Nymphalis antiopa, known as the mourning cloak in North America and the Camberwell Beauty in Britain, is a large butterfly native to Eurasia and North America. The immature form of this species is sometimes known as the spiny elm caterpillar. Other older names for this species include white petticoat. A powerful flier, this species is sometimes found in areas far from its usual range during migration; these butterflies have a lifespan of 11 to 12 months, one of the longest life-span for any butterfly. It is the state insect of the U. S. state of Montana, adopted in 2001. In several European countries with Germanic languages, other than Britain, the name for this butterfly translates to "mourning cloak", such as German "Trauermantel", Dutch "rouwmantel", Swedish "sorgmantel", Finnish "suruvaippa" and Norwegian "sørgekåpe"; this suggests it is a name which came with Scandinavian or German rather than with British settlers, for whom this species would be less familiar. Other common names include: Czech "Černokábátník".
"Babočka osiková". Polish "Rusałka żałobnik". Russian "Траурница". Japanese "キベリタテハ". Chinese "黄縁立羽". L. Hugh Newman likened the butterfly's pattern to a girl who, disliking having to be in mourning, defiantly let a few inches of a bright dress show below her mourning dress; the name originated from the discovery of two individuals at Coldharbour Lane in Camberwell in August 1748. Camberwell is in South London, about three miles south of London Bridge—in reporting this, the author Moses Harris named the species grand surprise or Camberwell beauty; the mourning cloak butterflies are distributed broadly around the northern hemisphere. They are found throughout all of North America and northern Eurasia. Three subspecies of Mourning cloak butterflies are found throughout North America: northern Nymphalis antiopa hyperborea Seitz, 1913, they can be found in hardwood forests, though they have been found in all habitats. They may be found as far as the northern part of South America, though they are not seen as in southern states such as Florida, Louisiana, or Texas.
They are seen in the more temperate places in Asia, a few have been seen in Japan. However, the mourning cloaks tend to be found predominantly in mountainous areas. Migrants arrive in Great Britain most years during summer and autumn, but numbers are very low. There is no evidence. The'Butterfly Farmer' L. Hugh Newman raised thousands for release at his'farm' in Bexley, but none were seen the following spring. Specimens stored in his refrigerator for the winter, survived. In a book he said that Camberwell Beauty catches in England were suspiciously concentrated around London and Harwich, all these being ports in the timber trade with Scandinavia, theorized that they had hibernated in stacks of timber, shipped to England, had not traveled naturally. Mourning cloak eggs are amber-yellow or pale olive-green. Upon further development, the coloration of the eggs will change, becoming lilac-pink, darkening to black, as they mature prior to hatching; the eggs are 0.7 by 0.9 mm in size. Laid on terminal shoots of the larval food-plant, encircling the stem.
In season, when the leaves appear, females lay the eggs on the upper surface. The spiny caterpillars are striking in appearance, with black bodies and a line of eight reddish-orange dots running down the back; the prolegs are dark red. The body is covered with black spines and white dots; the grown mourning cloak caterpillars attain two inches in length. Mourning cloak pupae are on average 0.8 inches in length, though they can reach over 1.1 inches in length. They tend to be a tan or brown gray, with two rows of sharp, red-tipped spikes protruding from the ventro-lateral side of the pupae; the chrysalis has a "beak", two head horns. The mourning cloak butterfly is a large, unique butterfly, with special markings that do not match those of any other butterfly, making it distinguishable, it can have a wingspan up to four inches. The dorsal side of its wings are a dark maroon, or brown, with ragged pale-yellow edges. Bright, iridescent blue spots line the black demarcation between the yellow; the ventral side of the wings has gray striations, with the same pale-yellow edges.
They are a part of the Nymphalis family, called the brush-footed butterflies due to their hairy front legs. The species does not display any sexual dimorphism. Mourning cloak butterflies display polygynous mating behavior, where an individual male will mate with multiple females throughout one breeding season, he will either use a display site to attract females or fly around searching for females that are more dispersed in a process called scramble competition polygyny. This means that male mourning cloak butterflies lek, or display territorial behavior, in which they settle and defend desirable areas, such as those that either offer increased probability of females or those that provide ample amounts of good resources; the more desirable territories will be able to increase the males' chances of reproductive success. Thus, lekking maximizes the males' ability to attract the most female butterflies, either by being in a prime location to view them or to have a location that females would want to visit.
Locations of choice include sunny perches near ravines, wood margins, gardens, ponds, around stream edge
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold. It is measured with a thermometer calibrated in one or more temperature scales; the most used scales are the Celsius scale, Fahrenheit scale, Kelvin scale. The kelvin is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units, in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities; the Kelvin scale is used in science and technology. Theoretically, the coldest a system can be is when its temperature is absolute zero, at which point the thermal motion in matter would be zero. However, an actual physical system or object can never attain a temperature of absolute zero. Absolute zero is denoted as 0 K on the Kelvin scale, −273.15 °C on the Celsius scale, −459.67 °F on the Fahrenheit scale. For an ideal gas, temperature is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the random microscopic motions of the constituent microscopic particles. Temperature is important in all fields of natural science, including physics, Earth science and biology, as well as most aspects of daily life.
Many physical processes are affected by temperature, such as physical properties of materials including the phase, solubility, vapor pressure, electrical conductivity rate and extent to which chemical reactions occur the amount and properties of thermal radiation emitted from the surface of an object speed of sound is a function of the square root of the absolute temperature Temperature scales differ in two ways: the point chosen as zero degrees, the magnitudes of incremental units or degrees on the scale. The Celsius scale is used for common temperature measurements in most of the world, it is an empirical scale, developed by a historical progress, which led to its zero point 0 °C being defined by the freezing point of water, additional degrees defined so that 100 °C was the boiling point of water, both at sea-level atmospheric pressure. Because of the 100-degree interval, it was called a centigrade scale. Since the standardization of the kelvin in the International System of Units, it has subsequently been redefined in terms of the equivalent fixing points on the Kelvin scale, so that a temperature increment of one degree Celsius is the same as an increment of one kelvin, though they differ by an additive offset of 273.15.
The United States uses the Fahrenheit scale, on which water freezes at 32 °F and boils at 212 °F at sea-level atmospheric pressure. Many scientific measurements use the Kelvin temperature scale, named in honor of the Scots-Irish physicist who first defined it, it is a absolute temperature scale. Its zero point, 0 K, is defined to coincide with the coldest physically-possible temperature, its degrees are defined through thermodynamics. The temperature of absolute zero occurs at 0 K = −273.15 °C, the freezing point of water at sea-level atmospheric pressure occurs at 273.15 K = 0 °C. The International System of Units defines a scale and unit for the kelvin or thermodynamic temperature by using the reliably reproducible temperature of the triple point of water as a second reference point; the triple point is a singular state with its own unique and invariant temperature and pressure, along with, for a fixed mass of water in a vessel of fixed volume, an autonomically and stably self-determining partition into three mutually contacting phases, vapour and solid, dynamically depending only on the total internal energy of the mass of water.
For historical reasons, the triple point temperature of water is fixed at 273.16 units of the measurement increment. There is a variety of kinds of temperature scale, it may be convenient to classify them theoretically based. Empirical temperature scales are older, while theoretically based scales arose in the middle of the nineteenth century. Empirically based temperature scales rely directly on measurements of simple physical properties of materials. For example, the length of a column of mercury, confined in a glass-walled capillary tube, is dependent on temperature, is the basis of the useful mercury-in-glass thermometer; such scales are valid only within convenient ranges of temperature. For example, above the boiling point of mercury, a mercury-in-glass thermometer is impracticable. Most materials expand with temperature increase, but some materials, such as water, contract with temperature increase over some specific range, they are hardly useful as thermometric materials. A material is of no use as a thermometer near one of its phase-change temperatures, for example its boiling-point.
In spite of these restrictions, most used practical thermometers are of the empirically based kind. It was used for calorimetry, which contributed to the discovery of thermodynamics. Empirical thermometry has serious drawbacks when judged as a basis for theoretical physics. Empirically based thermometers, beyond their base as simple direct measurements of ordinary physical properties of thermometric materials, can be re-calibrated, by use of theoretical physical reasoning, this can extend their range of adequacy. Theoretically-based temperature scales are based directly on theoretical arguments those of thermodynamics, kinetic theory and quantum mechanics, they rely on theoretical properties of idealized materials. They are more or less comparable with feasible physical devices and materials. Theoretically based temperature scales are used to provide calibrating standards for practi
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest, the guest being provided with nourishment and shelter. Examples include animals playing host to parasitic worms, cells harbouring pathogenic viruses, a bean plant hosting mutualistic nitrogen-fixing bacteria. More in botany, a host plant supplies food resources to micropredators, which have an evolutionarily stable relationship with their hosts similar to ectoparasitism; the host range is the collection of hosts. Symbiosis spans a wide variety of possible relationships between organisms, differing in their permanence and their effects on the two parties. If one of the partners in an association is much larger than the other, it is known as the host. In parasitism, the parasite benefits at the host's expense. In commensalism, the two live together without harming each other, while in mutualism, both parties benefit. Most parasites are only parasitic for part of their life cycle. By comparing parasites with their closest free-living relatives, parasitism has been shown to have evolved on at least 233 separate occasions.
Some organisms live in close association with a host and only become parasitic when environmental conditions deteriorate. A parasite may have a long term relationship with its host; the guest seeks out the host and obtains food or another service from it, but does not kill it. In contrast, a parasitoid spends a large part of its life within or on a single host causing the host's death, with some of the strategies involved verging on predation; the host is kept alive until the parasitoid is grown and ready to pass on to its next life stage. A guest's relationship with its host may be intermittent or temporary associated with multiple hosts, making the relationship equivalent to the herbivory of a wild-living animal. Another possibility is that the host–guest relationship may have no permanent physical contact, as in the brood parasitism of the cuckoo. Parasites follow a wide variety of evolutionary strategies, placing their hosts in an wide range of relationships. Parasitism implies host–parasite coevolution, including the maintenance of gene polymorphisms in the host, where there is a trade-off between the advantage of resistance to a parasite and a cost such as disease caused by the gene.
There are several kinds of host from a parasite's point of view. A definitive or primary host is one. An intermediate host is one. A virus is an obligate parasite, acting as a living thing only to the extent that when it is in a host cell, the machinery of that cell makes copies of the virus. A reservoir host can harbour a pathogen indefinitely with no ill effects, with important implications for disease control. A single reservoir host may be reinfected several times. A host of predilection is the one preferred by a parasite. An amplifying host is one in which the level of pathogen can become high enough that a vector such as a mosquito that feeds on it will become infectious. A secondary or intermediate host harbors a parasite only for a short transition period, during which some developmental stage is completed. For trypanosomes, the cause of sleeping sickness humans are the secondary host, while the tsetse fly is the primary host, given that it has been shown that reproduction occurs in the insect.
Tapeworms and other parasitic flatworms have complex lifecycles, in which specific developmental stages are completed in a sequence of several different hosts. It is not always easy or possible to identify which host is definitive and which secondary; as the life cycles of many parasites are not well understood, sometimes the subjectively more important organism is arbitrarily labelled as definitive, this designation may continue after it is found to be incorrect. For example, sludge worms are sometimes considered "intermediate hosts" for salmonid whirling disease though the myxosporean parasite reproduces sexually inside them. In trichinosis, a disease caused by roundworms, the host has reproductive adults in its digestive tract and immature juveniles in its muscles, is therefore both an intermediate and a definitive host. A paratenic host is similar to an intermediate host, except that it is not needed for the parasite's development cycle to progress. Paratenic hosts serve as "dumps" for non-mature stages of a parasite in which they can accumulate in high numbers.
The trematode Alaria americana may serve as an example: the so-called mesocercarial stages of this parasite reside in tadpoles, which are eaten by the definitive canine host. The tadpoles are more preyed on by snakes, in which the mesocercariae may not undergo further development. However, the parasites may accumulate in the snake paratenic host and infect the definitive host once the snake is consumed by a canid; the nematode Skrjabingylus nasicola is another example, with slugs as the intermediate hosts and rodents as the paratenic hosts, mustelids as the definitive hosts. A dead-end or incidental host is an intermediate host that does not allow transmission to the definitive host, thereby preventing the parasite from completing its development. For example and horses are dead-end hosts for West Nile virus, whose life cycle is between culicine mosquitoes and birds. People and horses can become infected, but the level of virus in their blood does not become high enough to pass on the infection to mosquitoes that bite them.
Micropredation is an evolutionarily stable strategy within parasitism, in w
Halictidae is the second-largest family of Apoidea bees. Halictid species occur all over the world and are dark-colored and metallic in appearance. Several species are all or green and a few are red, they are referred to as "sweat bees", as they are attracted to perspiration. They are only to sting if disturbed. Most halictids nest in the ground, though a few nest in wood, they mass-provision their young. All species may be important pollinators. Many species in the subfamily Halictinae are eusocial at least in part, such as Lasioglossum malachurum or Halictus rubicundus, with well-defined queen and worker castes, certain manifestations of their social behavior appear to be facultative in various lineages; those species who do not have a permanent, division of labor, such as Lasioglossum zephyrum, are considered primitively eusocial. Another example of a primitive eusocial bee species from this family is the Halictus ligatus species, for which aggression is one of the most influential behavioral attitudes for establishing hierarchy and social organization within the colony.
Primitively eusocial species such as these provide insight into the early evolution of eusociality. Halictus sexcinctus, which exhibits social and eusocial organization, provides insight into the evolutionary reversal of eusociality. Phylogenetic data from this species suggests that a communal strategy serves as a transitional step between eusociality and a reversion back to solitary nesting. Several genera and species of halictids are cleptoparasites of other bees, the behavior has evolved at least nine times independently within the family; the most well-known and common are species in the genus Sphecodes, which are somewhat wasp-like in appearance. Halictidae is one of the four bee families; these bees, as is typical in such cases, have enlarged ocelli. The other families with some crepuscular species are the Andrenidae and Apidae; some species are important in the pollination of crops. Among these are the alkali bee, Lasioglossum vierecki and Lasioglossum leucozonium. Halictidae belongs to the hymenopteran superfamily Apoidea, series Anthophila.
The oldest fossil record of Halictidae dates back to Early Eocene with a number of species, such as Neocorynura electra and Augochlora leptoloba known from amber deposits. The family is divided into four subfamilies, many genera, more than 2000 known species. Rophitinae appears to be the sister group to the remaining three subfamilies based on both morphology and molecular data. Rophitinae: Ceblurgus Conanthalictus Dufourea Goeletapis Micralictoides Morawitzella Morawitzia Penapis Protodufourea Rophites Sphecodosoma Systropha XeralictusNomiinae: Dieunomia Halictonomia Lipotriches Mellitidia Nomia Pseudapis Ptilonomia Reepenia Spatunomia Sphegocephala SteganomusNomioidinae: Cellariella Ceylalictus Nomioides Halictinae: Tribe Halictini Agapostemon Caenohalictus Dinagapostemon Echthralictus Eupetersia Glossodialictus Habralictus Halictus Homalictus Lasioglossum Mexalictus Microsphecodes Nesosphecodes Paragapostemon Patellapis Pseudagapostemon Ptilocleptis Rhinetula Ruizantheda Sphecodes Thrincohalictus Urohalictus Tribe Thrinchostomini Parathrincostoma Thrinchostoma Tribe Augochlorini Andinaugochlora Ariphanarthra Augochlora Augochlorella Augochlorodes Augochloropsis Caenaugochlora Chlerogas Chlerogella Chlerogelloides Corynura Halictillus Ischnomelissa Ischnomelissa rasmusseni Megalopta Megaloptidia Megaloptilla Megommation Micrommation Neocorynura Paroxystoglossa Pseudaugochlora Rhectomia Rhinocorynura Temnosoma Thectochlora Xenochlora Tribe unknown †Eickwortapis †Nesagapostemon †Oligochlora Family Halictidae Large format diagnostic photos, information.
Everything About the Sweat Bee - Description and photo of the sweat bee. Image Gallery from Gembloux BugGuide – Search: Halictidae. Online identification guides for eastern North American Halictidae Halictidae on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site
Birds known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds range in size from the 5 cm bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m ostrich. They rank as the world's most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are less developed depending on the species. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites and diverse endemic island species of birds; the digestive and respiratory systems of birds are uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming; the fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier feathered dinosaurs within the theropod group, which are traditionally placed within the saurischian dinosaurs.
The closest living relatives of birds are the crocodilians. Primitive bird-like dinosaurs that lie outside class Aves proper, in the broader group Avialae, have been found dating back to the mid-Jurassic period, around 170 million years ago. Many of these early "stem-birds", such as Archaeopteryx, were not yet capable of powered flight, many retained primitive characteristics like toothy jaws in place of beaks, long bony tails. DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified around the time of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event 66 million years ago, which killed off the pterosaurs and all the non-avian dinosaur lineages, but birds those in the southern continents, survived this event and migrated to other parts of the world while diversifying during periods of global cooling. This makes them the sole surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics; some birds corvids and parrots, are among the most intelligent animals. Many species annually migrate great distances. Birds are social, communicating with visual signals and bird songs, participating in such social behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting and mobbing of predators.
The vast majority of bird species are monogamous for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but for life. Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous or polyandrous. Birds produce offspring by laying eggs, they are laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching; some birds, such as hens, lay eggs when not fertilised, though unfertilised eggs do not produce offspring. Many species of birds are economically important as food for human consumption and raw material in manufacturing, with domesticated and undomesticated birds being important sources of eggs and feathers. Songbirds and other species are popular as pets. Guano is harvested for use as a fertiliser. Birds prominently figure throughout human culture. About 120–130 species have become extinct due to human activity since the 17th century, hundreds more before then. Human activity threatens about 1,200 bird species with extinction, though efforts are underway to protect them.
Recreational birdwatching is an important part of the ecotourism industry. The first classification of birds was developed by Francis Willughby and John Ray in their 1676 volume Ornithologiae. Carl Linnaeus modified that work in 1758 to devise the taxonomic classification system in use. Birds are categorised as the biological class Aves in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylogenetic taxonomy places Aves in the dinosaur clade Theropoda. Aves and a sister group, the clade Crocodilia, contain the only living representatives of the reptile clade Archosauria. During the late 1990s, Aves was most defined phylogenetically as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of modern birds and Archaeopteryx lithographica. However, an earlier definition proposed by Jacques Gauthier gained wide currency in the 21st century, is used by many scientists including adherents of the Phylocode system. Gauthier defined Aves to include only the crown group of the set of modern birds; this was done by excluding most groups known only from fossils, assigning them, instead, to the Avialae, in part to avoid the uncertainties about the placement of Archaeopteryx in relation to animals traditionally thought of as theropod dinosaurs.
Gauthier identified four different definitions for the same biological name "Aves", a problem. Gauthier proposed to reserve the term Aves only for the crown group consisting of the last common ancestor of all living birds and all of its descendants, which corresponds to meaning number 4 below, he assigned other names to the other groups. Aves can mean all archosaurs closer to birds than to crocodiles Aves can mean those advanced archosaurs with feathers Aves can mean those feathered dinosaurs that fly Aves can mean the last common ancestor of all the living birds and all of its descendants (a "c
Pieris brassicae, the large white called cabbage butterfly, cabbage white, cabbage moth, or in India the large cabbage white, is a butterfly in the family Pieridae. It is a close relative of the small Pieris rapae; the large white is common throughout North Africa and Asia. The large white is common throughout Europe, north Africa, Asia to the Himalayas in agricultural areas and parkland, it has managed to establish a population in South Africa and in 1995 it was predicted to spread to Australia and New Zealand. The large white is a strong flier and the British population is reinforced in most years by migrations from the continent. Scattered reports of the large white from the north-eastern United States over the past century are of a dubious nature and indicate either accidental transport or intentional release; such introductions threaten to establish this agricultural pest in North America. In 2010 the butterfly was found in Nelson, New Zealand where it is known as the great white butterfly.
It is classed as an unwanted pest due to the potential effect on crops. For a limited period in October 2013 the Department of Conservation offered a monetary reward for the capture of the butterfly. After two weeks, the public had captured 134 butterflies; as a result of this and other containment measures, such as over 263,000 searches in the upper South Island and the release of predatory wasps, the large white was declared to be eradicated from New Zealand as of December 2014. The large white eggs appear as a pale yellow colour, they turn into a darker yellow within twenty-four hours of being oviposited. A few hours prior to hatching, they will become black in colour, the shell will become more transparent, the larvae will appear visible. Large white larvae experience five instars; the first instar follows hatching of the egg into large white larvae. The larvae have soft bodies; the larvae appear as if they are hairy. Following a moulting, the larvae enter the second instar, they have tubercles covered with black hair.
In the third instar, large white larvae display more activity. This instar is when the larvae are observed to eat voraciously, cause significant amounts of damage to their host plant. At this point, they are observed to be more yellow in colour, studded with black dots. Following the third instar, the larvae go through the fourth instar, with similar appearances as the larvae of the third instar, but with more aggrandized size and feeding behaviour; the large white larvae are observed to be cylindrical and elongated by the fifth instar, yellow in colour and with bright colouration on their abdomen and thorax. They are observed to have a grey and black head; this instar requires maximum food quality and quantity in order to aid in full development, otherwise the larva dies before becoming an adult butterfly. For both males and females, the wings are white with black tips on the forewings; the female has two black spots on each forewing. The underside of each wing serves as excellent camouflage when at rest.
The black markings are darker in the summer brood. The large white butterfly's wingspan reaches 5 to 6.5 cm on average. The upperside of the male is creamy white; the forewing is irrorated with black scales along costa for a short distance. The apex and termen above vein 2 are more or less broadly black with the inner margin of the black area containing a regular curve. In one or two specimens a small longitudinally narrow black spot was found in interspace 3. Hindwing: uniform, irrorated with black scales at base, a large black subcostal spot before the apex, in a few specimens indications of black scaling on the termen anteriorly; the underside of the forewing is white irrorated with black scales at the base of cell and along costa. The apex is light ochraceous brown with a large black spot in outer half of interspace 1 and another quadrate black spot at base of interspace 3; the hindwing is light ochraceous brown irrorated with minute black scales. The subcostal black spot before the apex shows through from the upperside.
The antennae are white at apex. The head and abdomen are black, with some white hairs, where underneath is whitish; the upperside of the female is similar to that of the male, but the irroration of black scales at the bases of the wings is more extended. The black area on apex and termen of forewing is its inner margin less evenly curved. A conspicuous large, black spot exists in the outer half of interspace 1 near the base of interspace 3. On the hindwing the subcostal black spot before the apex is more prominent; the underside is similar to that of the male but the apex of the forewing and the whole surface of the hindwing is a light ochraceous yellow, not ochraceous brown. The black discal spots on forewing are much larger; the antennae, head and abdomen of the females are the same as for the male. The large white butterfly's habitat consists of large, open spaces, as well as farms and vegetable gardens, because of the availability of its food source; some favoured locations include walls, tree trunks, their food plant, important for large white survival since they need to have access to their food source for survival.
They hover around these locations, which should contain both wild and cultivated crucifer, as well as oil-seed rape and Brussels sprouts. These butterflies can be polyandrous; this means that, though some female butterflies can have more than
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and