1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
International–Great Northern Railroad
The International – Great Northern Railroad was a railroad that operated in the U. S. state of Texas. It was created on September 30, 1873, when International Railroad and the Houston and Great Northern Railroad merged; the railroad was incorporated as the International & Great Northern Railroad Company. The I&GN operated 177 miles of track from Hearne to Longview, but at its peak it owned 1,106 miles of track; as the railroad expanded southwestwards from Hearne, it reached Rockdale in 1874 and Austin on December 28, 1876. The line extended to San Antonio in 1880 and to the US-Mexican border town of Laredo on December 1, 1881; the I&GN, like other railroads of its time, had many financial troubles and went into receivership on several occasions. Jay Gould acquired control of the I&GN in December 1880. Due to his control of the Missouri Pacific and the Texas and Pacific Railroad, the three were operated as one system, although they each retained their separate corporate identities and seniority districts.
Due to financial difficulties stemming in part from the Panic of 1907, the I-GN entered receivership in 1908 and was sold at foreclosure to a reorganized company, the International & Great Northern Railway Company on August 31, 1911. Less than four years the company entered receivership again, which lasted until it was sold at foreclosure in July 1922; the International-Great Northern Railroad was incorporated by the state of Texas on August 17, 1922, took over operation of the International & Great Northern Railway on December 31, 1922. In a bit of planned corporate maneuvering to keep the I-GN within the Mopac fold, the Gulf Coast Lines subsidiary, New Orleans and Mexico Railway, bought the I-GN in June 30, 1924. On March 1, 1956, all of the GCL subsidiaries were merged into the parent Missouri Pacific Railroad Company, the I-GN ceased its corporate existence. In the 1960s, many of the redundant out-of-the-way lines were abandoned, including Waco to Marlin and Bryan to Navasota; the latter route was subsequently traversed via trackage rights over the Southern Pacific Railroad between the same two points.
The Missouri Pacific was merged into the Union Pacific Railroad in 1997. International-Great Northern Railroad from the Handbook of Texas Online Zoomable system map of the I-GN from an 1877 promotional brochure
Rusk County, Texas
Rusk County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 53,330, its county seat is Henderson. The county is named for a secretary of war of the Republic of Texas. Rusk County is part of the Longview, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Longview–Marshall, TX Combined Statistical Area. Rusk County is represented by Bryan Hughes, a Republican from Mineola, Texas, in the Texas State Senator for Senate District 1, which includes Rusk County. Travis Clardy, a Republican from Nacogdoches, is the Texas State Representative for House District 11, which includes Rusk County. Trent Ashby, a Republican from Lufkin, born in Rusk County in 1972, represents District 57, which includes Angelina and several other rural East Texas counties. Prior to Texas annexation in 1845, the land while from time to time occupied by Caddoan peoples, was unpopulated until 1819 when Cherokee Indians, led by The Bowl settled in what is now Rusk County; the Treaty of Bowles Village on February 23, 1836 between the Republic of Texas and the Cherokee and twelve affiliated tribes, gave parts of western Rusk County along with parts of today's Gregg and Van Zandt counties, in addition to the whole areas of Cherokee and Smith counties to the tribes.
They remained on these lands until the Cherokee War in the summer of 1839. Thus the Cherokee were driven out of Rusk County only to return in 1844 and 1845 with the purchase of 10,000 aces of land by Benjamin Franklin Thompson a white man married to a Cherokee; this established the Mount Tabor Indian Community, some six miles south of present day Kilgore that spread to incorporate areas near Troup and Overton, Texas. Organized as a part of Nacogdoches County, Rusk was established as its own county by the Congress of the Republic of Texas on January 16, 1843. By 1850, it was the second-most populous county in Texas of the 78 counties, organized at that time, according to the 1850 census. Rusk County's population was 8,148 then. With the discovery of oil in Joinerville in October 1930, an oil boom began that caused county population to nearly double during the next decade, caused dramatic changes in the county towns. Rusk is one of the five counties that are part of the East Texas Oil Field, whose production has been a major part of the economy since that time.
Rusk County was one of 25 dry counties in Texas until January 2012. The city of Henderson at that time opted to allow serving beer and wine. Sadly, America's worst school disaster happened in Rusk County in 1937, when nearly 300 people, most of them children, were killed in a natural gas explosion at the London Independent School District. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 938 square miles, of which 924 square miles is land and 14 square miles is covered by water. U. S. Highway 79 U. S. Highway 84 U. S. Highway 259 State Highway 42 State Highway 43 State Highway 64 State Highway 149 State Highway 315 State Highway 322 State Highway 323 Gregg County Harrison County Panola County Shelby County Nacogdoches County Cherokee County Smith County As of the census of 2000, 47,372 people, 17,364 households, 12,727 families resided in the county; the population density was 51 people per square mile. The 19,867 housing units averaged 22 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 74.89% White, 19.21% Black or African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 4.22% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races.
About 8.44% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 17,364 households, 32.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.20% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were not families. About 24.20% of all households was made up of individuals and 12.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.05. In the county, the population was distributed as 24.90% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,898, for a family was $39,185. Males had a median income of $30,956 versus $19,749 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,674. About 10.90% of families and 14.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.80% of those under age 18 and 13.00% of those age 65 or over.
The following school districts serve Rusk County: Rusk County's first authorized school was the Rusk County Academy. Lake Cherokee National Register of Historic Places listings in Rusk County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Rusk County Mount Tabor Indian Community Rusk County government's website Historic materials about Rusk County, hosted by the Portal to Texas History Rusk County from the Handbook of Texas Online Rusk County Sons of Confederate VeteransThe above website shut down, their new site can be found *Here Rusk County Sheriff's Office Rusk County Airport Mount Tabor Indian Community tribal government website
Tyler is the county seat of Smith County, located in east-central Texas, United States. The city of Tyler has long been Smith County's major economic, financial and cultural hub; the city is named for the tenth President of the United States. Tyler had a population of 96,900 in 2010, according to the United States Census Bureau, Tyler's 2017 estimated population was 104,991, it is 100 miles east-southeast of Dallas. Tyler is the principal city of the Tyler Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a population of 209,714 in 2010, is the regional center of the Tyler-Jacksonville combined statistical area, which had a population of 260,559 in 2010. Tyler is known as the "Rose Capital of America", a nickname it earned from a long history of rose production and processing, it is home to the largest rose garden in the United States, a 14-acre public garden complex that has over 38,000 rose bushes of at least 500 different varieties. The Tyler Rose Garden is home to the annual Texas Rose Festival, attracting tourists by the thousands each year in mid-October.
Tyler is home to the Caldwell Zoo and Broadway Square Mall. As a regional educational and technology center, Tyler is the host for more than 20,000 higher-education students, a college of engineering, a university health science center, two regional hospital systems. In 1985, the international Adopt-a-Highway movement originated in Tyler. After appeals by local Texas Department of Transportation officials, the local Civitan chapter adopted a 2-mi stretch of U. S. Highway 69 to maintain. Drivers and other motorists traveling on this segment of US-69 will notice brown road signs that read, "First Adopt-A-Highway in the World." Tyler is located at 32°20′03″N 95°18′00″W at 544 feet above sea level. Tyler is surrounded by many smaller cities, including Whitehouse, New Chapel Hill, Edom, Kilgore and Chandler. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 54.4 square miles, of which 54.2 mi2 are land and 0.1 mi2 is covered by water. Tyler experiences weather typical of East Texas, unpredictable in the spring.
All of East Texas has the humid subtropical climate typical of the American South. The record high for Tyler is 115 °F, which occurred in 2011; the record low for Tyler is −3 °F, which occurred on January 18, 1930. As of the 2010 census, 96,900 people resided in the city of Texas; the population density was 1,782.0 people per square mile. The 41,742 housing units averaged a density of 716.7 per mi2. The racial makeup of the city was: 60.5% White, 24.8% Black, 0.5% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 10.3% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. About 21.2 % of the population were Latino of any race. The median income for the city was $42,752 and the poverty rate was 19.5%. Legal recognition of Tyler was initiated by an act of the state legislature on April 11, 1846. Texas authorized a county seat; the first plat designated a 28-block town site centered by a main square, located within a 100-acre tract acquired by Smith County on February 6, 1847. The new town was named for President John Tyler, who advocated for annexation of Texas by the United States.
A log building on the north side of the square functioned as courthouse and public meeting hall until it was displaced by a brick courthouse in 1852. On January 29, 1850, Tyler was incorporated. Early religious and social institutions included the First Baptist church and a Methodist church, a Masonic Lodge and an Odd Fellows Lodge, Tyler’s first newspaper. Though Tyler’s early economy was based on agriculture, it was well-diversified during this period. Logging was a second major industry, while complementary manufacturing included metal working, milling wood, leather tanning; as the seat of Smith County, the town benefited from government activity. The local agricultural economy relied on slave labor before the Civil War. By 1860, Tyler held over 1000 enslaved persons, which represented 35 percent of the town’s population. So there was strong support for secession and the Confederacy within Tyler, as a high percentage of its residents voted for secession and many of its men joined the Confederate Army.
The town was secure enough for the Confederacy to establish the largest ordnance plant in Texas. In 1870, the first bank in Tyler was established by Williams. Though both the Texas and Pacific Railroad and the International Railroad eschewed routes through Tyler, the town gained an important rail connection when the Houston and Great Northern built a branch line in 1874. Toward the end of the nineteenth century, fruit orchards emerged as an important new business in the regional economy. Eighty percent of the county agricultural revenue derived from cotton as it persisted as the dominant crop in the first decades of the twentieth century. Peaches were the principal fruit crop as the county fruit tree inventory surpassed one million by 1900. Disease struck the peach trees and local farmers moved toward growing roses by the 1920s. Twenty years most of the US rose supply originated in the Tyler area. According to the city's most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city's various funds had $87.7 million in revenues, $101.7 million in expenditures, $49.2 million in total assets, $12.3 million in total liabilities, $17.6 million in cash in investments.
The structure of the management and coordination of city services is: The Northeast Texas Public Health District is a political subdivision under the State
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Henderson is a city in Rusk County, northeast Texas, United States. The population was 13,712 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Rusk County. Henderson is named for the first governor of Texas; the city has functioned as a major crossroads in Northeast Texas over the last two centuries. Several major highways pass through the business district of the town, including U. S. Route 259, Texas State Highway 64, U. S. Route 79, Texas State Highway 43, Texas State Highway 42 and Texas State Highway 64. Annual events in the city of Henderson include the Heritage Syrup Festival in November, celebrating the east Texas tradition of syrup making, the East Texas Sacred Harp Convention in August featuring shape note music; the city has a vibrant downtown historic district, with many buildings dating to before the American Civil War. The city has 19 historical markers, including homes dating from the 1880s, colleges. Downtown Henderson is one of the most charming downtowns in the East Texas area. Colorful, canvas awnings highlight the ornate buildings which house Henderson's downtown merchants and offer shade to downtown shoppers visiting the various antiques stores, clothing stores, restaurants lining the Main Streets.
The city of Henderson was established by European Americans. It was developed on land donated by W. B. Ochiltree and James Smith; the First Methodist and First Baptist churches were established in 1845, respectively. The first courthouse, made of wood, was completed in 1849. After the Civil War, the International and Great Northern Railroad crossed through Rusk County but bypassed Henderson. In 1874, the Henderson and Overton Branch Railroad Company built a stretch of railroad connecting Henderson to the tracks running through Overton; this stretch of railroad was sold to the Missouri Pacific Railroad and remains in use to this day. In 1878, a small fire destroyed the courthouse, a brick courthouse was built in its place; this encouraged the construction of several other brick buildings, including the Howard Dickinson House, now a historical site. In 1930, C. M. "Dad" Joiner brought in the Daisy Bradford #3 Discovery Well six miles northwest of Henderson. The discovery of oil in October 1930 created a booming economy in the area, with the population of Henderson increasing from 2,000 to over 10,000 in a few months.
The oil fields in and surrounding Henderson, part of the hugely producing five-county East Texas Oil Field, continue to provide a large part of the wealth of the town and region. During World War II, airmen cadets from the Royal Air Force, flying from their training base at Terrell, Texas flew to Henderson on training flights; the community served as a stand-in for the British for Dunkirk, France, the same distance from London, England as Henderson is from Terrell. On August 5, 1860, a fire burned most of the booming town of Henderson. Forty-three buildings, including two hotels, were destroyed in the fire, for a loss of $220,000. According to the Depot Museum, a man named John Crow recalled the fire as follows: I was about eight years old when Henderson burned. I went to town with my father the day after the fire, it burned every house as well as I recollect, except the Flanagan Brick Building. I remember I was careful not to burn my feet. My father said at the time they thought a fellow named Green Herndon, a union man, had hired a negro woman to burn Henderson.
Herndon was a pronounced opponent of secession. On the negro woman's testimony, a mob gathered, threw a loop around his neck, tied it to a saddle horse which went around the public square dragging Herndon to death, they hung the body to a tree and shot it full of holes... War was in preparation and people were in fits of anger; when the war broke out, the men got all the files they could find and went to the blacksmith shops and made knives and swords. There was much laughter and I remember they said, "We'll whip those damn Yankees with axes and butcher knives. Everyone was anxious to go." 2015 Henderson Tornado On Memorial Day, May 25, 2015, An EF-2 rated. That day, multiple tornadoes had struck other areas in Texas and Oklahoma; the tornado took a path that uprooted trees, damaged buildings, caused minor damage to areas such as downtown. No severe damage was recorded. Henderson is located at 32°9′14″N 94°48′10″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.0 square miles, of which, 11.9 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water.
State Highway 64 State Highway 42 State Highway 43 Highway 259 Highway 79 As of the census of 2000, there were 11,273 people, 4,350 households, 2,971 families residing in the city. The population density was 947.6 people per square mile. There were 4,831 housing units at an average density of 406.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 68.98% White, 22.34% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 6.80% from other races, 1.13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.80% of the population. There were 4,350 households out of which 32.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.3% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.7% were non-families. 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3
A refinery is a production facility composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations refining certain materials or converting raw material into products of value. Different types of refineries are as follows: petroleum oil refinery, which converts crude oil into high-octane motor spirit, diesel oil, liquefied petroleum gases, heating fuel oils, lubricating oils and petroleum coke; the diagram depicts only one of the hundreds of different configurations. It does not include any of the usual facilities providing utilities such as steam, cooling water, electric power as well as storage tanks for crude oil feedstock and for intermediate products and end products; the image below is a schematic block flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant. It shows various unit processes converting raw natural gas into gas pipelined to end users; the block flow diagram shows how processing of the raw natural gas yields byproduct sulfur, byproduct ethane, natural gas liquids propane and natural gasoline.
Sugar is produced from sugarcane or sugar beets. However, the global production of sugar from sugarcane is at least twice the production from sugar beets. Therefore, this section focuses on sugar from sugarcane. Sugarcane is traditionally refined into sugar in two stages. In the first stage, raw sugar is produced by the milling of freshly harvested sugarcane. In a sugar mill, sugarcane is washed and shredded by revolving knives; the shredded cane is crushed. The juices are collected and mixed with lime to adjust pH to 7, prevent decay into glucose and fructose, precipitate impurities; the lime and other suspended solids are settled out, the clarified juice is concentrated in a multiple-effect evaporator to make a syrup with about 60 weight percent sucrose. The syrup is further concentrated under vacuum until it becomes supersaturated, seeded with crystalline sugar. Upon cooling, sugar crystallizes out of the syrup. Centrifuging separates the sugar from the remaining liquid. Raw sugar has a yellow to brown color.
Sometimes sugar is consumed locally at this stage, but undergoes further purification. Sulfur dioxide is bubbled through the cane juice subsequent to crystallization in a process, known as "sulfitation"; this process inhibits color forming reactions and stabilizes the sugar juices to produce “mill white” or “plantation white” sugar. The fibrous solids, called bagasse, remaining after the crushing of the shredded sugarcane, are burned for fuel, which helps a sugar mill to become self-sufficient in energy. Any excess bagasse can be used for animal feed, to produce paper, or burned to generate electricity for the local power grid; the second stage is executed in heavy sugar-consuming regions such as North America and Japan. In the second stage, white sugar is produced, more than 99 percent pure sucrose. In such refineries, raw sugar is further purified by fractional crystallization