Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Art of Fugue, the Brandenburg Concertos, the Goldberg Variations as well as for vocal music such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival he has been regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time; the Bach family counted several composers when Johann Sebastian was born as the last child of a city musician in Eisenach. After becoming an orphan at age 10, he lived for five years with his eldest brother Johann Christoph Bach, after which he continued his musical development in Lüneburg. From 1703 he was back in Thuringia, working as a musician for Protestant churches in Arnstadt and Mühlhausen and, for longer stretches of time, at courts in Weimar—where he expanded his repertoire for the organ—and Köthen—where he was engaged with chamber music. From 1723 he was employed as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, he composed music for the principal Lutheran churches of the city, for its university's student ensemble Collegium Musicum.
From 1726 he published some of his organ music. In Leipzig, as had happened in some of his earlier positions, he had a difficult relation with his employer, a situation, little remedied when he was granted the title of court composer by King Augustus III of Poland in 1736. In the last decades of his life he extended many of his earlier compositions, he died of complications after eye surgery in 1750 at the age of 65. Bach enriched established German styles through his mastery of counterpoint and motivic organisation, his adaptation of rhythms and textures from abroad from Italy and France. Bach's compositions include hundreds of both sacred and secular, he composed Latin church music, Passions and motets. He adopted Lutheran hymns, not only in his larger vocal works, but for instance in his four-part chorales and his sacred songs, he wrote extensively for other keyboard instruments. He composed concertos, for instance for violin and for harpsichord, suites, as chamber music as well as for orchestra.
Many of his works employ the genres of fugue. Throughout the 18th century Bach was renowned as an organist, while his keyboard music, such as The Well-Tempered Clavier, was appreciated for its didactic qualities; the 19th century saw the publication of some major Bach biographies, by the end of that century all of his known music had been printed. Dissemination of scholarship on the composer continued through periodicals and websites devoted to him, other publications such as the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis and new critical editions of his compositions, his music was further popularised through a multitude of arrangements, including for instance the Air on the G String, of recordings, for instance three different box sets with complete performances of the composer's works marking the 250th anniversary of his death. Bach was born in the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach, into a great musical family, his father, Johann Ambrosius Bach, was the director of the town musicians, all of his uncles were professional musicians.
His father taught him to play the violin and harpsichord, his brother Johann Christoph Bach taught him the clavichord and exposed him to much contemporary music. At his own initiative, Bach attended St. Michael's School in Lüneburg for two years. After graduating he held several musical posts across Germany: he served as Kapellmeister to Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen, as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, a position of music director at the main Lutheran churches and educator at the Thomasschule, he received the title of "Royal Court Composer" from Augustus III in 1736. Bach's health and vision declined in 1749, he died on 28 July 1750. Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Eisenach, the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach, in present-day Germany, on 21 March 1685 O. S.. He was the son of Johann Ambrosius Bach, the director of the town musicians, Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt, he was the eighth and youngest child of Johann Ambrosius, who taught him violin and basic music theory. His uncles were all professional musicians, whose posts included church organists, court chamber musicians, composers.
One uncle, Johann Christoph Bach, introduced him to the organ, an older second cousin, Johann Ludwig Bach, was a well-known composer and violinist. Bach's mother died in 1694, his father died eight months later; the 10-year-old Bach moved in with his eldest brother, Johann Christoph Bach, the organist at St. Michael's Church in Ohrdruf, Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. There he studied and copied music, including his own brother's, despite being forbidden to do so because scores were so valuable and private, blank ledger paper of that type was costly, he received valuable teaching from his brother. J. C. Bach exposed him to the works of great composers of the day, including South German composers such as Johann Pachelbel and Johann Jakob Froberger. During this time, he was taught theology, Greek and Italian at the local gymnasium. By 3 April 1700, Bach and his schoolfriend Georg Erdmann—who was two years Bach's elder—were enrolled in the prestigious St. Michael's School in Lüneburg, some two weeks' travel north of Ohrdruf
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Countee Cullen was an American poet, children's writer, playwright well known during the Harlem Renaissance. Countee LeRoy Porter was born on May 1903, to Elizabeth Thomas Lucas. Due to a lack of records of his early childhood, historians have had difficulty identifying his birthplace. Baltimore, New York City, Louisville, Kentucky have been cited as possibilities. Although Cullen claimed to be born in New York City, he frequently referred to Louisville, Kentucky as his birthplace on legal applications. Cullen was brought to Harlem at age nine by Amanda Porter, believed to be his paternal grandmother, who cared for him until her death in 1917. Reverend Frederick A. Cullen, pastor of Salem Methodist Episcopal Church, Harlem's largest congregation, his wife, the former Carolyn Belle Mitchell, adopted the 15-year-old Countee Porter, although it may not have been official. Frederick Cullen was a central figure in Countee's life, acted as his father; the influential minister would become president of the Harlem chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Cullen entered the DeWitt Clinton High School in The Bronx. He started writing poetry, he won a citywide poetry contest. At DeWitt, he was elected into the honor society, was editor of the weekly newspaper, was elected vice-president of his graduating class. In January 1922, he graduated with honors in Latin, Greek and French. After graduating from high school, he entered New York University. In 1923, Cullen won second prize in the Witter Bynner undergraduate poetry contest, sponsored by the Poetry Society of America. At about this time, He had some of his poetry published in national periodicals: Harper's, Opportunity, The Bookman, Poetry, he began to earn a national reputation; the ensuing year he again placed second in the contest, in 1925 he won. Cullen competed in a poetry contest sponsored by Opportunity and came in second with "To One Who Say Me Nay". Langston Hughes's poem "The Weary Blues" won. Sometime thereafter, Cullen graduated from NYU and was one of eleven students selected to Phi Beta Kappa.
Cullen entered Harvard in 1925, to pursue a masters in English, about the same time his first collection of poems, was published. Written in a careful, traditional style, the work celebrated black beauty and deplored the effects of racism; the book included "Heritage" and "Incident" his most famous poems. "Yet Do I Marvel", about racial identity and injustice, showed the literary influence of William Wordsworth and William Blake, but its subject was far from the world of their Romantic sonnets. The poet accepts that there is God, "God is good, well-meaning, kind", but he finds a contradiction in his own plight in a racist society: he is black and a poet. Cullen's Color was a landmark of the Harlem Renaissance, he graduated with a master's degree in 1926. American writer Alain Locke helped. Locke wanted to introduce a new generation of African-American writers, such as Countee Cullen, to the reading public. Locke sought to present the authentic natures of sex and sexuality through writing, creating a kind of relationship with those who felt the same.
Locke introduced Cullen to gay-affirming material, such as the work of Edward Carpenter, at a time when most gays were in the closet. In March 1923, Cullen wrote to Locke about Carpenter's work: "It opened up for me soul windows, closed. Critics and historians have not reached consensus as to his sexuality. Cullen married Yolande Du Bois on April 9, 1928, she was the surviving child of W. E. B. Du Bois and his first wife Nina Gomer Du Bois; the two young people were said to have been introduced by Cullen’s close friend Harold Jackman. They met in the summer of 1923 when both were in college: she was at Fisk University and he was at NYU. Cullen’s parents owned a summer home in Pleasantville, New Jersey near the Jersey Shore, Yolande and her family were also vacationing in the area when they first met. While at Fisk, Yolande had a romantic relationship with a jazz musician. However, her father disapproved of Jimmie; the relationship ended. The wedding was the social event of the decade among the African-American elite.
Cullen, along with W. E. B. Du Bois, planned the details of the wedding with little help from Yolande; every detail of the wedding, including the rail car used for transportation and Cullen receiving the marriage license four days prior to the wedding day, was considered big news and was reported to the public by the African-American press. His father, Frederick A. Cullen, officiated at the wedding; the church was overcrowded. After the newly wedded couple had a short honeymoon, Cullen traveled to Paris with his guardian/father, Frederick Cullen, best man, Harold Jackman. Yolande soon joined him there. A few months after their wedding, Cullen wrote a letter to Yolande confessing his love for men. Yolande filed for divorce, her father wrote separately to Cullen, saying that he thought Yolande’s lack of sexual experience was the reason the marriage did not work out. The couple divorced in 1930 in Paris; the details were negotiated between Cullen and Yolande's father W. E. B. Du Bois, as the wedding details had been.
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The Harlem Renaissance was an intellectual and artistic explosion centered in Harlem, New York, spanning the 1920s. At the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement", named after The New Negro, a 1925 anthology edited by Alain Locke; the movement included the new African-American cultural expressions across the urban areas in the Northeast and Midwest United States affected by the Great Migration, of which Harlem was the largest. Though it was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City, many francophone black writers from African and Caribbean colonies who lived in Paris were influenced by the movement, considered to have spanned from about 1918 until the mid-1930s. Many of its ideas lived on much longer; the zenith of this "flowering of Negro literature", as James Weldon Johnson preferred to call the Harlem Renaissance, took place between 1924—when Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life hosted a party for black writers where many white publishers were in attendance—and 1929, the year of the stock-market crash and the beginning of the Great Depression.
The Harlem Renaissance is considered to have been a rebirth of the African-American arts. Until the end of the Civil War, the majority of African Americans had been enslaved and lived in the South. During the Reconstruction Era, the emancipated African Americans, began to strive for civic participation, political equality and economic and cultural self-determination. Soon after the end of the Civil War the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 gave rise to speeches by African-American Congressmen addressing this Bill. By 1875 sixteen African Americans had been elected and served in Congress and gave numerous speeches with their newfound civil empowerment; the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 was denounced by black Congressmen and resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1875, part of Reconstruction legislation by Republicans. By the late 1870s, Democratic whites managed to regain power in the South. From 1890 to 1908 they proceeded to pass legislation that disenfranchised most African Americans and many poor whites, trapping them without representation.
They established white supremacist regimes of Jim Crow segregation in the South and one-party block voting behind southern Democrats. The Democratic whites denied African Americans their exercise of civil and political rights by terrorizing black communities with lynch mobs and other forms of vigilante violence as well as by instituting a convict labor system that forced many thousands of African Americans back into unpaid labor in mines, on plantations, on public works projects such as roads and levees. Convict laborers were subject to brutal forms of corporal punishment and disease from unsanitary conditions. Death rates were extraordinarily high. While a small number of African Americans were able to acquire land shortly after the Civil War, most were exploited as sharecroppers; as life in the South became difficult, African Americans began to migrate north in great numbers. Most of the African-American literary movement arose from a generation that had memories of the gains and losses of Reconstruction after the Civil War.
Sometimes their parents or grandparents had been slaves. Their ancestors had sometimes benefited by paternal investment in cultural capital, including better-than-average education. Many in the Harlem Renaissance were part of the early 20th century Great Migration out of the South into the African-American neighborhoods of the Northeast and Midwest. African Americans sought a better standard of living and relief from the institutionalized racism in the South. Others were people of African descent from racially stratified communities in the Caribbean who came to the United States hoping for a better life. Uniting most of them was their convergence in Harlem. During the early portion of the 20th century, Harlem was the destination for migrants from around the country, attracting both people seeking work from the South, an educated class who made the area a center of culture, as well as a growing "Negro" middle class; the district had been developed in the 19th century as an exclusive suburb for the white middle and upper middle classes.
During the enormous influx of European immigrants in the late 19th century, the once exclusive district was abandoned by the white middle class, who moved farther north. Harlem became an African-American neighborhood in the early 1900s. In 1910, a large block along 135th Street and Fifth Avenue was bought by various African-American realtors and a church group. Many more African Americans arrived during the First World War. Due to the war, the migration of laborers from Europe ceased, while the war effort resulted in a massive demand for unskilled industrial labor; the Great Migration brought hundreds of thousands of African Americans to cities such as Chicago, Philadelphia and New York. Despite the increasing popularity of Negro culture, virulent white racism by more recent ethnic immigrants, continued to affect African-American communities in the North. After the end of World War I, many African-American soldiers—who fought in segregated units such as the Harlem Hellfighters—came home to a nation whose citizens did not respect their accomplishments.
Race riots and other civil uprisings occurred throughout the US during the Red Summer of 1919, reflecting economic competition over jobs and housing in many cities, as well as tensions over social territories. The first stage of the Harlem Renaissance started in the late 1910s. In 1917, the premiere of Three Plays; these plays, written
W. H. Auden
Wystan Hugh Auden was an English-American poet. Auden's poetry was noted for its stylistic and technical achievement, its engagement with politics, morals and religion, its variety in tone and content, he is best known for love poems such as "Funeral Blues". He was born in York, grew up near Birmingham in a professional middle-class family, he studied English at Christ Church, Oxford. After a few months in Berlin in 1928–29, he spent five years teaching in British public schools travelled to Iceland and China in order to write books about his journeys. In 1939 he moved to the United States and became an American citizen in 1946, he taught from 1941 to 1945 in American universities, followed by occasional visiting professorships in the 1950s. From 1947 to 1957 he summered in Ischia, he came to wide public attention with his first book Poems at the age of twenty-three in 1930. Three plays written in collaboration with Christopher Isherwood between 1935 and 1938 built his reputation as a left-wing political writer.
Auden moved to the United States to escape this reputation, his work in the 1940s, including the long poems "For the Time Being" and "The Sea and the Mirror", focused on religious themes. He won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for his 1947 long poem The Age of Anxiety, the title of which became a popular phrase describing the modern era. From 1956 to 1961 he was Professor of Poetry at Oxford. Auden and Isherwood maintained a lasting but intermittent sexual friendship from around 1927 to 1939, while both had briefer but more intense relations with other men. In 1939, Auden fell in love with Chester Kallman and regarded their relationship as a marriage, but this ended in 1941 when Kallman refused to accept the faithful relations that Auden demanded. However, the two maintained their friendship, from 1947 until Auden's death they lived in the same house or apartment in a non-sexual relationship collaborating on opera libretti such as that of The Rake's Progress, to music by Igor Stravinsky. Auden was a prolific writer of prose essays and reviews on literary, political and religious subjects, he worked at various times on documentary films, poetic plays, other forms of performance.
Throughout his career he was both controversial and influential, critical views on his work ranged from dismissive—treating him as a lesser figure than W. B. Yeats and T. S. Eliot—to affirmative, as in Joseph Brodsky's claim that he had "the greatest mind of the twentieth century". After his death, his poems became known to a much wider public than during his lifetime through films and popular media. Auden was born in York, England, to George Augustus Auden, a physician, Constance Rosalie Auden, who had trained as a missionary nurse, he was the third of three sons. Auden, whose grandfathers were both Church of England clergymen, grew up in an Anglo-Catholic household that followed a "High" form of Anglicanism, with doctrine and ritual resembling those of Roman Catholicism, he traced his love of music and language to the church services of his childhood. He believed he was of Icelandic descent, his lifelong fascination with Icelandic legends and Old Norse sagas is evident in his work, his family moved to Homer Road in Solihull, near Birmingham, in 1908, where his father had been appointed the School Medical Officer and Lecturer of Public Health.
Auden's lifelong psychoanalytic interests began in his father's library. From the age of eight he attended boarding schools, his visits to the Pennine landscape and its declining lead-mining industry figure in many of his poems. Until he was fifteen he expected to become a mining engineer, but his passion for words had begun, he wrote later: "words so excite me that a pornographic story, for example, excites me sexually more than a living person can do." Auden attended St Edmund's School, Surrey, where he met Christopher Isherwood famous in his own right as a novelist. At thirteen he went to Gresham's School in Norfolk. Soon after, he "discover that he lost his faith". In school productions of Shakespeare, he played Katherina in The Taming of the Shrew in 1922, Caliban in The Tempest in 1925, his last year at Gresham's, his first published poems appeared in the school magazine in 1923. Auden wrote a chapter on Gresham's for Graham Greene's The Old School: Essays by Divers Hands. In 1925 he went up to Christ Church, with a scholarship in biology.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro
Howard University is a private, federally chartered black university in Washington, D. C, it is categorized by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with higher research activity and is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. From its outset Howard has been open to people of all sexes and races. Howard offers more than 120 areas leading to undergraduate and professional degrees. Howard is classified as a Tier 1 national university and ranks second among HBCUs by U. S. News & World Report. Howard is the only HBCU ranked in the top 40 on the Bloomberg Businessweek college rankings; the Princeton Review ranked the school of business first in opportunities for minority students and in the top five for most competitive students. The National Law Journal ranked the law school among the top 25 in the nation for placing graduates at the most successful law firms. Howard has produced four Rhodes Scholars between 1986 and 2017. Between 1998 and 2018, Howard University produced two Marshall Scholars, eleven Truman Scholars, seventy Fulbright Scholars, a Schwarzman Scholar and twenty-two Pickering Fellows.
Howard produces the most black doctorate recipients of any university. Shortly after the end of the American Civil War, members of The First Congregational Society of Washington considered establishing a theological seminary for the education of African-American clergymen. Within a few weeks, the project expanded to include a provision for establishing a university. Within two years, the University consisted of the Colleges of Liberal Medicine; the new institution was named for General Oliver Otis Howard, a Civil War hero, both the founder of the University and, at the time, Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau. Howard served as President of the University from 1869–74. U. S. Congress chartered Howard on March 2, 1867, much of its early funding came from endowment, private benefaction, tuition. (In the 20th and 21st centuries an annual congressional appropriation, administered by the U. S. Department of Education, funds Howard University and Howard University Hospital After five years of being an institution, Howard University became the place of education for over 150,000 freed slaves.
Many improvements were made on campus. Howard Hall was made a dormitory for women. From 1926-1960, Howard University's first African-American presideant, Dr. Mordecai Wyatt Johnson, Sr. reigned. The Great Depression years of the 1930s brought hardship to campus. Despite appeals from Eleanor Roosevelt, Howard saw its budget cut below Hoover administration levels during the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Howard University has played an important role in American history and the Civil Rights Movement on a number of occasions. Alain Locke, Chair of the Department of Philosophy and first African American Rhodes Scholar, authored The New Negro, which helped to usher in the Harlem Renaissance. Ralph Bunche, the first Nobel Peace Prize winner of African descent, served as chair of the Department of Political Science. Beginning in 1942, Howard University students pioneered the "stool-sitting" technique of occupying stools at a local cafeteria which denied service to African Americans blocking other customers waiting for service.
This tactic was to play a prominent role in the Civil Rights Movement. By January 1943, students had begun to organize regular sit-ins and pickets at cigar stores and cafeterias around Washington, D. C. which refused to serve them because of their race. These protests continued until the fall of 1944. Stokely Carmichael known as Kwame Toure, a student in the Department of Philosophy and the Howard University School of Divinity, coined the term "Black Power" and worked in Lowndes County, Alabama as a voting rights activist. Historian Rayford Logan served as chair of the Department of History. E. Franklin Frazier served as chair of the Department of Sociology. Sterling Allen Brown served as chair of the Department of English; the first sitting president to speak at Howard was Calvin Coolidge in 1924. His graduation speech was entitled, "The Progress of a People," and highlighted the accomplishments to date of the blacks in America since the Civil War, his concluding thought was, "We can not go out from this place and occasion without refreshment of faith and renewal of confidence that in every exigency our Negro fellow citizens will render the best and fullest measure of service whereof they are capable."
In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson delivered a speech to the graduating class at Howard, where he outlined his plans for civil rights legislation and endorsed aggressive affirmative action to combat the effects of years of segregation of blacks from the nation's economic opportunities. At the time, the Voting Rights bill was still pending in the House of Representatives. In 1975 the historic Freedman's Hospital closed after 112 years of use as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital. Howard University Hospital opened that same year and continues to be used as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital with service to the surrounding community. In 1989, Howard gained national attention when students rose up in protest against the appointment of then-Republican National Committee Chairman Lee Atwater as a new member of the university's board of trustees. Student activists disrupted Howard's 122nd anniversary celebrations, occupied the university's Administration building.
Within days, both Atwater and Howard's President, James E. Cheek, resigned. In April 2007, the head of the faculty senate called for the ouster of Howard University President H. Patrick Swygert, saying the school was in a state of crisis and it was time to end "an intolerable condition of incompetence