population of 1.13 million. After an economic downturn in the half of the 20th century, Buffalos economy has transitioned to sectors that include financial services, biomedical engineering. Residents of Buffalo are called Buffalonians, the citys nicknames include The Queen City, The Nickel City and The City of Good Neighbors. The city of Buffalo received its name from a creek called Buffalo Creek. British military engineer Captain John Montresor made reference to Buffalo Creek in his journal of 1764, there are several theories regarding how Buffalo Creek received its name. In 1804, as principal agent opening the area for the Holland Land Company, Joseph Ellicott, designed a radial street and grid system that branches out from downtown like bicycle spokes similar to the street system he used in the nations capital.
Although Ellicott named the settlement New Amsterdam, the name did not catch on, during the War of 1812, on December 30,1813, Buffalo was burned by British forces. The George Coit House 1818 and Samuel Schenck House 1823 are currently the oldest houses within the limits of the City of Buffalo, on October 26,1825, the Erie Canal was completed with Buffalo a port-of-call for settlers heading westward. At the time, the population was about 2,400, the Erie Canal brought about a surge in population and commerce, which led Buffalo to incorporate as a city in 1832. In 1845, construction began on the Macedonia Baptist Church, an important meeting place for the abolitionist movement, Buffalo was a terminus point of the Underground Railroad with many fugitive slaves crossing the Niagara River to Fort Erie, Ontario in search of freedom. During the 1840s, Buffalos port continued to develop, both passenger and commercial traffic expanded with some 93,000 passengers heading west from the port of Buffalo.
Grain and commercial goods shipments led to repeated expansion of the harbor, in 1843, the worlds first steam-powered grain elevator was constructed by local merchant Joseph Dart and engineer Robert Dunbar. Darts Elevator enabled faster unloading of lake freighters along with the transshipment of grain in bulk from barges, canal boats, by 1850, the citys population was 81,000. At the dawn of the 20th century, local mills were among the first to benefit from hydroelectric power generated by the Niagara River, the city got the nickname City of Light at this time due to the widespread electric lighting. It was part of the revolution, hosting the brass era car builders Pierce Arrow. President William McKinley was shot and mortally wounded by an anarchist at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo on September 6,1901, McKinley died in the city eight days and Theodore Roosevelt was sworn in at the Wilcox Mansion as the 26th President of the United States. The Great Depression of 1929–39 saw severe unemployment, especially working class men
Chinese architecture is a style of architecture that has taken shape in East Asia over many centuries. The structural principles of Chinese architecture have remained unchanged, the main changes being only the decorative details. Since the Tang Dynasty, Chinese architecture has had a influence on the architectural styles of Korea, Vietnam. The architecture of China is as old as Chinese civilization, throughout the 20th Century, Western-trained Chinese architects have attempted to combine traditional Chinese designs into modern architecture, with only limited success. A very important feature in Chinese architecture is its emphasis on articulation and bilateral symmetry, bilateral symmetry and the articulation of buildings are found everywhere in Chinese architecture, from palace complexes to humble farmhouses. When possible, plans for renovation and extension of a house will often try to maintain this symmetry provided that there is enough capital to do so, secondary elements are positioned either side of main structures as two wings to maintain overall bilateral symmetry.
The buildings are planned to contain an even number of columns in a structure to produce an odd number of bays. With the inclusion of a door to a building in the center bay. In contrast to the buildings, Chinese gardens are an exception which tend to be asymmetrical. The principle underlying the composition is to create enduring flow. In much of traditional Chinese architecture, buildings or building complexes take up an entire property and these enclosed spaces come in two forms, Courtyard, The use of open courtyards is a common feature in many types of Chinese architectures. This is best exemplified in the Siheyuan, which has consisted of an empty space surrounded by buildings connected with one another either directly or through verandas. This structure is essentially an enclosed courtyard formed from the intersections of closely spaced buildings. These enclosures serve in temperature regulation and in venting the building complexes, northern courtyards are typically open and facing the south to allow the maximum exposure of the building windows and walls to the sun while keeping the cold northern winds out.
Southern sky wells are relatively small and serves to collect water from the roof tops. They perform the duties as the Roman impluvium while restricting the amount of sunlight that enters the building. Sky wells serve as vents for rising hot air, which cool air from the lower stories of the house. The projected hierarchy and importance and uses of buildings in traditional Chinese architecture are based on the placement of buildings in a property/complex
The Barcelona Pavilion, designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, was the German Pavilion for the 1929 International Exposition in Barcelona, Spain. This building was used for the opening of the German section of the exhibition. It is an important building in the history of architecture, known for its simple form and its spectacular use of extravagant materials, such as marble, red onyx. The same features of minimalism and spectacular can be applied to the prestigious furniture specifically designed for the building, among which the iconic Barcelona chair and it has inspired many important modernist buildings, including Michael Mansers Capel Manor House in Kent. Mies was offered the commission of building in 1928 after his successful administration of the 1927 Werkbund exhibition in Stuttgart. However, Mies had severe time constraints—he had to design the Barcelona Pavilion in less than a year—and was dealing with economic conditions. In the years following World War I, Germany started to turn around, the economy started to recover after the 1924 Dawes Plan.
The Commissioner, Georg von Schnitzler said it should give voice to the spirit of a new era and this concept was carried out with the realization of the Free plan and the Floating roof. Miess response to the proposal by von Schnitzler was radical, the pavilion was to be bare, with no exhibits, leaving only the structure accompanying a single sculpture and specially-designed furniture. This lack of accommodation enabled Mies to treat the Pavilion as a continuous space, the design was predicated on an absolute distinction between structure and enclosure—a regular grid of cruciform steel columns interspersed by freely spaced planes. However, the structure was more of a style, some of these planes acted as supports. The floor plan is very simple, the entire building rests on a plinth of travertine. A southern U-shaped enclosure, of travertine, helps form a service annex, the floor slabs of the pavilion project out and over the pool—once again connecting inside and out. Another U-shaped wall on the side of the site forms a smaller water basin.
This is where the statue by Georg Kolbe sits, the roof plates, relatively small, are supported by the chrome-clad, cruciform columns. This gives the impression of a hovering roof, robin Evans said that the reflective columns appear to be struggling to hold the floating roof plane down, not to be bearing its weight. Mies wanted this building to become an ideal zone of tranquillity for the weary visitor, since the pavilion lacked a real exhibition space, the building itself was to become the exhibit. The pavilion was designed to block any passage through the site, visitors would enter by going up a few stairs, and due to the slightly sloped site, would leave at ground level in the direction of the Poble Espanyol
Jettying is a building technique used in medieval timber-frame buildings in which an upper floor projects beyond the dimensions of the floor below. This has the advantage of increasing the space in the building without obstructing the street. Jettied floors are termed jetties, in the U. S. the most common surviving colonial version of this is the garrison house. Most jetties are external, but some early Medieval houses were built with internal jetties, a jetty is an upper floor that depends on a cantilever system in which a horizontal beam, the jetty bressummer, supports the wall above and projects forward beyond the floor below. The bressummer itself rests on the ends of a row of jetty beams or joists which are supported by jetty plates, jetty joists in their turn were slotted sideways into the diagonal dragon beams at angle of 45° by means of mortise and tenon joints. The overhanging corner posts are often reinforced by curved jetty brackets, the origins of jettying is unclear but some reasons put forward for their purpose are, To gain space.
The structural advantage of the jettied wall counteracting forces in the joists or tying a stone wall together To shelter the walls of the house from the weather. Uses shorter timbers, a due to timber shortages and difficult handling of long timbers especially in city streets. As a status symbol or. symbol of wealth and status, jetties were popular in the 16th century but banned in Rouen in 1520 relating to air circulation and the plague, and London in 1667 relating to the great fire. They are considered a Gothic style, jetties are of several types, Framed on multiple joists. Framed on brackets added to the posts, hewn jetty called a false jetty, Framed on projections of the posts rather than on cantilevered beams. The less substantial studs of the close studding along the walls above, the jetty beams are morticed at 45° into the sides of the dragon beams. They are the constituents of the cantilever system and they determine how far the jetty projects the jetty-plates. The jetty-plate itself is supported by the posts of the recessed floor below.
Jettying was used for timber-framed buildings, but was succeeded by cantilever which are used for the reason as jettying. This is often utilised on buildings which are on a narrow plot, the Pennsylvania barn in the U. S. has a distinctive cantilever called a forebay, not a jetty. The traditional Turkish house is a house with a cantilevered or supported overhang called a cumba. The House of Opus Craticum built before 79 A. D. in Roman Herculaneum has a supported cantilever, cantilever – modern buildings still use cantilevered floors, but the term jettying is rarely used
Tomb of Salim Chishti
It enshrines the burial place of the Sufi saint, Salim Chisti, a descendant of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti of Ajmer, and who lived in a cavern on the ridge at Sikri. The tomb has been constructed on a platform which is about 1 m. high, the main tomb building is enclosed by delicate marble screens on all sides, and the tomb is located in the centre of the main hall, which has a single semi-circular dome. The marble building is carved, and has an ivory-like appearance. The plinth is ornamented with mosaics of black and yellow marble arranged in geometric patterns, an ebony “chhaparkhat” enclosure surrounds the marble cenotaph, which is usually covered by a green cloth. A wooden canopy incrusted with mother-of-pearl inlay mosaic over it, the door to the main chamber is intricately carved with arabesque patterns and bears inscriptions from the Quran. Brown marble borders the interior bays while the relief panels - with the quran verses - have a blue background, the carved and painted tomb chamber has a white marble floor, which is inlaid with multicolored stones.
Devotees ask for the blessings of the saint and seek fulfillment of their wishes and it is believed that tying a thread on the marble screens of the main tomb building serves as a constant reminder to the saint of their wishes. This tomb is known for Child Birth Blessing Salim Chishtis tomb,360 degree view Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chishti
Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect, interior designer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures,532 of which were completed. Wright believed in designing structures that were in harmony with humanity and its environment and this philosophy was best exemplified by Fallingwater, which has been called the best all-time work of American architecture. Wright was a leader of the Prairie School movement of architecture and developed the concept of the Usonian home and his creative period spanned more than 70 years. In addition to his houses, Wright designed original and innovative offices, schools, hotels, museums and he often designed interior elements for these buildings as well, including furniture and stained glass. Wright wrote 20 books and many articles and was a lecturer in the United States. His colorful personal life made headlines, most notably for the 1914 fire. Wright was recognized in 1991 by the American Institute of Architects as the greatest American architect of all time, Frank Lloyd Wright was born Frank Lincoln Wright in the farming town of Richland Center, United States, in 1867.
His father, William Carey Wright, was an orator, music teacher, occasional lawyer, William Wright met and married Anna Lloyd Jones, a county school teacher, the previous year when he was employed as the superintendent of schools for Richland County. Originally from Massachusetts, William Wright had been a Baptist minister, Anna was a member of the large and well-known Lloyd Jones family of Unitarians, who had emigrated from Wales to Spring Green, Wisconsin. One of Annas brothers was Jenkin Lloyd Jones, who would become an important figure in the spread of the Unitarian faith in the Western United States, both of Wrights parents were strong-willed individuals with idiosyncratic interests that they passed on to him. According to his biography, his mother declared when she was expecting that her first child would grow up to build beautiful buildings and she decorated his nursery with engravings of English cathedrals torn from a periodical to encourage the infants ambition. In 1870 the family moved to Weymouth, where William ministered to a small congregation, in 1876, Anna visited the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia where she saw an exhibit of educational blocks created by Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel.
The blocks, known as Froebel Gifts, were the foundation of his innovative kindergarten curriculum, Anna, a trained teacher, was excited by the program and bought a set with which young Wright spent much time playing. The blocks in the set were geometrically shaped and could be assembled in various combinations to form three-dimensional compositions, the Wright family struggled financially in Weymouth and returned to Spring Green, where the supportive Lloyd Jones clan could help William find employment. They settled in Madison, where William taught music lessons and served as the secretary to the newly formed Unitarian society, although William was a distant parent, he shared his love of music, especially the works of Johann Sebastian Bach, with his children. Soon after Wright turned 14, his parents separated, Anna had been unhappy for some time with Williams inability to provide for his family and asked him to leave. The divorce was finalized in 1885 after William sued Anna for lack of physical affection, William left Wisconsin after the divorce and Wright claimed he never saw his father again.
At this time he changed his name from Lincoln to Lloyd in honor of his mothers family
York is a town in York County, United States, near the southern tip of the state. The population in the 2010 census was 12,529, situated beside the Atlantic Ocean on the Gulf of Maine, York is a well-known summer resort town. It is home to three 18-hole golf clubs, four beaches, and Mount Agamenticus. It includes the villages of York Village, York Harbor, York Beach, York is part of the Portland–South Portland–Biddeford, Maine metropolitan statistical area. First settled by Europeans in 1624, the plantation was originally called Agamenticus, in 1638, settlers changed the name to Bristol after Bristol, from which they had immigrated. Envisioning a great city arising from the wilderness, Sir Ferdinando Gorges, lord proprietor of Maine under the Plymouth patent, in 1642, by charter of King Charles I, Gorgeana became the first incorporated city in America. Following Gorges death, the Massachusetts Bay Company claimed his dominion, in 1652, Massachusetts, was incorporated from a portion of Gorgeana, making it the second oldest town in Maine after Kittery, incorporated two years earlier.
It was named for York, but control of the region was contested between New England and New France, which incited Native Americans to attack English settlements throughout the French and Indian Wars. During King Williams War, York was destroyed in the Candlemas Massacre of 1692, during the raid by the Abenakis, Dummer was shot at his own front door. The final local Indian attack occurred at the Cape Neddick area during Dummers War in 1723, hostilities diminished with the French defeat at the Siege of Louisbourg, and ceased altogether with the 1763 Treaty of Paris. Several famous American authors have been known to spend their summer months in York, as provincial capital and site of the Royal Gaol, York prospered. Numerous wharves and warehouses serviced trade with the West Indies, agricultural products and lumber were shipped in exchange for sugar and other commodities. One notable merchant was John Hancock, whose establishment is now a museum, following the Revolution, President Thomas Jeffersons Embargo Act of 1807 crippled trade.
Like Bar Harbor and Newport, Rhode Island, York became a summer resort. A cluster of buildings in the center of York Village are maintained as museums by the Old York Historical Society. Dozens of five-star hotels and other accommodations operate in the York Beach area, many spots throughout The Yorks have picturesque views of the famous Cape Neddick Light at Nubble Rock, which has figured in both artists work and souvenirs of the Maine coast. Visible in clear weather is the 133 foot tall Boon Island Light on Boon Island, old-fashioned restaurants, like the Goldenrod, maintain the historic character of the York Beach area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 131.78 square miles
Thaxted is a town and civil parish in the Uttlesford district of Essex, England. Thaxted appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Tachesteda, Old English for place where thatch was got, once a centre of cutlery manufacture, Thaxted went into decline with the rise of Sheffield as a major industrial centre. With the growth of transport, the line was closed to passengers in 1952. The name of Cutlers Green, a hamlet about a mile to the west of Thaxted. To the West of Cutlers Green is an area named Richmonds in the Wood, an electoral ward in the same name exists. The population of this ward at the 2011 census was 3,512, thaxteds population of around 2,000 has remained almost unchanged down the centuries. Thaxted had a total of 2,845 residents according to the 2011 Census, in 1829 there were 2,293 people living in Thaxted, in 1848 there were 2,527. At the time of the 1881 census that figure had fallen to 1,914, in 2001, the population was 2,526. Thaxted clubs and societies include Thaxted Morris which was founded in 1911 and is the oldest revival Morris dancing group in England, the annual Thaxted Festival takes place over four weekends in June and July every year, presenting a programme of musical concerts.
Thaxted football club, the Thaxted Rangers, has a senior team, notable Thaxted buildings include Horham Hall, Thaxted Guildhall dating from around 1450 and John Webbs Windmill built in 1804. The parish church of St John, built between 1340 and 1510, is renowned for its flying buttressed spire, which is 181 feet tall and is the medieval stone spire in the county. It has perpendicular windows and a stained glass representing Adam and Eve, the church, which stands on a hill and overlooks the town, is often referred to as the Cathedral of Essex. From 1910 to 1942, the vicar was Conrad Noel, known as the Red Vicar because of his well-known Christian Socialism, noted pathologist and father of Syd Barrett, Arthur Max Barrett MD – born 1909 and spent childhood The British composer Gustav Holst – town resident. Thaxted is the given to a hymn tune, commonly used for I Vow to Thee, My Country Richard Conversation Sharp MP – educated at Thaxted by the Dissenting Minister
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India, the resulting political union was called the Indian Empire and after 1876 issued passports under that name. It lasted until 1947, when the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two sovereign states, the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. The British Raj extended over almost all present-day India and this area is very diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, and the Thar desert. In addition, at times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948, among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798, the kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states.
The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861, however. The Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory, British India and the Native States. In general, the term British India had been used to to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has used to refer to the British in India. The terms Indian Empire and Empire of India were not used in legislation, the monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was often used in Queen Victorias Queens Speeches and Prorogation Speeches. The passports issued by the British Indian government had the words Indian Empire on the cover, in addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor, during the partition of Bengal the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship.
In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, and the new provinces in the east became, Bengal, there were 565 princely states when India and Pakistan became independent from Britain in August 1947. The princely states did not form a part of British India, the larger ones had treaties with Britain that specified which rights the princes had, in the smaller ones the princes had few rights. Within the princely states external affairs and most communications were under British control, the British exercised a general influence over the states internal politics, in part through the granting or withholding of recognition of individual rulers. Although there were nearly 600 princely states, the majority were very small
In architecture a corbel is a structural piece of stone, wood or metal jutting from a wall to carry a superincumbent weight, a type of bracket. A corbel is a piece of material in the wall. A piece of projecting in the same way was called a tassel or a bragger in the UK. The technique of corbelling, where rows of corbels deeply keyed inside a support a projecting wall or parapet, has been used since Neolithic, or New Stone Age. A console is more specifically an S-shaped scroll bracket in the classical tradition, keystones are often in the form of consoles. Whereas corbel is rarely used outside architecture, console is used for furniture, as in console table. The word corbel comes from Old French and derives from the Latin corbellus, a diminutive of corvus, the French refer to a bracket-corbel, usually a load-bearing internal feature, as a corbeau. Norman corbels often have an appearance, although they may be elaborately carved with stylised heads of humans, animals or imaginary beasts. Similarly, in the Early English period, corbels were sometimes carved, as at Lincoln Cathedral.
Corbels sometimes end with a point apparently growing into the wall, or forming a knot, in the periods the carved foliage and other ornaments used on corbels resemble those used in the capitals of columns. Throughout England, in work, wooden corbels abound, carrying window-sills or oriel windows in wood. The corbels carrying balconies in Italy and France were sometimes of great size and richly carved, taking a cue from 16th-century practice, the Paris-trained designers of 19th-century Beaux-Arts architecture were encouraged to show imagination in varying corbels. A corbel table is a moulded string course supported by a range of corbels. Sometimes these corbels carry a small arcade under the string course, as a rule the corbel table carries the gutter, but in Lombard work the arcaded corbel table was utilized as a decoration to subdivide the storeys and break up the wall surface. In Italy sometimes over the corbels will form a moulding, in modern chimney construction, a corbel table is constructed on the inside of a flue in the form of a concrete ring beam supported by a range of corbels.
The corbels can be either in-situ or pre-cast concrete, the corbel tables described here are built at approximately ten metre intervals to ensure stability of the barrel of refractory bricks constructed thereon. In medieval architecture the technique was used to support upper storeys or a parapet projecting forward from the wall plane and this became a decorative feature, without the openings. Corbelling supporting upper stories and particularly supporting projecting corner turrets subsequently became a characteristic of the Scottish baronial style, medieval timber-framed buildings often employ jettying, where upper stories are cantilevered out on projecting wooden beams in a similar manner to corbelling
Buddhist religious architecture developed in the Indian Subcontinent in the 3rd century BCE. Viharas initially were only temporary shelters used by wandering monks during the rainy season, an existing example is at Nalanda. A distinctive type of architecture found in the former and present Buddhist kingdoms of the Himalayas are dzongs. The initial function of a stupa was the veneration and safe-guarding of the relics of the Buddha, the earliest surviving example of a stupa is in Sanchi. In accordance with changes in practice, stupas were gradually incorporated into chaitya-grihas. These reached their high point in the 1st century BC, exemplified by the cave complexes of Ajanta, the Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya in Bihar is another well-known example. The Pagoda is an evolution of the Indian stupa, Buddhist architecture emerged slowly in the period following the Buddha’s life, along with the Hindu temple architecture. The external profile represents Mount Meru, the abode of the gods, the dimensions and proportions were dictated by sacred mathematical formulae.
This simple plan was adopted by early Buddhists, sometimes adapted with additional cells for monks at the periphery, in essence the basic plan survives to this day in Buddhist temples throughout the world. The profile became elaborated and the characteristic mountain shape seen today in many Hindu temples was used in early Buddhist sites, in others, such as Japan and Thailand, local influences and differing religious practices led to different architecture. Early temples were often timber, and little remains, although stone was increasingly used. Cave temples such as those at Ajanta have survived better and preserve the form, porch. As the functions of the expanded, the plan form started to diverge from the Hindu tradition and became more elaborate, providing sleeping, eating. A characteristic new development at religious sites was the stupa, stupas were originally more sculpture than building, essentially markers of some holy site or commemorating a holy man who lived there. Later forms are more elaborate and in many cases refer back to the Mount Meru model, one of the earliest Buddhist sites still in existence is at Sanchi and this is centred on a stupa said to have been built by King Ashoka.
The original simple structure is encased in a later, more decorative one, the four cardinal points are marked by elaborate stone gateways. Decoration of Buddhist sites became more elaborate through the last two centuries BCE, with the introduction of tablets and friezes, including human figures, particularly on stupas. However, the Buddha was not represented in human form until the 1st century CE and this is treated in more detail in Buddhist art, Aniconic phase
A barn is an agricultural building usually located on farms and used for various purposes. In the North American area, a barn refers to structures that house livestock, including cattle and horses, as well as equipment and fodder, and often grain. As a result, the barn is often qualified e. g. tobacco barn, dairy barn, sheep barn. On the Continent, barns were often part of integrated structures known as byre-dwellings, in addition, barns may be used for equipment storage, as a covered workplace, and for activities such as threshing. The word barn comes from the Old English bere, for barley, and aern, for a storage place—thus, “Another word for barn in Old English was beretun, barley enclosure (from tun, house, or beretun, meaning a threshing floor. In historical times, the barn was to be distinguished from the granary, however, the common English name for a grain storage building is granary. The modern barn largely developed from the three aisled barn, commonly known as tithe barn or monastic barn.
This, in turn, originated in a 12th-century building tradition, applied in halls, in the 15th century several thousands of these huge barns were to be found in Western-Europe. In the course of time, its method was adopted by normal farms and it gradually spread to simpler buildings. As a rule, the barn had large entrance doors. The storage floors between the posts or in the aisles were known as bays or mows. The main types were large barns with sideway passages, compact barns with a central entrance, the latter spread to Eastern Europe. Whenever stone walls were applied, the timber frame often gave way to single-naved buildings. A special type were byre-dwellings, which included living quarters and stables, such as the Frisian farmhouse or Gulf house, not all, evolved from the medieval barn. Other types descended from the prehistoric longhouse or other building traditions, one of the latter was the Low German house, in which the harvest was stored in the attic. In many cases, the New World colonial barn evolved from the Low German house, in the mid to late 19th century in the U. S. barn framing methods began to shift away from traditional timber framing to truss framed or plank framed buildings.
Truss or plank framed barns reduced the number of timbers instead using dimensional lumber for the rafters, the joints began to become bolted or nailed instead of being mortised and tenoned. The inventor and patentee of the Jennings Barn claimed his design used less lumber, less work, less time, concrete block began to be used for barns in the early 20th century in the U. S