Glamorgan, or sometimes Glamorganshire, is one of the thirteen historic counties of Wales and a former administrative county of Wales. It was an early medieval petty kingdom of varying boundaries known as Glywysing until taken over by the Normans as a lordship. Glamorgan is latterly represented by the three preserved counties of Mid Glamorgan, South Glamorgan and West Glamorgan; the name survives in that of Vale of Glamorgan, a county borough. Although a rural and pastoral area of little value, the area that became known as Glamorgan was a conflict point between the Norman lords and the Welsh princes, with the area being defined by a large concentration of castles. After falling under English rule in the 16th century, Glamorgan became a more stable county, exploited its natural resources to become an important part of the Industrial Revolution. Glamorgan was the most populous and industrialised county in Wales, was once called the "crucible of the Industrial Revolution," as it contained the world centres of three metallurgical industries and its rich resources of coal.
The county of Glamorgan comprises several distinct regions: the industrial valleys, the agricultural Vale of Glamorgan, the scenic Gower Peninsula. The county is bounded to the north by Brecknockshire, east by Monmouthshire, south by the Bristol Channel, west by Carmarthenshire and Carmarthen Bay, its total area is 2,100 km2, the total population of the three preserved counties of Glamorgan in 1991 was 1,288,309. Glamorgan contains two cities, the county town and from 1955 the capital city of Wales, Swansea; the highest point in the county is Craig y Llyn, situated near the village of Rhigos in the Cynon Valley. Glamorgan's terrain has been inhabited by humankind for over 200,000 years. Climate fluctuation caused the formation and reformation of glaciers which, in turn, caused sea levels to rise and fall. At various times life has flourished, at others the area is to have been uninhabitable. Evidence of the presence of Neanderthals has been discovered on the Gower Peninsula. Whether they remained in the area during periods of extreme cold is unclear.
Sea levels have been 150 metres lower and 8 metres higher than at present, resulting in significant changes to the coastline during this period. Archaeological evidence shows; the oldest known human burial in Great Britain – the Red Lady of Paviland – was discovered in a coastal cave between Port Eynon and Rhossili, on the Gower Peninsula. The'lady' has been radiocarbon dated to c. 29,000 years before present – during the Late Pleistocene – at which time the cave overlooked an area of plain, some miles from the sea. From the end of the last ice age Mesolithic hunter-gatherers began to migrate to the British Peninsula – through Doggerland – from the European mainland. Archaeologist Stephen Aldhouse-Green notes that while Wales has a "multitude" of Mesolithic sites, their settlements were "focused on the coastal plains", the uplands were "exploited only by specialist hunting groups". Human lifestyles in North-West Europe changed around 6000 BP, they cleared the forests to establish pasture and to cultivate the land and developed new technologies such as ceramics and textile production.
A tradition of long barrow construction began in continental Europe during the 7th millennium BP – the free standing megalithic structures supporting a sloping capstone. Nineteen Neolithic chambered five possible henges have been identified in Glamorgan; these megalithic burial chambers, or cromlechi, were built between 6000 and 5000 BP, during the early Neolithic period, the first of them about 1500 years before either Stonehenge or the Egyptian Great Pyramid of Giza was completed. Two major groups of Neolithic architectural traditions are represented in the area: portal dolmens; such massive constructions would have needed a large labour force – up to 200 men – suggestive of large communities nearby. Archaeological evidence from some Neolithic sites has shown the continued use of cromlechi in the Bronze Age; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – has made a lasting impression on the area. Over six hundred Bronze Age barrows and cairns, of various types, have been identified all over Glamorgan.
Other technological innovations – including the wheel. Deforestation continued to the more remote areas as a warmer climate allowed the cultivation of upland areas. By 4000 BP people had begun to bury, or cremate their dead in individual cists, beneath a mound of earth known as a round barrow. From c. 3350 BP, a worsening climate began to make agriculture unsustainable in upland areas. The resulting population pressures appear to have led to co
The River Conwy is a river in north Wales. From its source to its discharge in Conwy Bay it is a little over 27 miles long. "Conwy" was Anglicised as "Conway." The name'Conwy' derives from the old Welsh words'cyn' and'gwy', the river being called the'Cynwy'. It rises on the Migneint moor where a number of small streams flow into Llyn Conwy flows in a northern direction, being joined by the tributaries of the rivers Machno and Lledr before reaching Betws-y-Coed, where it is joined by Afon Llugwy. From Betws-y-coed the river continues to flow north through Llanrwst and Dolgarrog before reaching Conwy Bay at Conwy. A local quay, Cei Cae Gwyn, is located on its bank. During spring tides the river is tidal as far near Llanrwst; the Conwy is bounded to the east by the rolling ancient mudstone hills of the Silurian period, the Migneint Moors. These acid rocks are covered in thin acid soils and for large parts of the upland areas the cover is of moor-grass — Mollinia spp and Erica communities; as a result, the water entering the river tends to be acidic and coloured brown with humic acids.
To the west, the catchment is underlain by older Cambrian rocks which are harder and the landscape is, as a consequence, more dramatic with high craggy hills and mountains, through which the river falls in cascades and waterfalls. Excellent examples of torrential river geomorphology can be seen at Conwy Falls and in the Lledr Gorge; the land to the East is forested with planted non-native conifers. On the western side of the valley are a number of lakes and reservoirs; the rocks are rich in minerals and there are many abandoned mine sites where copper and silver have been mined since Roman times. The river valley downstream of Betws-y-Coed is wide and fertile, supports dairying and sheep rearing. In wintertime these pastures are used to nurture the sheep brought down from the mountains to avoid the worst of the winter weather. Aber Afon Conwy is a site of special interest, it has acquired such a status due to terrestrial biology. The tidal reach of the site reaches around 16 kilometres, its upstream boundary is south of Tal y Cafn, the whole site encompasses Conwy Bay.
The shoreline is supported by natural rock, in addition to boulder clay cliff, sand dune, salt marsh and woodland. The scattered communities along the Conwy valley have ancient traditions with archeological evidence of habitation back to the Stone Age; the Romans occupied this area up to 400 AD and there has been continuous habitation since that time. The valley is home to two of the oldest churches in Wales, those at Llanrhychwyn and Llangelynin, which date back to the 11th and 12th centuries. Much of the Conwy valley was laid waste in the Wars of the Roses by the Earl of Pembroke, under the orders of Edward IV, the Yorkist king, following a Lancastrian attack on the town of Denbigh in 1466. At the mouth of the Conwy as it discharges into Conwy Bay is the town of Conwy with its World Heritage Site castle — Conwy Castle and two famous bridges. One of the earliest road suspension bridges by Thomas Telford now carries a footpath whilst Robert Stephenson's tubular iron bridge still carries the main Holyhead to London railway line.
A third bridge now takes road traffic, more still the A55 now runs in a tunnel under the estuary. The River Conwy is monitored for quality by Natural Resources Wales; the river quality tends to be acidic in the headwaters with low concentrations of the common anions and cations. Whilst conductivity rises as the river flows towards the sea, the overall organic quality remains good despite some slight increases in ammonia due to diffuse agricultural inputs. Natural Resources Wales constantly monitors water levels in the valley, with a view to giving flood warnings. There are measuring stations at Betws-y-coed and Trefriw; the Conwy is noted for its salmon and sea trout although increasing acidification in the second half of the 20th century in the poorly buffered upland waters has impacted upon their spawning success. The construction of an artificial fish pass in the 1990s to allow migratory salmonids access to the river above Conwy falls was intended to help mitigate the effects of acidification.
The Conwy Crossing, an immersed tube tunnel was built under the estuary during the late 1980s and early 1990s. It was opened by the Queen in October 1991; this resulted in the loss of some saltmarsh but led to the creation of Conwy RSPB Reserve. Since 2002 the valley has been overlooked by the turbines of the Moel Maelogan wind farm; the panorama shows the mouth of the Conwy Estuary from Deganwy Castle, the original defensive position of the area. However, problems with resupply in the event of siege and its destruction by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Prince of Wales in 1263 to prevent it falling into King Edward's hands, led to a new castle being built across the water in Conwy town. Conwy Valley Line Rivers of Great Britain List of rivers of Europe www.geograph.co.uk: photos of the River Conwy
Deheubarth was a regional name for the realms of south Wales as opposed to Gwynedd. It is now used as a shorthand for the various realms united under the House of Dinefwr, but that Deheubarth itself was not considered a proper kingdom on the model of Gwynedd, Powys, or Dyfed is shown by its rendering in Latin as dextralis pars or as Britonnes dexterales and not as a named land. In the oldest British writers, Deheubarth was used for all of modern Wales to distinguish it from Hen Ogledd, the northern lands whence Cunedda and the Cymry originated. Deheubarth was united around 920 by Hywel Dda out of the territories of Seisyllwg and Dyfed, which had come into his possession. On, the Kingdom of Brycheiniog was added. Caerleon was the principal court of the area, but Hywel's dynasty fortified and built up a new base at Dinefwr, near Llandeilo, giving them their name. After the high-water mark set by Hywel, Dinefwr was overrun. First, by the Welsh of the north and east: by Llywelyn ap Seisyll of Gwynedd in 1018.
In 1075, Rhys ab Owain and the noblemen of Ystrad Tywi succeeded in treacherously killing their English-backed overlord Bleddyn ap Cynfyn. Although Rhys was overrun by Gwynedd and Gwent, his cousin Rhys ap Tewdwr – through his marriage into Bleddyn's family and through battle – reëstablished his dynasty's hegemony over south Wales just in time for the second wave of conquest: a prolonged Norman invasion under the Marcher Lords. In 1093, Rhys was killed in unknown circumstances while resisting their expansion into Brycheiniog and his son Gruffydd was thrown into exile. Following the death of Henry I, in 1136 Gruffydd formed an alliance with Gwynedd for the purpose of a revolt against Norman incursions, he took part in Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd's victory over the English at Crug Mawr. The newly liberated region of Ceredigion, was not returned to his family but annexed by Owain; the long and capable rule of Gruffydd's son the Lord Rhys – and the civil wars that followed Owain's death in Gwynedd – permitted the South to reassert the hegemony Hywel Dda had enjoyed two centuries before.
On his death in 1197, Rhys redivided his kingdom among his several sons and none of them again rivalled his power. By the time Llywelyn the Great won the wars in Gwynedd, in the late 12th century, lords in Deheubarth appear among his clients. Following the conquest of Wales by Edward I, the South was divided into the historic counties of Cardiganshire and Pembrokeshire by the Statute of Rhuddlan. In the arena of the church, Sulien was the leader of the monastic community at Llanbadarn Fawr in Ceredigion. Born ca. 1030, he became Bishop of St David's in 1073 and again in 1079/80. Both of his sons followed him into the service of the church. At this time the prohibition against the marriage of clerics was not yet established, his sons produced a number of original Latin and vernacular poems. They were active in the ecclesiastical and political life of Deheubarth. One son, Rhygyfarch of Llanbadarn Fawr, wrote the Life of Saint David and another, was a skillful scribe and illuminator, he may have written the Life of St. Padarn.
Goronwy Foel House of Dinefwr List of Welsh kings The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2008 ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6 Deheubarth at Castle Wales
House of Dinefwr
The House of Dinefwr was a royal house of Wales and refers to the descendants of Cadell ap Rhodri, King of Seisyllwg, son of Rhodri the Great. With the death of Rhodri Mawr, the kingdom of Gwynedd passed to his eldest son Anarawd ap Rhodri. Rhodri's second son Cadell ap Rhodri, looked outside Gwynedd's traditional borders and took possession of the Early Medieval Kingdom of Dyfed by the late 9th century, establishing his capital at the citadel of Dinefwr. Cadell ap Rhodri's descendants are designated Dinefwr after the citadel from which they would rule Dyfed; the Dinefwr dynasty under king Hywel Dda would unite Dyfed and Seisyllwg into the kingdom of Deheubarth in the early 10th century. The Dinefwr dynasty would rule in Deheubarth until their conquest by the Anglo-Normans in the 13th century; this branch would compete with House Aberffraw for supremacy and influence in Wales throughout the 10th, 11th, 12th century, with Powys variously ruled between them. A cadet branch of Dinefwr would establish itself in Powys by the mid 11th century, designated Mathrafal after the castle there
Annales Cambriae is the name given to a complex of Cambro-Latin chronicles compiled or derived from diverse sources at St David's in Dyfed, Wales. The earliest is a 12th-century presumed copy of a mid-10th century original. Despite the name, the Annales Cambriae record not only events in Wales, but events in Ireland, England and sometimes further afield, though the focus of the events recorded in the two-thirds of the text is Wales; the principal versions of Annales Cambriae appear in four manuscripts: A: London, British Library, MS. Harleian 3859, folios 190r-193r. B: London, National Archives, MS. E.164/1 pp. 2–26C: London, British Library, MS. Cotton Domitian A.i, folios 138r-155rD: Exeter, Cathedral Library, MS. 3514, pp. 523–28, the Cronica ante aduentum Domini. E: ibid. pp. 507–19, the Cronica de Wallia. A is written in a hand of about 1100x1130 AD, inserted without title into a manuscript of the Historia Brittonum where it is followed by a pedigree for Owain ap Hywel. Although no explicit chronology is given in the MS, its annals seem to run from about AD 445 to 977 with the last entry at 954, making it that the text belongs to the second half of the 10th century.
B was written at the Cistercian abbey of Neath, at the end of the 13th century. It is entitled Annales ab orbe condito adusque A. D. mcclxxxvi. C is part of a book written at St David's, is entitled Annales ab orbe condito adusque A. D. mcclxxviii. Two of the texts, B and C, begin with a World Chronicle derived from Isidore of Seville's Origines, through the medium of Bede's Chronica minora. B commences its annals with Julius Caesar's invasion of Britain "sixty years before the incarnation of the Lord." After A. D. 457, B agrees with A until A ends. C commences its annals after the empire of Heraclius at a year corresponding to AD 677. C agrees with A until A ends, although it is clear that A was not the common source for B and C. B and C briefer Welsh entries. D and E are found in a manuscript written at the Cistercian abbey of Whitland in south-west Wales in the 13th century. A alone has benefited from a complete diplomatic edition. There are two entries in the Annales on King Arthur, one on Medraut, one on Merlin.
These entries have been presented in the past as proof of the existence of Arthur and Merlin, although that view is no longer held because the Arthurian entries could have been added arbitrarily as late as 970, long after the development of the early Arthurian myth. The entries on Arthur and Mordred in the A Text: Year 72 The Battle of Badon, in which Arthur carried the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ on his shoulders for three days and three nights and the Britons were victors. Year 93 The Strife of Camlann in which Arthur and Medraut fell and there was death in Britain and in Ireland. Concerning Arthur's cross at the Battle of Badon, it is mirrored by a passage in Nennius where Arthur was said to have borne the image of the Virgin Mary "on his shoulders" during a battle at a castle called Guinnion; the words for "shoulder" and "shield" were, however confused in Old Welsh – *scuit "shield" versus *scuid "shoulder" – and Geoffrey of Monmouth played upon this dual tradition, describing Arthur bearing "on his shoulders a shield" emblazoned with the Virgin.
Merlin is not mentioned in the A Text, though there is mention of the battle of Arfderydd, associated with him in medieval Welsh literature: Year 129 The Battle of ArmteridTexts B and C omit the second half of the year 93 entry. B calls Arfderydd "Erderit". In the B Text, the year 129 entry continues: "between the sons of Elifer and Guendoleu son of Keidau in which battle Guendoleu fell and Merlin went mad". Both the B and C texts display the influence of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, this is reflected in the Arfderydd entry by the choice of the Latinized form Merlinus, first found in Geoffrey's Historia, as opposed to the expected Old Welsh form Merdin. History of Wales English historians in the Middle Ages Brett, Caroline, 1988'The Prefaces of Two Late Thirteenth-century Welsh Latin Chronicles', Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 35, pp. 64–73. Dumville, David N. 1972-74'Some aspects of the chronology of the Historia Brittonum', Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 25, pp. 439–445.
Dumville, David N. 1977'Sub-Roman Britain: history and legend', History 62, pp. 173–192. Dumville, David N. 1977/8'The Welsh Latin annals', Studia Celtica 12/13, pp. 461–467 Dumville, David N. 1984'When was the'Clonmacnoise Chronicle' created? The evidence of the Welsh annals', in Grabowski K. & Dumville D. N. 1984 Chronicles and Annals of Mediaeval Ireland and Wales: The Clonmacnoise-group of texts, Boydell, pp. 209–226. Dumville, David N. 2002'Annales Cambriae, A. D. 682-954: Texts A-C in Parallel', Department of Anglo-Saxon and Celtic, University of Cambridge. Dumville, David N. 2004' Annales Cambriae and Easter', in The Medieval Chronicle III, Amsterdam & New York. Gough-Cooper, Henry, 2010'Annales Cambriae, from Saint Patrick to AD 682: Texts A, B & C in Parallel.' The Heroic Age: A Journal of Early Medieval Northwest Europe, Issue 15 The Heroic Age website Grigg, Erik, 2009"Mole Rain' and other natural phenom
Kingdom of Gwynedd
The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd was a Roman Empire successor state that emerged in sub-Roman Britain in the 5th century during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain. Based in northwest Wales, the rulers of Gwynedd rose to dominance and were acclaimed as "King of the Britons" before losing their power in civil wars or invasions; the kingdom of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn—the King of Wales from 1055 to 1063—was shattered by a Saxon invasion in 1063 just prior to the Norman invasion of Wales, but the House of Aberffraw restored by Gruffudd ap Cynan recovered and Llywelyn the Great of Gwynedd was able to proclaim the Principality of Wales at the Aberdyfi gathering of Welsh princes in 1216. In 1277, the Treaty of Aberconwy granted peace between the two but would guarantee that Welsh self-rule would end upon Llewelyn's death, so it represented the completion of the first stage of the conquest of Wales by Edward I. Welsh tradition credited the founding of Gwynedd to the Brittonic polity of Gododdin from Lothian invading the lands of the Brittonic polities of the Deceangli and Gangani in the 5th century.
The sons of their leader, were said to have possessed the land between the rivers Dee and Teifi. The true borders of the realm varied over time, but Gwynedd Proper was thought to comprise the cantrefs of Aberffraw and Cantref Rhosyr on Anglesey and Arllechwedd, Dunoding, Dyffryn Clwyd, Llŷn, Rhos and Tegeingl at the mountainous mainland region of Snowdonia opposite; the name Gwynedd is believed to be an early borrowing from Irish, either cognate with the Old Irish ethnic name Féni, "Irish People", from Primitive Irish *weidh-n- "Forest People"/"Wild People", or Old Irish fían "war band", from Proto-Irish *wēnā. The 5th-century Cantiorix Inscription now in Penmachno church seems to be the earliest record of the name, it is in memory of a man named Cantiorix, the Latin inscription is Cantiorix hic iacit/Venedotis cives fuit/consobrinos Magli magistrati: "Cantiorix lies here. He was a citizen of Gwynedd and a cousin of Maglos the magistrate"; the use of terms such as "citizen" and "magistrate" may be cited as evidence that Romano-British culture and institutions continued in Gwynedd long after the legions had withdrawn.
Ptolemy marks the Llŷn Peninsula as the "Promontory of the Gangani", a name he recorded in Ireland. In the late and post-Roman eras, Irish from Leinster may have arrived in Anglesey and elsewhere in northwest Wales, with the name Llŷn derived from Laigin, an Old Irish form that means "of Leinster"; the region became known as Venedotia in Latin. The name was attributed to a specific Irish colony on Anglesey, but broadened to refer to Irish settlers as a whole in North Wales by the 5th century. According to 9th century monk and chronicler Nennius, North Wales was left defenseless by the Roman withdrawal and subject to increasing raids by marauders from the Isle of Man and Ireland, a situation which led Cunedda, his sons and their entourage, to migrate in the mid-5th century from Manaw Gododdin to settle and defend North Wales against the raiders and bring the region within Romano-British control. According to traditional pedigrees, Cunedda's grandfather was Padarn Beisrudd, Paternus of the red cloak, "an epithet which suggests that he wore the cloak of a Roman officer", according to Davies.
Nennius recounts how Cunedda brought order to North Wales and after his death Gwynedd was divided among his sons: Dynod was awarded Dunoding, another son Ceredig received Ceredigion, so forth. However, this overly neat origin myth has been met with skepticism: Early Welsh literature contains a wealth of stories seeking to explain place-names, doubtless the story is propaganda aimed at justifying the right of Cunedda and his descendants to territories beyond the borders of the original Kingdom of Gwynedd; that kingdom consisted of the two banks of the Menai Straits and the coast over towards the estuary of the river Conwy, the foundations upon which Cunedda's descendants created a more extensive realm. Undoubtedly, a Brittonic leader of substance established himself in North Wales, he and his descendants defeated any remaining Irish presence, incorporated the settlements into their domain and reoriented the whole of Gwynedd into a Romano-British and "Welsh" outlook; the Welsh of Gwynedd remained conscious of their Romano-British heritage, an affinity with Rome survived long after the Empire retreated from Britain with the use of Latin in writing and sustaining the Christian religion.
The Welsh ruling classes continued to emphasize Roman ancestors within their pedigrees as a way to link their rule with the old imperial Roman order, suggesting stability and continuity with that old order. According to Professor John Davies, "here is a determinedly Brythonic, indeed Roman, air to early Gwynedd." So palpable was the Roman heritage felt that Professor Bryan Ward-Perkins of Trinity College, wrote "It took until 1282, when Edward I conquered Gwynedd, for the last part of Roman Britain to fall a strong case can be made for Gwynedd as the last part of the entire Roman Empire and west, to fall to the barbarians." There was quick abandonment of Roman political and ecclesiastical practices and institutions within Gwynedd and elsewhere in Wales. Roman knowledge was lost as the Romano-Britons shifted towards a streamlined militaristic near-tribal society that no longer
Kingdom of Powys
The Kingdom of Powys was a Welsh successor state, petty kingdom and principality that emerged during the Middle Ages following the end of Roman rule in Britain. It roughly covered the top two thirds of the modern county of Powys and part of the West Midlands. More and based on the Romano-British tribal lands of the Ordovices in the west and the Cornovii in the east, its boundaries extended from the Cambrian Mountains in the west to include the modern West Midlands region of England in the east; the fertile river valleys of the Severn and Tern are found here, this region is referred to in Welsh literature as "the Paradise of Powys". The name Powys is thought to derive from Latin pagus'the countryside' and pagenses'dwellers in the countryside' the origins of French "pays" and English "peasant". During the Roman Empire, this region was organised into a Roman province, with the capital at Viroconium Cornoviorum, the fourth-largest Roman city in Britain. An entry in the Annales Cambriae concerning the death of King Cadell ap Brochfael says that the land called Powys was known as Teyrnllwg.
Throughout the Early Middle Ages, Powys was ruled by the Gwerthrynion dynasty, a family claiming descent jointly from the marriage of Vortigern and Princess Sevira, the daughter of Magnus Maximus. Archaeological evidence has shown that, unusually for the post-Roman period, Viroconium Cornoviorum survived as an urban centre well into the 6th century and thus could have been the Powys capital; the Historia Brittonum, written around AD 828, records the town as Caer Guricon, one of his "28 British Towns" of Roman Britain. In the following centuries, the Powys eastern border was encroached upon by English settlers from the emerging Anglian territory of Mercia; this was a gradual process, English control in the West Midlands was uncertain until the late 8th century. In 549 the Plague of Justinian - an outbreak of a strain of bubonic plague - arrived in Britain, Welsh communities were devastated, with villages and countryside alike depopulated. However, the English were less affected by this plague as they had far fewer trading contacts with the continent at this time.
Faced with shrinking manpower and increasing Anglian encroachment, King Brochwel Ysgithrog may have moved the court from Caer Guricon to Pengwern, the exact site of, unknown but may have been at Shrewsbury, traditionally associated with Pengwern, or the more defensible Din Gwrygon, the hill fort on The Wrekin. In 616, the armies of Æthelfrith of Northumbria clashed with Powys. Seeing an opportunity to further drive a wedge between the North Welsh and those of Rheged, Æthelfrith invaded Powys' northern lands. Æthelfrith defeated Selyf and his allies. At the commencement of the battle, Bede tells us that the pagan Æthelfrith slaughtered 1200 monks from the important monastery of Bangor-on-Dee in Maelor because, he said, "they fight against us, because they oppose us by their prayers". Selyf ap Cynan was killed in the battle and may have been the first of the kings of Powys to be buried at the church dedicated to St. Tysilio, at Meifod, thence known as the Eglwys Tysilio and subsequently the dynasty's Royal mausoleum.
If King Cynddylan of Pengwern hailed from the royal Powys dynasty forces from Powys may have been present at the Battle of Maes Cogwy in 642. According to the ninth-century cycle of englyn-poems Canu Heledd, the region around Pengwern was sacked soon after, its royal family slaughtered and most of its lands were annexed by Mercia, some by Powys. However, this account is now thought to represent ninth-century imaginings of what must have been going on in the seventh, inspired by Powys's political situation in the ninth century. Powys enjoyed a resurgence with successful campaigns against the English in 655, 705-707 and 722, wrote Davies; the court was moved to Mathrafal Castle in the valley of the river Vyrnwy by 717 by king Elisedd ap Gwylog. Elisedd's successes led King Æthelbald of Mercia to build Wat's Dyke; this endeavour may have been with Elisedd's own agreement, for this boundary, extending north from the Severn valley to the Dee estuary, gave Oswestry to Powys. King Offa of Mercia seems to have continued this consultive initiative when he created a larger earth work, now known as Offa's Dyke.
Davies wrote of Cyril Fox's study of Offa's Dyke: In the planning of it, there was a degree of consultation with the kings of Powys and Gwent. On the Long Mountain near Trelystan, the dyke veers to the east, leaving the fertile slopes in the hands of the Welsh, and for Gwent Offa had the dyke built "on the eastern crest of the gorge with the intention of recognizing that the river Wye and its traffic belonged to the kingdom of Gwent. This new border moved Oswestry back to the English side of the new frontier, Offa attacked Powys in 760 at Hereford, again on 778, 784 and 796. Offa's Dyke remained the frontier between the Welsh and English, though the Welsh would recover by the 12th century the area between the Dee and the River Conwy, known as the Perfeddwlad or "Midlands". Powys was united with Gwynedd when king Merfyn Frych of Gwynedd married princess Nest ferch Cadell, sister of king Cyngen of Powys, the last representative of the Gwertherion dynasty. With the death of Cyngen in 855 Rhodri the Great became king of Powys, having inherited Gwynedd the year before.
This formed the basis of Gwynedd's continued claims of overlordship over Powys for the next 443 years. Rhodri the Great ruled over most of modern Wales until his death in 878, his sons would in t