The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II. Codenamed Operation Neptune and referred to as D-Day, it was the largest seaborne invasion in history; the operation began the liberation of German-occupied France from Nazi control, laid the foundations of the Allied victory on the Western Front. Planning for the operation began in 1943. In the months leading up to the invasion, the Allies conducted a substantial military deception, codenamed Operation Bodyguard, to mislead the Germans as to the date and location of the main Allied landings; the weather on D-Day was far from the operation had to be delayed 24 hours. Adolf Hitler placed German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel in command of German forces and of developing fortifications along the Atlantic Wall in anticipation of an Allied invasion; the amphibious landings were preceded by extensive aerial and naval bombardment and an airborne assault—the landing of 24,000 US, Canadian airborne troops shortly after midnight.
Allied infantry and armoured divisions began landing on the coast of France at 06:30. The target 50-mile stretch of the Normandy coast was divided into five sectors: Utah, Gold and Sword. Strong winds blew the landing craft east of their intended positions at Utah and Omaha; the men landed under heavy fire from gun emplacements overlooking the beaches, the shore was mined and covered with obstacles such as wooden stakes, metal tripods, barbed wire, making the work of the beach-clearing teams difficult and dangerous. Casualties were heaviest at Omaha, with its high cliffs. At Gold and Sword, several fortified towns were cleared in house-to-house fighting, two major gun emplacements at Gold were disabled, using specialised tanks; the Allies failed to achieve any of their goals on the first day. Carentan, St. Lô, Bayeux remained in German hands, Caen, a major objective, was not captured until 21 July. Only two of the beaches were linked on the first day, all five beachheads were not connected until 12 June.
German casualties on D-Day have been estimated at 4,000 to 9,000 men. Allied casualties were at least 10,000, with 4,414 confirmed dead. Museums and war cemeteries in the area now host many visitors each year. After the German Army invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin began pressing his new allies for the creation of a second front in western Europe. In late May 1942 the Soviet Union and the United States made a joint announcement that a "... full understanding was reached with regard to the urgent tasks of creating a second front in Europe in 1942." However, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill persuaded US President Franklin D. Roosevelt to postpone the promised invasion as with US help, the Allies did not have adequate forces for such an activity. Instead of an immediate return to France, the western Allies staged offensives in the Mediterranean Theatre of Operations, where British troops were stationed. By mid-1943 the campaign in North Africa had been won.
The Allies launched the invasion of Sicily in July 1943, subsequently invaded the Italian mainland in September the same year. By Soviet forces were on the offensive and had won a major victory at the Battle of Stalingrad; the decision to undertake a cross-channel invasion within the next year was taken at the Trident Conference in Washington in May 1943. Initial planning was constrained by the number of available landing craft, most of which were committed in the Mediterranean and Pacific. At the Tehran Conference in November 1943, Roosevelt and Churchill promised Stalin that they would open the long-delayed second front in May 1944. Four sites were considered for the landings: Brittany, the Cotentin Peninsula and the Pas-de-Calais; as Brittany and Cotentin are peninsulas, it would have been possible for the Germans to cut off the Allied advance at a narrow isthmus, so these sites were rejected. With the Pas-de-Calais being the closest point in continental Europe to Britain, the Germans considered it to be the most initial landing zone, so it was the most fortified region.
But it offered few opportunities for expansion, as the area is bounded by numerous rivers and canals, whereas landings on a broad front in Normandy would permit simultaneous threats against the port of Cherbourg, coastal ports further west in Brittany, an overland attack towards Paris and into Germany. Normandy was hence chosen as the landing site; the most serious drawback of the Normandy coast—the lack of port facilities—would be overcome through the development of artificial Mulberry harbours. A series of specialised tanks, nicknamed Hobart's Funnies, were created to deal with conditions expected during the Normandy Campaign, such as scaling sea walls and providing close support on the beach; the Allies planned to launch the invasion on 1 May 1944. The initial draft of the plan was accepted at the Quebec Conference in August 1943. General Dwight D. Eisenhower was appointed commander of Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force. General Bernard Montgomery was named as commander of the 21st Army Group, which comprised all of the land forces involved in the invasion.
On 31 December 1943 Eisenhower and Montgomery first saw the plan, which proposed amphibious landings by three divisions with two m
Berlin wool work
Berlin wool work is a style of embroidery similar to today's needlepoint. It was executed with wool yarn on canvas, it is worked in a single stitch, such as cross stitch or tent stitch although Beeton's book of Needlework describes 15 different stitches for use in Berlin work. It was traditionally stitched in many colours and hues, producing intricate three-dimensional looks by careful shading; the design of such embroidery was made possible by the great progresses made in dyeing in the 1830s by the discovery of aniline dyes which produced bright colors. This kind of work created durable and long-lived pieces of embroidery that could be used as furniture covers, bags, or on clothing. Berlin wool work patterns were first published in Berlin, early in the 19th century; the first Berlin wool patterns were printed in black and white on grid paper and hand-coloured. The stitcher was expected to draw the outlines on the canvas and stitch following the colours on the pattern. Counted stitch patterns on charted paper, similar to modern cross-stitch patterns, made it easier to execute the designs, because there was no need for translating the patterns into actual wool colours by the stitchers themselves.
They were published as single sheets which made them affordable to middle-class women. Soon they were exported to the United States, where "Berlin work" became all the rage. Indeed, Berlin work became synonymous with canvas work. In Britain, Berlin work received a further boost through the Great Exhibition of 1851, by the advent of ladies' magazines such as The Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine; the popularity of Berlin work was due to the fact that, for the first time in history, a large number of women had leisure time to devote to needlework. Subjects to be embroidered were influenced by Victorian Romanticism and included floral designs, Victorian paintings, biblical or allegorical motifs. Berlin work patterns could be applied to various kinds of clothing and home furnishings or could be made as stand-alone artworks, in the style of needlepaintings, which are works that copy well-known master paintings in thread. In the late 1880s, the demand for Berlin wool work decreased largely because the tastes had changed, but Berlin work publishers failed to accommodate new tastes.
Other, less opulent styles of embroidery became more popular, such as the art needlework advocated by William Morris and his Arts and Crafts movement. Original charted. Berlin wool work designs are still popular in trammed needlepoint canvases, printed canvas needlepoint kits and can be found as digitized charts on needlework enthusiasts' websites. Desnoyers, Rosika. Pictorial Embroidery in England: A Critical History of Needlepainting and Berlin Work. London: Bloomsbury, 2019. Edwards, Joan. Berlin Work. Dorking, England: Bayford Books, 1980. Levey, Santina M. Discovering Embroidery of the 19th Century. England: Shire Publications, Ltd. 1977. Markrich and Heinz Edgar Kiewe. Victorian Fancywork: Nineteenth-Century Needlepoint Patterns and Designs. Chicago: Regnery, 1974. Procter, Molly G. Victorian Canvas Work: Berlin Wool Work, B T Batsford Ltd, 1986. Serena, Raffaella. Animal Embroideries & Patterns: From 19th Century Vienna, Antique Collectors Club Dist, 2006. Serena, Raffaella. Berlin Work, Samplers & Embroidery of the Nineteenth Century, Lacis, 1996.
Serena, Raffaella. Embroideries & Patterns from 19th Century Vienna, Antique Collectors Club Dist, 2006. Stepanova, Irina. Berlin Work: An Exuberance of Color, PieceWork magazine, March–April, 2011, pp. 41–46. Stepanova, Irina. Berlin Wool: Fine Fiber from an Innovative Age, PieceWork magazine, November–December, 2011, pp. 12–17. Berlin Work by Pat Berman, a technical history at the American Needlepoint Guild site
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War. The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German and Italian aggression. At the start of the war on 1 September 1939, the Allies consisted of France and the United Kingdom, as well as their dependent states, such as British India. Within days they were joined by the independent Dominions of the British Commonwealth: Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. After the start of the German invasion of North Europe until the Balkan Campaign, the Netherlands, Belgium and Yugoslavia joined the Allies. After first having cooperated with Germany in invading Poland whilst remaining neutral in the Allied-Axis conflict, the Soviet Union perforce joined the Allies in June 1941 after being invaded by Germany; the United States provided war materiel and money all along, joined in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
China had been in a prolonged war with Japan since the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937, but joined the Allies in 1941. The alliance was formalised by the Declaration by United Nations, from 1 January 1942. However, the name United Nations was used to describe the Allies during the war; the leaders of the "Big Three"—the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States—controlled Allied strategy. The Big Three together with China were referred as a "trusteeship of the powerful" were recognized as the Allied "Big Four" in the Declaration by United Nations and as the "Four Policemen" of the United Nations. After the war ended, the Allied nations became the basis of the modern United Nations. Members The origins of the Allied powers stem from the Allies of World War I and cooperation of the victorious powers at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Germany resented signing Treaty of Versailles; the new Weimar Republic's legitimacy became shaken. However, the 1920s were peaceful. With the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the ensuing Great Depression, political unrest in Europe soared including the rise in support of revanchist nationalists in Germany who blamed the severity of the economic crisis on the Treaty of Versailles.
By the early 1930s, the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler became the dominant revanchist movement in Germany and Hitler and the Nazis gained power in 1933. The Nazi regime demanded the immediate cancellation of the Treaty of Versailles and made claims to German-populated Austria, German-populated territories of Czechoslovakia; the likelihood of war was high, the question was whether it could be avoided through strategies such as appeasement. In Asia, when Japan seized Manchuria in 1931, the League of Nations condemned it for aggression against China. Japan responded by leaving the League of Nations in March 1933. After four quiet years, the Sino-Japanese War erupted in 1937 with Japanese forces invading China; the League of Nations initiated sanctions on Japan. The United States, in particular, was sought to support China. In March 1939, Germany took over Czechoslovakia, violating the Munich Agreement signed six months before, demonstrating that the appeasement policy was a failure. Britain and France decided that Hitler had no intention to uphold diplomatic agreements and responded by preparing for war.
On 31 March 1939, Britain formed the Anglo-Polish military alliance in an effort to avert a German attack on the country. The French had a long-standing alliance with Poland since 1921; the Soviet Union sought an alliance with the western powers, but Hitler ended the risk of a war with Stalin by signing the Nazi–Soviet non-aggression pact in August 1939. The agreement secretly divided the independent nations of Eastern Europe between the two powers and assured adequate oil supplies for the German war machine. On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. On 17 September 1939, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east. A Polish government-in-exile was set up and it continued to be one of the Allies, a model followed by other occupied countries. After a quiet winter, Germany in April 1940 invaded and defeated Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands and France. Britain and its Empire stood alone against Mussolini. In June 1941, Hitler broke the non-aggression agreement with Stalin and Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
In December, Japan attacked the Britain. The main lines of World War II had formed. During December 1941, U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt devised the name "United Nations" for the Allies and proposed it to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, he referred to the Big Three and China as a "trusteeship of the powerful", later the "Four Policemen". The Declaration by United Nations on 1 January 1942 was the basis of the modern United Nations. At the Potsdam Conference of July–August 1945, Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman, proposed that the foreign ministers of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States "should draft the peace treaties and boundary settlements of Europe", which led to the creation of the Council of Foreign Ministers of the "Big Five", soon thereafter the establishment of those states as the permanent members of the UNSC. Great Britain and other members of the British Commonwealth, most known as the Dominions, declared war on Germany separately from 3 September 1939 with the UK first, all within one week of each other.
British West Africa and the British colonies in E
Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, with a total population of 205,400 residents. The city of Portsmouth is nicknamed Pompey and is built on Portsea Island, a flat, low-lying island measuring 24 square kilometres in area, just off the south-east coast of Hampshire. Uniquely, Portsmouth is the only island city in the United Kingdom, is the only city whose population density exceeds that of London. Portsmouth is located 70 miles south-west of London and 19 miles south-east of Southampton. With the surrounding towns of Gosport, Fareham and Waterlooville, Portsmouth forms the eastern half of the South Hampshire metropolitan area, which includes Southampton and Eastleigh in the western half. Portsmouth's history can be traced back to Roman times. A significant naval port for centuries, Portsmouth has the world's oldest dry dock. In the sixteenth century, Portsmouth was England's first line of defence during the French invasion of 1545. By the early nineteenth century, the world's first mass production line was set up in Portsmouth Dockyard's Block Mills, making it the most industrialised site in the world and birthplace of the Industrial Revolution.
Portsmouth was the most fortified town in the world, was considered "the world's greatest naval port" at the height of the British Empire throughout Pax Britannica. Defences known as the Palmerston Forts were built around Portsmouth in 1859 in anticipation of another invasion from continental Europe. In 1926, Portsmouth was elevated in status from a town to a city; the motto "Heaven's Light Our Guide" was registered to the City of Portsmouth in 1929. During the Second World War, the city of Portsmouth was a pivotal embarkation point for the D-Day landings and was bombed extensively in the Portsmouth Blitz, which resulted in the deaths of 930 people. In 1982, a large proportion of the task force dispatched to liberate the Falkland Islands deployed from the city's naval base, her Majesty's Yacht Britannia left the city to oversee the transfer of Hong Kong in 1997, which marked for many the end of the empire. In 1997, Portsmouth became a Unitary Authority, with Portsmouth City Council gaining powers of a non-metropolitan county and district council combined, responsibilities held by Hampshire County Council.
Portsmouth is one of the world's best known ports. HMNB Portsmouth is considered to be the home of the Royal Navy and is home to two-thirds of the UK's surface fleet; the city is home to some famous ships, including HMS Warrior, the Tudor carrack Mary Rose and Horatio Nelson's flagship, HMS Victory. The former HMS Vernon naval shore establishment has been redeveloped as a retail park known as Gunwharf Quays. Portsmouth is among the few British cities with two cathedrals: the Anglican Cathedral of St Thomas and the Roman Catholic Cathedral of St John the Evangelist; the waterfront and Portsmouth Harbour are dominated by the Spinnaker Tower, one of the United Kingdom's tallest structures at 560 feet. Nearby Southsea is a seaside resort with a pier amusement medieval castle. Portsmouth F. C. the city's professional football club, play their home games at Fratton Park. The city has several mainline railway stations that connect to Brighton, London Victoria and London Waterloo amongst other lines in southern England.
Portsmouth International Port is a commercial cruise ship and ferry port for international destinations. The port is the second busiest in the United Kingdom after Dover, handling around three million passengers a year; the city had its own airport, Portsmouth Airport, until its closure in 1973. The University of Portsmouth enrols 23,000 students and is ranked among the world's best modern universities. Portsmouth is the birthplace of author Charles Dickens and engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel; the Romans built a fort, at nearby Portchester in the late third century. The city's Old English name "Portesmuða" is derived from port, meaning a haven, muða, the mouth of a large river or estuary; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle has a warrior called Port and his two sons killing a noble Briton in Portsmouth in 501. Winston Churchill, in his A History of the English-Speaking Peoples, says that Port was a pirate and he founded Portsmouth in 501; the south coast was vulnerable to Danish Viking invasions during the 9th centuries.
In 787, it was assaulted and conquered by Danish pirates, during the reign of Æthelwulf, King of Wessex in 838, a Danish fleet landed between Portsmouth and Southampton and the surrounding area was plundered. In response, Æthelwulf sent Wulfherd and the governor of Dorsetshire to confront the Danes at Portsmouth, where most of their ships were docked, they were successful. In 1001, the Danes returned and pillaged Portsmouth and surrounding locations, threatening the English with extinction; the Danes were massacred by the survivors the following year and rebuilding began, although the town suffered further attacks until 1066. Portsmouth was not mentioned in the Domesday Survey of 1086, but Bocheland and Frodentone were; some sources maintain. When King Henry II died in 1189, his son Richard I, who had spent most of his life in France, arrived in Portsmouth before he was crowned in London; when Richard returned from captivity in Austria in May 1194, he summoned a fleet of 100 ships and an army to the port.
He granted the town a royal charter on 2 May, giving permission for an annual fifteen-day free market fair, weekly markets, a local court to deal with minor matters, exempted its inhabitants from paying an annual tax of £18. Richard granted the town the arm
Blackwork, sometimes termed Spanish blackwork, is a form of embroidery using black thread, although other colors are used on occasion. Sometimes it is counted-thread embroidery, stitched on even-weave fabric. Any black thread can be used, but twisted threads give a better look than embroidery floss. Traditionally blackwork is stitched in silk thread on white or off-white cotton fabric. Sometimes metallic threads or coloured threads are used for accents. Scarletwork is like blackwork; the stitches used for counted thread blackwork are double running or holbein stitch and sometimes stem stitch. It was done on plain weave fabric. Modern stitchers use weave fabric made for counted thread work. There are three common styles of blackwork: In the earliest blackwork, counted stitches are worked to make a geometric or small floral pattern. Most modern blackwork is in this style the commercially produced patterns that are marketed for hobby stitchers. Blackwork features large designs of flowers and other patterns connected by curvilinear stems.
These are not counted thread work and are outlined with stem stitch, the outlined patterns are filled with geometric counted designs. In the third style of blackwork, the outlined patterns are "shaded" with random stitches called seed stitches; this style of blackwork imitates woodcuts. Blackwork was used on shirts and chemises or smocks in England from the time of Henry VIII; the common name "Spanish work" was based on the belief that Catherine of Aragon brought many blackwork garments with her from Spain, portraits of the 15th and early 16th centuries show black embroidery or other trim on Spanish chemises. Black embroidery was known in England before 1500. Geoffrey Chaucer in the Canterbury Tales describes the clothing of the miller's wife, Alison: "Of white, was the dainty smock she wore, embroidered at the collar all about with coal-black silk, alike within and out." Blackwork in silk on linen was the most common domestic embroidery technique for clothing and for household items such as cushion covers throughout the reign of Elizabeth I, but it lost its popularity by the 17th century.
Historic blackwork embroidery is rare to find well-preserved, as the iron-based dye used was corrosive to the thread, there are no conservation techniques that can stop the decay. Black embroidery silk from outside England, such as Spain, contained less iron in the black dye and so blackwork worked using non-English silk tends to survive in better condition. Blackwork remains popular. Common subjects among hobbyists include chessboards, Tudor houses and cats. Much of the success of a blackwork design depends on. Today, the term "Blackwork" is used to refer to the technique, rather than the colour combination. Altherr, Ilse. Reversible Blackwork: Book One, Self-Published. Altherr, Ilse. Blackwork and Holbein Embroidery: Book Two, Self-Published. Arnold, Janet: Queen Elizabeth's Wardrobe Unlock'd, Leeds: W S Maney and Son Ltd, 1988. ISBN 0-901286-20-6 Barnett, Lesley. Blackwork, Search Press, 1999. Day, Brenda. Blackwork: A New Approach, Guild of Master Craftsman, 2000. Digby, George Wingfield. Elizabethan Embroidery.
New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1964. Drysdale, Rosemary; the Art of Blackwork Embroidery, Mills & Boon, 1975. Geddes and Moyra McNeill. Blackwork Embroidery, Dover Publications, 1976. Gostelow, Mary. Blackwork, Batsford, 1976. Blackwork, Search Press, 2011. Langford, Pat. Embroidery Ideas from Blackwork, Kangaroo Press Ltd. 1999. Lucano, Sonia. Made in France: Blackwork, Murdoch Books, 2010. New Anchor Book of Blackwork Embroidery Stitches, David & Charles, 2005. Pascoe, Margaret. Blackwork Embroidery: Design and Technique, B T Batsford Ltd. Readers Digest Complete Guide to Needlework, 1979, ISBN 0-89577-059-8. Scoular, Marion. Why call it blackwork? Sherwood Studio, 1993. Wace, A. J. B.: "English Embroideries Belonging to Sir John Carew Pole, Bart", Walpole Society Annual, 1932–33, Vol. XXI, p. 56, note 2. Wilkins, Lesley. Beginner's Guide to Blackwork, Search Press, 2002. Wilkins, Lesley. Traditional Blackwork Samplers, Search Press, 2004. Zimmerman, Jane D; the Art of English blackwork, J. D. Zimmerman, 1996. A Blackwork Embroidery Primer Blackwork for Costume Holbein Stitch Diagram Blackwork Journey with Elizabeth Almond
A braid is a complex structure or pattern formed by interlacing three or more strands of flexible material such as textile yarns, wire, or hair. The materials used have depended on the indigenous plants and animals available in the local area They have been made for thousands of years, in many different cultures around the world, for a variety of uses; the most simple and common version is a flat, three-stranded structure. More complex patterns can be constructed from an arbitrary number of strands to create a wider range of stuctures; the structure is long and narrow with each component strand functionally equivalent in zigzagging forward through the overlapping mass of the others. It can be compared with the process of weaving, which involves two separate perpendicular groups of strands; when the Industrial Revolution arrived, mechanized braiding equipment was invented to increase production. The braiding technique was used to make ropes with both natural and synthetic fibers as well as coaxial cables for radios using copper wire.
In more recent times it has been used to create a covering for fuel pipes in jet ships. Hoses for domestic plumbing are covered with stainless steel braid; the oldest known reproduction of hair braiding may go back about 30,000 years: the Venus of Willendorf, now known in academia as the Woman of Willendorf, is a female figurine estimated to have been made between about 28,000 and 25,000 BCE. It has been disputed whether or not she wears braided hair or some sort of a woven basket on her head; the Venus of Brassempouy is estimated to be about 25,000 years old and shows, ostensibly, a braided hairstyle. Another sample of a different origin was traced back to a burial site called Saqqara located on the Nile River, during the first dynasty of Pharaoh Menes. During the Bronze Age and Iron Age many peoples in the Near East, Asia Minor, East Mediterranean and North Africa such as the Sumerians, Ancient Egyptians, Ancient Greeks, Assyrians, Hittites, Mitanni, Hurrians, Eblaites, Phrygians, Persians, Parthians, Armenians, Georgians and Canaanites/Phoenicians/Carthaginians are depicted in art with braided or platted hair and beards.
In some regions, a braid was a means of communication. At a glance, one individual could distinguish a wealth of information about another, whether they were married, mourning, or of age for courtship by observing their hairstyle. Braids were a means of social stratification. Certain hairstyles were distinctive to particular nations. Other styles informed others of an individual's status in society. African people such as the Himba people of Namibia have been braiding their hair for centuries. In many African tribes hairstyles are used to identify each tribe. Braid patterns or hairstyles can be an indication of a person's community, marital status, power, social position, religion. Braiding is traditionally a social art; because of the time it takes to braid hair, people have taken time to socialize while braiding and having their hair braided. It begins with the elders making simple braids for younger children. Older children watch and learn from them, start practicing on younger children, learn the traditional designs.
This carries on a tradition of bonding between the new generation. Early braids had many uses, such as costume decoration, animal regalia, sword decoration and hats, weapons. Materials that are used in braids can vary depending on local materials. For instance, South Americans used the fine fibers from the wool of alpaca and llama, while North American people made use of bison fibers. Throughout the world, vegetable fibers such as grass and hemp have been used to create braids. In China and Japan silk still remains the main material used. In the Americas, the braiding of leather is common. For the nomadic peoples of Africa, India and South America, the Middle East, braiding was a practical means of producing useful and decorative textiles. In other areas, such as the Pacific islands, for many hill tribes, braids are made using minimal equipment, it was only when braiding became a popular occupation in the home or school, as it is in China and Japan, when the Industrial Revolution came about, that specific tools were developed to increase production and make it easier to produce more complicated patterns of braids.
Braids are very good for making rope, decorative objects, hairstyles. Complex braids have been used to create hanging fibre artworks. Braiding is used to prepare horses' manes and tails for showing such as in polo and polocrosse. Plaiting with kangaroo leather has been a practiced tradition in rural Australia since pioneering times, it is used in the production of fine leather belts, bridles, dog leads, stockwhips, etc. Other leathers are used for the plaiting of heavier products suitable for everyday use. Gold braids and silver braids are components or trims of many kinds of formal dress, including military uniform. Braiding creates a composite rope, thicker and stronger than the non-interlaced strands of yarn. Braided ropes are preferred by arborists, rock climbers
Pouncing is an art technique used for transferring an image from one surface to another. It is similar to tracing, is useful for creating copies of a sketch outline to produce finished works. Pouncing has been a common technique for centuries, used to create copies of portraits and other works that would be finished as oil paintings, so on; the most common method involves laying semi-transparent paper over the original image tracing along the lines of the image by creating pricked marks on the top sheet of paper. This pounced drawing made of pricked holes is laid over a new working surface. A powder such as chalk, graphite or pastel is forced through the holes to leave an outline on the working surface below, thus transferring the image; the powder is applied by being placed into a small bag of thin fabric such as cheesecloth dabbed onto the pricked holes of the pounced drawing. 1. Calligraphy in black nasta'liq script on a beige paper decorated with bird and leaf designs painted in gold; the main text panel is bordered by a number of other verses in both diagonal and vertical registers forming a frame.
The entire composition is pasted to a larger sheet of paper decorated with a pounced vegetal motif in green and backed by cardboard. 2. Black chalk over pounce marks, traces of stylus, watermark of encircled Saint Anthony's cross. 3. Ink and color on paper, pounced for transfer. 4. The original drawing, reinforced in ink and wash by other hands, was used as the pattern for a number of copies, including this example. Pounce marks on the outlines reveal that this copy was traced not from the original but from another copy, it was mounted on thin paper, cut out and stuck onto thicker paper. Drawing Chalk Pastels