News is information about current events. This may be provided through many different media: word of mouth, postal systems, electronic communication, or through the testimony of observers and witnesses to events. Common topics for news reports include war, politics, health, the environment, business and entertainment, as well as athletic events, quirky or unusual events. Government proclamations, concerning royal ceremonies, taxes, public health, criminals, have been dubbed news since ancient times. Humans exhibit a nearly universal desire to learn and share news, which they satisfy by talking to each other and sharing information. Technological and social developments driven by government communication and espionage networks, have increased the speed with which news can spread, as well as influenced its content; the genre of news as we know it today is associated with the newspaper, which originated in China as a court bulletin and spread, with paper and printing press, to Europe. The English word "news" developed in the 14th century as a special use of the plural form of "new".
In Middle English, the equivalent word was newes, like the German Neues. Similar developments are found in the Slavic languages the Czech and Slovak noviny, the cognate Polish nowiny, the Bulgarian novini, Russian novosti – and in the Celtic languages: the Welsh newyddion and the Cornish nowodhow. Jessica Garretson Finch is credited with coining the phrase "current events" while teaching at Barnard College in the 1890s; as its name implies, "news" connotes the presentation of new information. The newness of news gives it an uncertain quality which distinguishes it from the more careful investigations of history or other scholarly disciplines. Whereas historians tend to view events as causally related manifestations of underlying processes, news stories tend to describe events in isolation, to exclude discussion of the relationships between them. News conspicuously describes the world in the present or immediate past when the most important aspects of a news story have occurred long in the past—or are expected to occur in the future.
To make the news, an ongoing process must have some "peg", an event in time which anchors it to the present moment. Relatedly, news addresses aspects of reality which seem unusual, deviant, or out of the ordinary. Hence the famous dictum that "Dog Bites Man" is not news. Another corollary of the newness of news is that, as new technology enables new media to disseminate news more quickly,'slower' forms of communication may move away from'news' towards'analysis'. According to some theories, "news" is. Journalism, broadly understood along the same lines, is the act or occupation of collecting and providing news. From a commercial perspective, news is one input, along with paper necessary to prepare a final product for distribution. A news agency supplies this resource "wholesale" and publishers enhance it for retail. Most purveyors of news value impartiality and objectivity, despite the inherent difficulty of reporting without political bias. Perception of these values has changed over time as sensationalized'tabloid journalism' has risen in popularity.
Michael Schudson has argued that before the era of World War I and the concomitant rise of propaganda, journalists were not aware of the concept of bias in reporting, let alone correcting for it. News is sometimes said to portray the truth, but this relationship is elusive and qualified. Paradoxically, another property attributed to news is sensationalism, the disproportionate focus on, exaggeration of, emotive stories for public consumption; this news is not unrelated to gossip, the human practice of sharing information about other humans of mutual interest. A common sensational topic is violence. Newsworthiness is defined as a subject having sufficient relevance to the public or a special audience to warrant press attention or coverage. Journalists apply news values to identify a news story. News values determine how much attention a news story is given by a media outlet, the attention it is given by its audience or readers. In some countries and at some points in history, what news media and the public have considered "newsworthy" has met different definitions, such as the notion of news values.
Many news values seem to be common across cultures. People seem to be interested in news to the extent which it has a big impact, describes conflicts, happens nearby, involves well-known people, deviates from the norms of everyday happenings. War is a common news topic because it involves unknown events that could pose personal danger. Evidence suggests that cultures around the world have found a place for people to share stories about interesting new information. Among Zulus, Mongolians and American Southerners, anthropologists have documented the practice of questioning travelers for news as a matter of priority. Sufficiently important news would be repeated and and could spread by word of mouth over a large geographic area; as printing presses came into use in Europe, news for the general public travelled orally via monks, town criers, etc. The news is transmitted in public gathering places, such as the Greek forum and the Roman baths. Starting in England, coffeehouses served as important sites for the spread of news after telecommunications became available.
The history of the coffee houses is traced from Arab countries, introduced in England in 16th century. In th
Carol Weld was a journalist who collaborated with Frank Buck on one book, Animals Are Like That. Carol Weld was stepdaughter of H. P. Lovecraft, she broke with her mother when Sonia wouldn't let her marry her half-uncle, left Sonia's apartment when she could, completing only three years of high school. She was married to a newspaperman, John Weld, from 1927-1932. John Weld was a reporter for the New York Herald Tribune in Paris and the New York American and New York World in New York City, wrote screenplays for Columbia and Universal, as well as fiction and non-fiction books. Carol Weld worked on the local staffs of the New York American and the New York Herald Tribune before going to Paris in the early 1930s. In a 1928 article for the New York Times, she lamented that the automobile had replaced the blacksmith, whose work consisted “chiefly of designing and reproducing wrought iron door hinges, candelabra of the twelfth century and smoking accessories and other objects which once upon a time were utilitarian.
An ironworker finds it comparatively simple to be artistic after the early American manner by studying the art magazines.” When Weld arrived in Paris in the late nineteen twenties, foreign journalism did not pay well. She subsisted on a meager salary and on the sale of some of her drawings of American life to Arthur Moss, publisher of an art magazine, Gargoyle. Weld worked for International News Service and United Press. One of her most memorable articles was "King Bites Dog," in which she advanced the theory that the abdication of Edward VIII was due to conservative objections to his "political color" rather than to his romance with Mrs. Wallis Simpson; the best part is her account of meeting the Prince of Wales, as he was, in a second-class carriage carrying some of his own baggage."It was midsummer in 1934 when I covered the departure of the Prince and Mrs. Simpson for Biarritz. At the Gare d'Orsay the deluxe afternoon train had departed with a tin-whistle toot but no sign of royalty or a Baltimore woman.
Ric, my fox terrier, a much better disguise to press-shy celebrities than a pair of false whiskers and, responsible for two beats I had scored, pulled at his leash, scampering toward the deuxième classe train. Royalty traveling second? I had my doubts, he pulled me into the corridor of the deuxième wagon-lit. Ahead of me the Prince of Wales came from one door and disappeared through the next, carrying a piece of luggage. Man Bites Dog, I thought. On the train must be valets, his aide-decamp Major Aird, Scotland Yard detectives, yet I saw the Prince moving baggage. In such democratic tendencies lay nourishment for a much bigger dog. This, as I realized long after, had been Prince Bites Puppy; the bigger the man, the bigger the dog. Before I could turn Ric about, the future King and Duke of Windsor again emerged and we collided in the narrow passageway."Weld was a founding member of the Overseas Press Club. When the Paris paper, the Tribune, died in 1934, a victim of the Depression, under the headline "Girl Reporter Tells It All on Last Day," affectionately recalled some of her colleagues' "conversational identifications."
Ralph Jules Frantz: "Did you get the story? Swell!" Louis Atlas: "I'm fed up. Where you going to eat?" May Birkhead: "Be that as it may..." B. J. Kospoth: "What's that? I've been at the Embassy all afternoon, but there's no story there." Edmond Taylor: "Call me up if anything breaks." Wilfred Barber: "That was July 2, 1887 at 3:10 in the morning, it was raining, because..." Robert Sage: "There's not enough air in here, let's open a window." Alex Small: "My dear fellow! Didn't you know? Why of course, Louis XIV, when he built the palace at Versailles, said..." Robert L. Stern: "You can't write that! You gotta have a new lead." Mary Fentress: "American Hospital? Anybody dead?" Weld was co-author of one book with Frank Buck: Animals Are Like That. Weld did public relations for Buck, in particular for his 1939 World's Fair Jungleland exhibit, handled his west coast publicity. In 1940-42 Carol Weld worked for the British-American Ambulance Corps. Additionally, she organized and served as corps chairman for the West Coast Committee for the American Volunteer Ambulance Corps in France.
From 1943-48 she was a press representative for RKO Radio. In 1951, with a colleague, Dickson Hartwell, Carol Weld wrote an admiring article about Taborian Hospital in Mound Bayou, Mississippi; when the hospital opened in 1942, African-American patients in the Delta could, for the first time, walk through the front door of a medical facility rather than through the side entrance marked "colored." Until 1967 the Taborian Hospital and its fraternal rival in Mound Bayou, the Friendship Clinic, founded in 1948, provided medical services to thousands of Mississippi African-Americans. In 1954 Weld worked as the editor for the New Smyrna Times in Florida. Weld worked as a freelance writer, she died in Miami after a long illness. Carol Weld papers at the University of Wyoming - American Heritage Center
Communication is the act of conveying meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. The main steps inherent to all communication are: The formation of communicative motivation or reason. Message composition. Message encoding. Transmission of the encoded message as a sequence of signals using a specific channel or medium. Noise sources such as natural forces and in some cases human activity begin influencing the quality of signals propagating from the sender to one or more receivers. Reception of signals and reassembling of the encoded message from a sequence of received signals. Decoding of the reassembled encoded message. Interpretation and making sense of the presumed original message; the scientific study of communication can be divided into: Information theory which studies the quantification and communication of information in general. The channel of communication can be visual, auditory and haptic, electromagnetic, or biochemical.
Human communication is unique for its extensive use of abstract language. Development of civilization has been linked with progress in telecommunication. Nonverbal communication describes the processes of conveying a type of information in the form of non-linguistic representations. Examples of nonverbal communication include haptic communication, chronemic communication, body language, facial expressions, eye contact, how one dresses. Nonverbal communication relates to the intent of a message. Examples of intent are voluntary, intentional movements like shaking a hand or winking, as well as involuntary, such as sweating. Speech contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, e.g. rhythm, intonation and stress. It establishes trust. Written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, the spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotion. Nonverbal communication demonstrates one of Paul Wazlawick's laws: you cannot not communicate. Once proximity has formed awareness, living creatures begin interpreting.
Some of the functions of nonverbal communication in humans are to complement and illustrate, to reinforce and emphasize, to replace and substitute, to control and regulate, to contradict the denovative message. Nonverbal cues are relied on to express communication and to interpret others' communication and can replace or substitute verbal messages. However, non-verbal communication is ambiguous; when verbal messages contradict non-verbal messages, observation of non-verbal behaviour is relied on to judge another's attitudes and feelings, rather than assuming the truth of the verbal message alone. There are several reasons as to why non-verbal communication plays a vital role in communication: "Non-verbal communication is omnipresent." They are included in every single communication act. To have total communication, all non-verbal channels such as the body, voice, touch, distance and other environmental forces must be engaged during face-to-face interaction. Written communication can have non-verbal attributes.
E-mails and web chats allow an individual's the option to change text font colours, stationary and capitalization in order to capture non-verbal cues into a verbal medium. "Non-verbal behaviours are multifunctional." Many different non-verbal channels are engaged at the same time in communication acts and allow the chance for simultaneous messages to be sent and received. "Non-verbal behaviours may form a universal language system." Smiling, pointing and glaring are non-verbal behaviours that are used and understood by people regardless of nationality. Such non-verbal signals allow the most basic form of communication when verbal communication is not effective due to language barriers. Verbal communication is the written conveyance of a message. Human language can be defined as a system of symbols and the grammars by which the symbols are manipulated; the word "language" refers to common properties of languages. Language learning occurs most intensively during human childhood. Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them.
Languages tend to share certain properties. There is no defined line between a dialect. Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming languages, various mathematical formalism is not restricted to the properties shared by human languages; as mentioned, language can be characterized as symbolic. Charles Ogden and I. A Richards developed The Triangle of Meaning model to explain the symbol, the referent, the meaning; the properties of language are governed by rules. Language follows phonological rules, syntactic rules, semantic rules, pragmatic rules; the meanings that are attached to words can be otherwise known as denotative.
A news agency is an organization that gathers news reports and sells them to subscribing news organizations, such as newspapers and radio and television broadcasters. A news agency may be referred to as a wire service, newswire, or news service. Although there are many news agencies around the world, three global news agencies, Agence France-Presse, Associated Press and Reuters, have offices in most countries of the world and cover all areas of information. All three began with and continue to operate on a basic philosophy of providing a single objective news feed to all subscribers. Jonathan Fenby explains the philosophy: To achieve such wide acceptability, the agencies avoid overt partiality. Demonstrably correct information is their stock in trade. Traditionally, they report at a reduced level of responsibility, attributing their information to a spokesman, the press, or other sources, they steer clear of doubt and ambiguity. Though their founders did not use the word, objectivity is the philosophical basis for their enterprises – or failing that acceptable neutrality.
Only a few large newspapers could afford bureaus outside their home city. They relied instead on news agencies Havas in France and the Associated Press in the United States. Former Havas employees founded Reuters in 1851 in Wolff in 1849 in Germany. For international news, the agencies pooled their resources, so that Havas, for example, covered the French Empire, South America and the Balkans and shared the news with the other national agencies. In France the typical contract with Havas provided a provincial newspaper with 1800 lines of telegraphed text daily, for an annual subscription rate of 10,000 francs. Other agencies provided features and fiction for their subscribers. In the 1830s, France had several specialized agencies. Agence Havas was founded in 1835 by a Parisian translator and advertising agent, Charles-Louis Havas, to supply news about France to foreign customers. In the 1840s, Havas incorporated other French agencies into his agency. Agence Havas evolved into Agence France-Presse.
Two of his employees, Bernhard Wolff and Paul Julius Reuter set up rival news agencies, Wolffs Telegraphisches Bureau in 1849 in Berlin and Reuters in 1851 in London. Guglielmo Stefani founded the Agenzia Stefani, which became the most important press agency in Italy from the mid-19th century to World War II, in Turin in 1853; the development of the telegraph in the 1850s led to the creation of strong national agencies in England, Germany and the United States. But despite the efforts of governments, through telegraph laws such as in 1878 in France, inspired by the British Telegraph Act of 1869 which paved the way for the nationalisation of telegraph companies and their operations, the cost of telegraphy remained high. In the United States, the judgment in Inter Ocean Publishing v. Associated Press facilitated competition by requiring agencies to accept all newspapers wishing to join; as a result of the increasing newspapers, the Associated Press was now challenged by the creation of United Press Associations in 1907 and International News Service by newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst in 1909.
Driven by the huge U. S. domestic market, boosted by the runaway success of radio, all three major agencies required the dismantling of the "cartel agencies" through the Agreement of 26 August 1927. They were concerned about the success of U. S. agencies from other European countries which sought to create national agencies after the First World War. Reuters had been weakened by war censorship, which promoted the creation of newspaper cooperatives in the Commonwealth and national agencies in Asia, two of its strong areas. After the Second World War, the movement for the creation of national agencies accelerated, when accessing the independence of former colonies, the national agencies were operated by the State. Reuters, became cooperative, managed a breakthrough in finance, helped to reduce the number of U. S. agencies from three to one, along with the internationalization of the Spanish EFE and the globalization of Agence France-Presse. In 1924, Benito Mussolini placed Agenzia Stefani under the direction of Manlio Morgagni, who expanded the agency's reach both within Italy and abroad.
Agenzia Stefani was dissolved in 1945, its technical structure and organization were transferred to the new Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata. Wolffs was taken over by the Nazi regime in 1934, Reuters continues to operate as a major international news agency today. In 1865, Reuter and Wolff signed agreements with Havas's sons, forming a cartel designating exclusive reporting zones for each of their agencies within Europe. Since the 1960s, the major agencies were provided with new opportunities in television and magazine, news agencies delivered specialized production of images and photos, the demand for, increasing. In France, for example, they account for over two-thirds of national market. News agencies can be corporations. Other agencies work cooperatively with large media companies, generating their news centrally and sharing local news stories the major news agencies may choose to pick up and redistribute and Indian Press Agency PTI. Governments may control news agencies: China, France and several other countries have government-funded news agencies which use information from other agencies as we
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public. A journalist's work is called journalism. A journalist can specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, by cooperating with other journalists, produce journals that span many topics. For example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics. A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and reports on information in order to present in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, make reports; the information-gathering part of a journalist's job is sometimes called reporting, in contrast to the production part of the job such as writing articles. Reporters may split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interviewing people. Reporters may be assigned a specific area of coverage. Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers and visual journalists, such as photojournalists.
Journalism has developed a variety of standards. While objectivity and a lack of bias are of primary concern and importance, more liberal types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism and activism, intentionally adopt a non-objective viewpoint; this has become more prevalent with the advent of social media and blogs, as well as other platforms that are used to manipulate or sway social and political opinions and policies. These platforms project extreme bias, as "sources" are not always held accountable or considered necessary in order to produce a written, televised, or otherwise "published" end product. Matthew C. Nisbet, who has written on science communication, has defined a "knowledge journalist" as a public intellectual who, like Walter Lippmann, David Brooks, Fareed Zakaria, Naomi Klein, Michael Pollan, Thomas Friedman, Andrew Revkin, sees their role as researching complicated issues of fact or science which most laymen would not have the time or access to information to research themselves communicating an accurate and understandable version to the public as a teacher and policy advisor.
In his best-known books, Public Opinion and The Phantom Public, Lippmann argued that most individuals lacked the capacity and motivation to follow and analyze news of the many complex policy questions that troubled society. Nor did they directly experience most social problems, or have direct access to expert insights; these limitations were made worse by a news media that tended to over-simplify issues and to reinforce stereotypes, partisan viewpoints, prejudices. As a consequence, Lippmann believed that the public needed journalists like himself who could serve as expert analysts, guiding “citizens to a deeper understanding of what was important.” In 2018, the United States Department of Labor's Occupational Outlook Handbook reported that employment for the category, "reporters and broadcast news analysts," will decline 9 percent between 2016 and 2026. Journalists sometimes expose themselves to danger when reporting in areas of armed conflict or in states that do not respect the freedom of the press.
Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom and advocate for journalistic freedom. As of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder, crossfire or combat, or on dangerous assignment; the "ten deadliest countries" for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq, Russia, Mexico, Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The Committee to Protect Journalists reports that as of December 1, 2010, 145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. Current numbers are higher; the ten countries with the largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are Turkey, Iran, Burma, Vietnam, Cuba and Sudan. Apart from the physical harm, journalists are harmed psychologically; this applies to war reporters, but their editorial offices at home do not know how to deal appropriately with the reporters they expose to danger. Hence, a systematic and sustainable way of psychological support for traumatized journalists is needed.
However, only little and fragmented support programs exist so far. The Newseum in Washington, D. C. is home to the Journalists Memorial, which lists the names of over 2,100 journalists from around the world who were killed in the line of duty. The relationship between a professional journalist and a source can be rather complex, a source can sometimes impact the direction of the article written by the journalist; the article'A Compromised Fourth Estate' uses Herbert Gans' metaphor to capture their relationship. He uses a dance metaphor'The Tango' to illustrate the co-operative nature of their interactions "It takes two to tango". Herbert suggests that the source leads but journalists object to this notion for two reasons: It signals source supremacy in news making, it offends journalists' professional culture, which emphasizes editorial autonomy. This dance metaphor helps showcase consensus within the relationship but the article describe the common relation between the two "A relationship with sources, too cozy is compromising of journalists’ integrity and risks becoming collusive.
Journalists have favored a
Thomas Nast was a German-born American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist considered to be the "Father of the American Cartoon". He was the scourge of Democratic Representative "Boss" Tweed and the Tammany Hall Democratic party political machine. Among his notable works were the creation of the modern version of Santa Claus and the political symbol of the elephant for the Republican Party. Contrary to popular belief, Nast did not create Uncle Sam, Columbia, or the Democratic donkey, though he did popularize these symbols through his artwork. Nast was associated with the magazine Harper's Weekly from 1859 to 1860 and from 1862 until 1886. Albert Boime argues that: As a political cartoonist, Thomas Nast wielded more influence than any other artist of the 19th century, he not only enthralled a vast audience with boldness and wit, but swayed it time and again to his personal position on the strength of his visual imagination. Both Lincoln and Grant acknowledged his effectiveness in their behalf, as a crusading civil reformer he helped destroy the corrupt Tweed Ring that swindled New York City of millions of dollars.
Indeed, his impact on American public life was formidable enough to profoundly affect the outcome of every presidential election during the period 1864 to 1884. Nast was born in military barracks in Landau, Germany, as his father was a trombonist in the Bavarian 9th regiment band. Nast was the last child of Joseph Thomas Nast, he had an older sister Andie. His father held political convictions that put him at odds with the Bavarian government, so in 1846, Joseph Nast left Landau, enlisting first on a French man-of-war and subsequently on an American ship, he sent his wife and children to New York City, at the end of his enlistment in 1850, he joined them there. Nast attended school in New York City from the age of six to 14, he did poorly at his lessons. In 1854, at the age of 14, he was enrolled for about a year of study with Alfred Fredericks and Theodore Kaufmann, at the school of the National Academy of Design. In 1856, he started working as a draftsman for Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper.
His drawings appeared for the first time in Harper's Weekly on March 19, 1859, when he illustrated a report exposing police corruption. In February 1860, he went to England for the New York Illustrated News to depict one of the major sporting events of the era, the prize fight between the American John C. Heenan and the English Thomas Sayers sponsored by George Wilkes, publisher of Wilkes' Spirit of the Times. A few months as artist for The Illustrated London News, he joined Garibaldi in Italy. Nast's cartoons and articles about the Garibaldi military campaign to unify Italy captured the popular imagination in the U. S. In February 1861, he arrived back in New York. In September of that year, he married Sarah Edwards, he left the New York Illustrated News to work again for Frank Leslie's Illustrated News. In 1862, he became a staff illustrator for Harper's Weekly. In his first years with Harper's, Nast became known for compositions that appealed to the sentiment of the viewer. An example is "Christmas Eve", in which a wreath frames a scene of a soldier's praying wife and sleeping children at home.
One of his most celebrated cartoons was "Compromise with the South", directed against those in the North who opposed the prosecution of the American Civil War. He was known for drawing battlefields in border and southern states; these attracted great attention, Nast was referred to by President Abraham Lincoln as "our best recruiting sergeant". After the war, Nast opposed the Reconstruction policy of President Andrew Johnson, whom he depicted in a series of trenchant cartoons that marked "Nast's great beginning in the field of caricature". Nast's cartoons had numerous sidebars and panels with intricate subplots to the main cartoon. A Sunday feature could highlight social causes. After 1870, Nast favored simpler compositions featuring a strong central image, he based his likenesses on photographs. In the early part of his career, Nast used a brush and ink wash technique to draw tonal renderings onto the wood blocks that would be carved into printing blocks by staff engravers; the bold cross-hatching that characterized Nast's mature style resulted from a change in his method that began with a cartoon of June 26, 1869, which Nast drew onto the wood block using a pencil, so that the engraver was guided by Nast's linework.
This change of style was influenced by the work of the English illustrator John Tenniel. A recurring theme in Nast's cartoons is anti-Catholicism. Nast was baptized a Catholic at the Sankt Maria Catholic Church in Landau, for a time received Catholic education in New York City; when Nast converted to Protestantism remains unclear, but his conversion was formalized upon his marriage in 1861. Nast considered the Catholic Church to be a threat to American values. According to his biographer, Fiona Deans Halloran, Nast was "intensely opposed to the encroachment of Catholic ideas into public education"; when Tammany Hall proposed a new tax to support parochial Catholic schools, h
Freedom of the press
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely. Such freedom implies the absence of interference from an overreaching state. With respect to governmental information, any government may distinguish which materials are public or protected from disclosure to the public. State materials are protected due to either of two reasons: the classification of information as sensitive, classified or secret, or the relevance of the information to protecting the national interest. Many governments are subject to sunshine laws or freedom of information legislation that are used to define the ambit of national interest; the United Nations' 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression. This philosophy is accompanied by legislation ensuring various degrees of freedom of scientific research and press.
The depth to which these laws are entrenched in a country's legal system can go as far down as its constitution. The concept of freedom of speech is covered by the same laws as freedom of the press, thereby giving equal treatment to spoken and published expression. Sweden was the first country in the world to adopt freedom of the press into its constitution with the Freedom of the Press Act of 1766. Freedom of the press is construed as an absence of interference by outside entities, such as a government or religious organization, rather than as a right for authors to have their works published by other people; this idea was famously summarized by the 20th century American journalist, A. J. Liebling, who wrote, "Freedom of the press is guaranteed only to those who own one". Freedom of the press gives the printer or publisher exclusive control over what the publisher chooses to publish, including the right to refuse to print anything for any reason. If the author cannot reach a voluntary agreement with a publisher to produce the author's work the author must turn to self-publishing.
Beyond legal definitions, several non-governmental organizations use other criteria to judge the level of press freedom around the world. Some create subjective lists, while others are based on quantitative data: Reporters Without Borders considers the number of journalists murdered, expelled or harassed, the existence of a state monopoly on TV and radio, as well as the existence of censorship and self-censorship in the media, the overall independence of media as well as the difficulties that foreign reporters may face to rank countries in levels of press freedom; the Committee to Protect Journalists systematically tracks the number of journalists killed and imprisoned in reprisal for their work. It says it uses the tools of journalism to help journalists by tracking press freedom issues through independent research, fact-finding missions, a network of foreign correspondents, including local working journalists in countries around the world. CPJ shares information on breaking cases with other press freedom organizations worldwide through the International Freedom of Expression Exchange, a global network of more than 119 free expression organizations.
CPJ tracks impunity in cases of journalist murders. CPJ staff applies strict criteria for each case. Freedom House studies the more general political and economic environments of each nation in order to determine whether relationships of dependence exist that limit in practice the level of press freedom that might exist in theory. Panels of experts assess the press freedom score and draft each country summary according to a weighted scoring system that analyzes the political, economic and safety situation for journalists based on a 100-point scale, it categorizes countries as having a free, party free, or not free press. Every year, the Committee to Protect Journalists releases its comprehensive list of all journalists killed in relation to their work, including profiles of each journalist and a database, an annual census of journalists in jail as of midnight on December 1. 2017 was a record year for journalists jailed with 262 journalists behind bars. Turkey and Egypt accounted for more than half of all journalists jailed globally.
Every year, Reporters Without Borders establish a subjective ranking of countries in terms of their freedom of the press. Press Freedom Index list is based on responses to surveys sent to journalists that are members of partner organizations of the RWB, as well as related specialists such as researchers and human rights activists; the survey asks questions about direct attacks on journalists and the media as well as other indirect sources of pressure against the free press, such as non-governmental groups. In 2016, the countries where press was the most free were Finland, Norway and New Zealand, followed by Costa Rica, Sweden and Jamaica; the country with the least degree of press freedom was Eritrea, followed by North Korea, Syria, China and Sudan. The problem with media in India, the world's largest democracy, is enormous. India doesn't have a model for a democratic press; the Canadian Journalists for Free Expression has published a report on India stating that Indian journalists are forced—or feel compelled for the sake of job security—to report in ways th