1999 Rugby World Cup
The 1999 Rugby World Cup was the fourth Rugby World Cup, the quadrennial international rugby union championship. It was principally hosted by Wales, was won by Australia; this was the first Rugby World Cup. Although the majority of matches were played outside Wales the opening ceremony, the first match and the final were held in Cardiff. Four automatic qualification places were available for the 1999 tournament. Qualification for the final 16 places took place between 63 other nations; the tournament was expanded to 20 teams, divided into five pools of four teams, a scenario that necessitated a quarter-final play-off round involving the five runners-up and best third-placed team to decide who would join the pool winners in the last eight. The 1999 tournament saw the introduction of a repechage a second chance for teams that had finished runners-up in each qualifying zone. Uruguay and Tonga were the first nations to profit from the repechage, took their places alongside fellow qualifiers Australia, Ireland, Italy, Fiji, Romania, Namibia, Japan and the United States.
The tournament began with the opening ceremony in the newly-built Millennium Stadium, with Wales beating Argentina 23–18, Colin Charvis scoring the first try of the tournament. Australia won the tournament, becoming the first nation to do so twice and to date the only team to win after having to qualify for the tournament, with a 35–12 triumph over France, who were unable to repeat their semi-final victory over pre-tournament favourites New Zealand; the overall attendance for the tournament was 1.75 million. The following 20 teams, shown by region, qualified for the 1999 Rugby World Cup. Of the 20 teams, only four of those places were automatically allocated and did not have to play any qualification matches; these went to the champions, runners-up and the third-placed nations at the 1995 and the tournament host, Wales. A record 65 nations from five continents were therefore involved in the qualification process designed to fill the remaining 16 spots. Wales won the right to host the World Cup in 1999.
The centrepiece venue for the tournament was the Millennium Stadium, built on the site of the old National Stadium at Cardiff Arms Park at a cost of £126 million from Lottery money and private investment. Other venues in Wales were the Racecourse Stradey Park. An agreement was reached so that the other unions in the Five Nations Championship hosted matches. Venues in England included Twickenham and Welford Road, rugby union venues, as well as Ashton Gate in Bristol and the McAlpine Stadium in Huddersfield, which host football. Scottish venues included the home of the Scottish Rugby Union. Venues in Ireland included Lansdowne Road, the traditional home of the Irish Rugby Football Union and Thomond Park. France used five venues, the most of any nation, including the French national stadium, Stade de France, which hosted the final of both the 1998 FIFA World Cup and the 2007 Rugby World Cup. With the expansion of the Rugby World Cup from 16 to 20 teams an unusual and complex format was used with the teams split into five pools of four teams with each team playing each other in their pool once.
Pool A was played in Scotland Pool B was played in England Pool C was played in France Pool D was played in the principal host nation Wales Pool E was played in Ireland with matches played in both the Republic of Ireland & Northern IrelandPoints system The points system, used in the pool stage was unchanged from both 1991 and 1995: 3 points for a win 2 points for a draw 1 point for playingThe five pool winners qualified automatically to the quarter-finals. The five pool runners-up and the best third-placed side qualified for the quarter-final play-offs. Knock-out stage The five pool runners-up and the best third-placed team from the pool stage contested the quarter-final play-offs in three one-off matches that decided the remaining three places in the quarter-finals, with the losers being eliminated; the unusual format meant. From the quarter-final stage it became a simple knockout tournament; the semi-final losers played off for third place. The draw and format for the knock-out stage was set.
Quarter-final play-offs draw Match H: Pool B runner-up v Pool C runner-up Match G: Pool A runner-up v Pool D runner-up Match F: Pool E runner-up v Best third-placed teamQuarter-finals draw Match M: Pool D winners v Pool E winners Match J: Pool A winners v Play-off H winners Match L: Pool C winners v Play-off F winners Match K: Pool B winners v Play-off G winnersSemi-finals draw Match J winners v Match M winners Match L winners v Match K winnersA total of 41 matches were played throughout the tournament over 35 days from 1 October 1999 to 6 November 1999. The tournament began on 1 October 1999 in the newly built Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, with Wales beating Argentina in a hard fought game 23–18 to get their campaign off to a positive start; the Pool stage of the tournament played out as was expected with the Tri Nations teams of New Zealand, South Africa and Austra
Real Oviedo is a Spanish football club based in Oviedo, Asturias. Founded on 26 March 1926 as a result of the merger of two clubs who had maintained a large sporting rivalry for years in the city: Real Stadium Club Ovetense and Real Club Deportivo Oviedo; the club plays in the second tier of the Spanish football league system. The club plays in blue shirts and white shorts in the Estadio Carlos Tartiere, which seats 30,500 spectators, opened on 30 September 2000, is the largest sports stadium in Asturias. In the all-time league table for the Spanish top division, Oviedo rank in 17th place. Founded in 1926 after a merger with Stadium Ovetense and Real Club Deportivo Oviedo, Oviedo first reached La Liga seven years later, their attacking quartet of Emilín, Galé, Herrerita and Isidro Lángara, as well as Casuco and Ricardo Gallart modernised the game with their pace and running off the ball tied with sharp passing and one-touch football, played in a style 30/40 years before its time, being dubbed Delanteras Eléctricas.
Lángara won the Pichichi Trophy three years in a row prior to the Spanish Civil War, as Oviedo broke all scoring records. With the outbreak of the conflict, the team broke up: Lángara emigrated to South America and Emilín signed with FC Barcelona, Galé with Racing de Santander and Gallart with Racing de Ferrol; when football in the country resumed in 1939, Oviedo were relegated to the second division, as their pitch was deemed unplayable – Francisco Franco's troops had used the stadium as an ammunition dump. During the following decades, the club bounced back between the first and second levels, the high point being a best-ever third position in 1962–63, while the lowest was the side's first relegation to Segunda División B, in 1978. With the FIFA World Cup to be held on home soil in 1982, the Carlos Tartiere Stadium was renewed, the first match being held with the Chilean national team. In 1984–85 Oviedo won the soon-to-be-defunct Spanish League Cup, after successively defeating UD Salamanca, Bilbao Athletic, CF Lorca Deportiva, CE Sabadell FC and Atlético Madrileño.
In 1988 Oviedo returned to the top division, after ousting RCD Mallorca in the promotion playoffs, remained in that level for 13 consecutive seasons – in 1990–91 it finished sixth, qualifying once again for Europe, being knocked out in the first round by Genoa C. F. C. of Italy. After that successful year, there were more brilliant seasons and others where relegation was narrowly dodged. In a nutshell, the Carbayones had an outstanding run in La Liga during the 1990s with a team which lined up top international players. In 1992 Real Oviedo as well as most Spanish football clubs were forced to become public limited sports companies; the initial capital stock for Real Oviedo amounted to €3.6 million. In 2000, the new Carlos Tartiere Stadium with 30,500 seats became Real Oviedo’s new ground, it was opened on 20 September 2000 with a match between Real Oviedo and Partizan Belgrade, where Real Oviedo lost 0-2 to the Serbian side. Three days before, Real Oviedo and UD Las Palmas had got a 2-2 draw on the first fixture in the 2000–01 season.
After being relegated two consecutive times, Real Oviedo suffered severe economic troubles, when coupled with a profound lack of institutional support from the city's government, resulted in the team's inability to pay its players. The club was forced to drop all the way to the fourth division of Spanish football, for the 2003–04 season. Oviedo lasted two further campaigns before dropping down a level again. In another playoff against a Mallorca team – this time the reserves, the club returned again to the third division, after a penalty shootout; the financial dire straits continued into the 2012–13 season, when Oviedo called on supporters to buy shares in the club. A few footballers, notably Santi Cazorla, Juan Mata and Adrián who all started their careers there, offered their financial support in an attempt to save the club from bankruptcy – the club had until 17 November to raise €2 million in order to prevent closure. On 17 November 2012 Carlos Slim, the second richest man in the world, invested $2.5 million in the club, therefore gaining a controlling stake.
On 31 May 2015, Oviedo confirmed their return to the Spanish Segunda División after a thirteen-year absence with a 2–1 aggregate victory over Cádiz in the 2015 Segunda División B play-offs. 38 seasons in La Liga 36 seasons in Segunda División 9 seasons in Segunda División B 4 seasons in Tercera División The numbers are established according to the official website: www.realoviedo.es As of 25 February 2019Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate na
Rugby union in Spain
Rugby union is a growing team sport in Spain. As of 2014, there were 51,123 registered rugby union players in Spain, playing for 221 clubs in various divisions; the sport's governing body in Spain, the Spanish Rugby Federation, was founded in 1923. It joined the International Rugby Board in 1988, is a member of FIRA. There are traditionally four main rugby playing regions in Spain: the capital Madrid, the city of Valladolid in the Old Castile region, the entire regions of Basque Country, Catalonia in the north and around Barcelona; the Spanish national team plays in the European Nations Cup, a competition for second tier European rugby nations such as Portugal and Russia. Spain is ranked 21st in the world, played at the 1999 Rugby World Cup; the national sevens team is now one of the 15 "core teams" that participate in each event of the annual IRB Sevens World Series, having earned that status at the 2012 Hong Kong Sevens. Rugby was first introduced into Spain before World War I. However, subsequent events such as the Spanish Civil War, violent in the sport's Basque and Catalan heartlands, hindered its development.
The earliest recorded game in Spain was in 1901, when an Englishman, Stuart Nicholson, resident in Bilbao, "turned to Racing Club, when he wanted eye catching opposition for a three team tournament involving British and French exiles in Barcelona."However, rugby lay dormant in the country until after the end of World War I, when rugby was reintroduced into Spain from the south of France Provence and the French Basque Country. In 1921, Baudilio Aleu Torres, a Catalan, studying veterinary medicine in Toulouse, returned to his native Barcelona, founded the Santboiana Club there. Santboiana's pitch was cleared by the players themselves, according to Huw Richards, "a tree was tolerated and used as a coat hanger, until it was uprooted after a few games." The Spanish Rugby Federation, the governing body for rugby union in Spain, was founded in 1923. The first game in Madrid was in the 1920s as well, when Biarritz and Tarbes played an exhibition match in front of 12,000 spectators; the score upset some of the fans onto the pitch.
A Spanish XV played France, including Yves du Manoir, in 1927, but it was organised by a rebel governing body, so is not recognised as a proper international game. Spain's first recognised international was in 1929, against Italy, in Barcelona, at Montjuïc Stadium, as part of the 1929 Expo; the Spanish Royal Family attended and all of the players were Catalan. Spain won 9-0. In 1960, a French priest, Father George Bernés, introduced the game in Valladolid, Castile and León, leading to the creation of two of that region's clubs: Cetransa El Salvador and Valladolid RAC. Spain's international record includes wins over Italy in 1977 and Romania in 1992 and 1994. With the thawing of relations between the UK and Spain over the Gibraltar question, rugby union in Gibraltar has become more linked with its Spanish neighbours; when the border between Spain and Gibraltar reopened, after having been closed between 1968 and 1985, a number of games were played against sides from Seville and Madrid. Campo Gibraltar RFC now play in the Andalucian second division.
In 1989, the Spanish women's team played their first match, against France, losing 0-28. In 2000, they joined the Women's Six Nations, but in 2007, the tournament was altered so that Italy replaced Spain, in order to mirror the men's tournament. In more recent times, thanks to the influx of expatriates, a fifth "region" has opened up along the beach resorts on the Mediterranean coast, the Canary Islands and Balearics. In these areas, local people participate, the exception being the Marbella Rugby club on the Costa Del Sol, whose members are an equal mix of expatriates from the UK, South America and locals; the success of this policy is displayed by the progress of their junior teams reaching the final of the national club championships in 2010, thus giving them the title of second best side in the country in 2010 and going on to win the club championship in May 2011, to become the best U16 club side in Spain. The Marbella players make up the majority of the regional Andalucian team which participate at national level.
A number of juniors from this region have been selected for regional as well as national teams. The Torrevieja rugby club on the Costa Blanca has a similar composition of players. Beach rugby has become popular in many areas. There are several rugby sevens tournaments including the Benidorm Sevens. In recent years, Estadio Anoeta in the Basque Country has been used for occasional Heineken Cup rugby union fixtures by nearby French-Basque club Biarritz Olympique. In the 2009–10 Top 14 season, both Biarritz and fellow Basque club Bayonne will take one home match to the Anoeta. On 21 August, Bayonne will host Stade Français at the Anoeta, followed on 12 September by the Northern Basque derby between Biarritz and Bayonne, with BO as the home team; the stadium, which holds 32,076, was inaugurated in 1993. Spain continues to be popular with touring sides from Britain and France, due to its climate and good transport links. In playing standard, Spain occupies the second tier in Europe, along with Georgia.
There are over 51,123 registered rugby union players in Spain, with more than 221 clubs across the country. Participation rates for rugby union jumped by 20% in the Madrid area during the two years following the national team's participation in their first Rugby World Cup in 1999. In addition, funding from the Spanish sports council has been on the rise. Rugby union gets low media coverage, however
Oviedo is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias in northern Spain and the administrative and commercial centre of the region. It is the name of the municipality that contains the city. Oviedo is located 24 km southwest of Gijón and 23 km south of Avilés, both of which lie on the shoreline of the Bay of Biscay, its proximity to the ocean causes Oviedo to have a maritime climate, in spite of it not being located on the shoreline itself. The Kingdom of Asturias began in 720, with the Visigothic aristocrat Pelagius's revolt against the Muslims who at the time were occupying most of the Iberian Peninsula; the Moorish invasion that began in 711 had taken control of most of the peninsula, until the revolt in the northern mountains by Pelagius. The resulting Kingdom of Asturias, located in an economically poor region of Iberia, was ignored by the Muslims. In 720, the area where Oviedo is now located was still uninhabited, it is said that two monks, Máximo and Fromestano, founded the city in 761.
That settlement was soon to be completed with the construction of a small church dedicated to Saint Vincent. Oviedo was established on an uninhabited hillside, with no Visigothic or Roman foundation before it became an Asturian city. Following Pelagius, who died in 737, Alfonso I founded a dynasty that would last until 1037; the Asturian Kingdom was on hostile terms with southern Moorish Spain. In 794, Oviedo was sacked and pillaged by Caliph Hisham I in one of his numerous campaigns against the Christian kingdoms. King Alfonso I is said to have "set in place the whole order of the Goths, as it had been in Toledo, as much in the church as in the palace." The intention with Oviedo was to shape it into a city similar to that of Visigothic Toledo. Once kings had settled in Oviedo, they adopted as much of the architectural style and imagery of Toledo. With this in mind, Oviedo did not resemble the old Visigothic capital in Toledo; the churches and buildings of Oviedo follow instead late provincial Roman tradition.
Since Asturias at the time was an agriculturally poor area of Spain the scale of the buildings is quite impressive. Oviedo’s rich architectural tradition began with King Fruela I. King Fruela I of Asturias, the fourth of the Asturian monarchs, was the first decided promoter of the city as may be witnessed by his construction of both a palace and a nearby church; this church was restored by Alfonso II. Oviedo owes to a king, Alfonso II The Chaste, its establishment as a capital city and ruling seat as a result of the moving of the court from Pravia and the creation of the Pilgrim’s Route to Santiago de Compostela, a major event in the history of Oviedo, a church dedicated to The Saviour, the Cathedral of San Salvador, a royal palace formed the nucleus of Oviedo. Constructed during Alfonso II's reign was the San Julian de los Prados church, one of the best preserved Asturian churches. Alfonso II's successor, Ramiro I, continued Alfonso II's construction streak. Ramiro I constructed the Church Santa Maria del Naranco and San Miguel de Lillo.
The Church Santa Maria de Naranco was to be Ramiro I's palace and changed into a church. By this time the Court of the Palace was centered in Oviedo, the main royal residence; this court was controlled by member of the Austurian nobility. Ramiro I's eight-year tenure was uneasy, he faced rebellions from the Counts of the Palace; the first rebellion against Ramiro I was led by Alroitus, the second rebellion was led by Piniolus. Both of these rebellions were unsuccessful in removing Ramiro I; these rebellions may have been why Ramiro I built his palace in the mountains surrounding Oviedo away from the violence. During the 9th century in Oviedo, Roman style property law is common. 9th century documents indicate small scale aristocracies across the kingdom, as well as a large presence of a landowning peasantry. Following Ramiro I's reign, Ordoño I came into power and began the Asturian king’s father-son succession. Ordoño I was the first king to push southwards into Arab territory. Following Ordoño I's death on May 27, 866, usurpers attempted to take the throne.
The following king Alfonso III, thirteen at the time, took refuge in Castile until his followers had killed the usurper. Alfonso III's contributions to building construction are not nearly as well documented as Ramiro I's or Alfonso II's contributions; the Chronicle of Alfonso III does not mention any buildings created by Alfonso III, neither does the Chronicle of Albelda. In 882, the body of the Cordoban martyr Eulogius was sent to Oviedo; this was meant a diplomatic gift from Emir Muhammad I. Eulogius was executed in 859; the body was accompanied by Eulogius's book collection. In the 16th century, the only manuscript of Eulogius's writings was discovered in the Oviedo Cathedral Library. Here it was copied once before it disappeared from the library. Following an offensive in 881 against an Umayyad army, Alfsonso III returned to Oviedo to rebuild churches, it was at this time. The Chronicle of Albelda and the Chronicle of Sampiro tie Alfonso III's victories in battle to his program of church building in Oviedo.
In 908, Alfonso III commissioned a gold and jewelled cross to contain the cross carried by Pelagius I at Covadonga. This "Cross of Victory" is located in the Camara Sancta in the Oviedo Cathedral. However, recent Carbon14 analysis of the wooden cross indicates that it was no older than the golden casing created to surround the cross; the commission of the casing shows us Alfonso III’s interest in
Asturias the Principality of Asturias, is an autonomous community in north-west Spain. It is coextensive with the province of Asturias, contains some of the territory, part of the larger Kingdom of Asturias in the Middle Ages. Divided into eight comarcas, the autonomous community of Asturias is bordered by Cantabria to the east, by Castile and León to the south, by Galicia to the west, by the Bay of Biscay to the north; the most important cities are the communal capital, the seaport and largest city Gijón, the industrial town of Avilés. Other municipalities in Asturias include Cangas de Onís, Cangas del Narcea, Gozón, Langreo, Laviana, Llanes, Siero, Valdés, Vegadeo and Villaviciosa. Asturias is home of the Princess of Asturias Awards. Asturias was inhabited, first by Homo erectus by Neanderthals. Since the Lower Paleolithic era, during the Upper Paleolithic, Asturias was characterized by cave paintings in the eastern part of the area. In the Mesolithic period, a native culture developed, that of the Asturiense, with the introduction of the Bronze Age and tumuli were constructed.
In the Iron Age, the territory came under the cultural influence of the Celts. Today the Astur Celtic influence persists in place names, such as those of mountains. With the conquest of Asturias by the Romans under Augustus, the region entered into recorded history; the Astures were subdued by the Romans but were never conquered. After several centuries without foreign presence, they enjoyed a brief revival during the Germanic invasions of the late 4th century AD, resisting Suevi and Visigoth raids throughout the 5th Century AD, ending with the Moorish invasion of Spain. However, as it had been for the Romans and Visigoths, the Moors did not find mountainous territory easy to conquer, the lands along Spain's northern coast never became part of Islamic Spain. Rather, with the beginning of the Moorish conquest in the 8th century, this region became a refuge for Christian nobles, in 722, a de facto independent kingdom was established, the Regnum Asturorum, to become the cradle of the incipient Reconquista.
In the 10th century, the Kingdom of Asturias gave way to the Kingdom of León, during the Middle Ages the geographic isolation of the territory made historical references scarce. Through the rebellion of Henry II of Castile in the 14th century, the Principality of Asturias was established; the most famous proponents of independence were Gonzalo Peláez and Queen Urraca, while achieving significant victories, were defeated by Castilian troops. After its integration into the Kingdom of Spain, Asturias provided the Spanish court with high-ranking aristocrats and played an important role in the colonisation of America. Since 1388, the heir to the Castilian throne has been styled Prince of Asturias. In the 16th century, the population reached 100,000 for the first time, within another century that number would double due to the arrival of American corn. In the 18th century, Asturias was one of the centres of the Spanish Enlightenment; the renowned Galician thinker Benito de Feijóo settled in the Benedictine Monastery of San Vicente de Oviedo.
Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, a polymath and prominent reformer and politician of the late 18th century, was born in the seaside town of Gijón. During the Napoleonic Wars, Asturias was the first Spanish province to rise up against the French following the abdication of King Ferdinand VII on 10 May 1808. Riots began in Oviedo and on 25 May the local government formally declared war on Napoleon with 18,000 men called to arms to resist invasion; the Industrial Revolution came to Asturias after 1830 with the discovery and systematic exploitation of coal mines and iron factories at the mining basins of Nalón and Caudal. At the same time, there was significant migration to the Americas; these entrepreneurs were known collectively as'Indianos', for having visited and made their fortunes in the West Indies and beyond. The heritage of these wealthy families can still be seen in Asturias today: many large'modernista' villas are dotted across the region, as well as cultural institutions such as free schools and public libraries.
Asturias played an important part in the events. In October 1934 Asturian miners and other workers staged an armed uprising to oppose the coming to power of the right-wing CEDA party, which had obtained three ministerial posts in the centralist government of the Second Spanish Republic. For a month, a Popular Front Committee exercised control in southern Asturias, while local workers committees sprang up elsewhere in the region. A war committee dominated by anarcho-syndicalist supporters took power in Oviedo. Troops under the command of a unknown general named Francisco Franco Bahamonde were brought from Spanish Morocco to suppress the revolt. Franco applied tactics reserved for overseas colonies, using troops of the Spanish Legion and Moroccan troops: ferocious oppression followed; as a result, Asturias remained loyal to the republican governme
Bera Bera RT
Bera Bera Rugby Taldea is a Spanish rugby union club. The club was established in 1983 and competes in the División de Honor B de Rugby competition, the second-level of Spanish club rugby; the club are based in Donostia-San Sebastian. Bera Bera play in orange. Copa del Rey: 1 Champions: 2003–04 Supercopa de España: 0 Runners-up: 2004 12 seasons in División de Honor Pedro J Dávila Iker Lopategi David Hernández Oskar Astarloa Igor Mirones Gorka Bueno Pablo Feijoo Javier Arbelaiz plays the Challenge Cup with Olympus Madrid James Foster signs from Tasman Daniel Larrechea sings from Aviron Bayonnais, former player from Sale Sharks, international France A. Tama Makamaka international All-Blacks U20 Bruno Hiriart signs from US Dax Official website Spanish Rugby website
Rugby union known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts at each end. Rugby union is a popular sport around the world, played by male and female players of all ages. In 2014, there were more than 6 million people playing worldwide, of whom 2.36 million were registered players. World Rugby called the International Rugby Football Board and the International Rugby Board, has been the governing body for rugby union since 1886, has 101 countries as full members and 18 associate members. In 1845, the first football laws were written by Rugby School pupils. An amateur sport, in 1995 restrictions on payments to players were removed, making the game professional at the highest level for the first time.
Rugby union spread from the Home Nations of Great Britain and Ireland and was absorbed by many of the countries associated with the British Empire. Early exponents of the sport included New Zealand, South Africa and France. Countries that have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport include Fiji, Madagascar, New Zealand and Tonga. International matches have taken place since 1871 when the first game took place between Scotland and England at Raeburn Place in Edinburgh; the Rugby World Cup, first held in 1987, takes place every four years. The Six Nations Championship in Europe and The Rugby Championship in the Southern Hemisphere are other major international competitions, held annually. National club or provincial competitions include the Premiership in England, the Top 14 in France, the Mitre 10 Cup in New Zealand, the National Rugby Championship in Australia, the Currie Cup in South Africa. Other transnational club competitions include the Pro14 in Europe and South Africa, the European Rugby Champions Cup in Europe, Super Rugby, in the Southern Hemisphere and Japan.
The origin of rugby football is reputed to be an incident during a game of English school football at Rugby School in 1823, when William Webb Ellis is said to have picked up the ball and run with it. Although the evidence for the story is doubtful, it was immortalised at the school with a plaque unveiled in 1895. Despite the doubtful evidence, the Rugby World Cup trophy is named after Webb Ellis. Rugby football stems from the form of game played at Rugby School, which former pupils introduced to their university. Old Rugbeian Albert Pell, a student at Cambridge, is credited with having formed the first "football" team. During this early period different schools used different rules, with former pupils from Rugby and Eton attempting to carry their preferred rules through to their universities. A significant event in the early development of rugby football was the production of the first written laws of the game at Rugby School in 1845, followed by the Cambridge Rules drawn up in 1848. Other important events include the Blackheath Club's decision to leave the Football Association in 1863 and the formation of the Rugby Football Union in 1871.
The code was known as "rugby football". Despite the sport's full name of rugby union, it is known as rugby throughout most of the world; the first rugby football international was played on 27 March 1871 between Scotland and England in Edinburgh. Scotland won the game 1-0. By 1881 both Ireland and Wales had representative teams, in 1883 the first international competition, the Home Nations Championship had begun. 1883 is the year of the first rugby sevens tournament, the Melrose Sevens, still held annually. Two important overseas tours took place in 1888: a British Isles team visited Australia and New Zealand—although a private venture, it laid the foundations for future British and Irish Lions tours. During the early history of rugby union, a time before commercial air travel, teams from different continents met; the first two notable tours both took place in 1888—the British Isles team touring New Zealand and Australia, followed by the New Zealand team touring Europe. Traditionally the most prestigious tours were the Southern Hemisphere countries of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa making a tour of a Northern Hemisphere, the return tours made by a joint British and Irish team.
Tours would last for months, due to the number of games undertaken. Touring international sides would play Test matches against international opponents, including national and county sides in the case of Northern Hemisphere rugby, or provincial/state sides in the case of Southern Hemisphere rugby. Between 1905 and 1908, all three major Southern Hemisphere rugby countries sent their first touring teams to the Northern Hemisphere: New Zealand in 1905, followed by South Africa in 1906 and Australia in 1908. All three teams brought new styles of play, fitness levels and tactics, were far more successful than critics had expected; the New Zealand 1905 touri