Parliament of England
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it merged with the Parliament of Scotland to become the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1066, William of Normandy introduced what, in centuries, became referred to as a feudal system, by which he sought the advice of a council of tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics before making laws. In 1215, the tenants-in-chief secured Magna Carta from King John, which established that the king may not levy or collect any taxes, save with the consent of his royal council, which developed into a parliament. Over the centuries, the English Parliament progressively limited the power of the English monarchy which arguably culminated in the English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I in 1649. After the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II, the subsequent Glorious Revolution of 1688, the supremacy of Parliament was a settled principle and all future English and British sovereigns were restricted to the role of constitutional monarchs with limited executive authority.
The Act of Union 1707 merged the English Parliament with the Parliament of Scotland to form the Parliament of Great Britain. When the Parliament of Ireland was abolished in 1801, its former members were merged into what was now called the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Under a monarchical system of government, monarchs must consult and seek a measure of acceptance for their policies if they are to enjoy the broad cooperation of their subjects. Early kings of England had no standing army or police, so depended on the support of powerful subjects; the monarchy had agents in every part of the country. However, under the feudal system that evolved in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066, the laws of the Crown could not have been upheld without the support of the nobility and the clergy; the former had economic and military power bases of their own through major ownership of land and the feudal obligations of their tenants. The Church was a law unto itself in this period as it had its own system of religious law courts.
In order to seek consultation and consent from the nobility and the senior clergy on major decisions, post-Norman Conquest English monarchs called Great Councils. A typical Great Council would consist of archbishops, abbots and earls, the pillars of the feudal system; when this system of consultation and consent broke down, it became impossible for government to function effectively. The most prominent instances of this before the reign of Henry III are the disagreements between Thomas Becket and Henry II and between King John and the barons. Becket, who served as Archbishop of Canterbury between 1162 and 1170, was murdered after a long running dispute with Henry II over the jurisdiction of the Church. John, king from 1199 to 1216, aroused such hostility from many leading noblemen that they forced him to agree to Magna Carta in 1215. John's refusal to adhere to this charter led to civil war; the Great Council evolved into the Parliament of England. The term came into use during the early 13th century, when it shifted from the more general meaning of "an occasion for speaking."
It first appears in official documents in the 1230s. As a result of the work by historians G. O. Sayles and H. G. Richardson, it is believed that the early parliaments had a judicial as well as a legislative function. During the 13th and 14th centuries, the kings called Knights of the Shire to meet when the monarch saw it as necessary. A notable example of this was in 1254 when sheriffs of counties were instructed to send Knights of the Shire to parliament to advise the king on finance. Parliaments were summoned when the king needed to raise money through taxes. After Magna Carta, this became a convention; this was due in no small part to the fact that King John died in 1216 and was succeeded by his young son Henry III. Leading peers and clergy governed on Henry's behalf until he came of age, giving them a taste for power that they would prove unwilling to relinquish. Among other things, they made sure. Once the reign of John ended and Henry III took full control of the government, leading peers became concerned with his style of government his unwillingness to consult them on decisions he took, his seeming patronisation of his foreign relatives over his native subjects.
Henry's support of a disastrous papal invasion of Sicily was the last straw. In 1258, seven leading barons forced Henry to swear to uphold the Provisions of Oxford, the following year, by the Provisions of Westminster; this abolished the absolutist Anglo-Norman monarchy, giving power to a council of fifteen barons, providing for a thrice-yearly meeting of parliament to monitor their performance. Parliament assembled six times between June 1258 and April 1262, most notably at Oxford in 1258; the French-born nobleman Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, emerged as the leader of this characteristically English rebellion. In the years that followed, those supporting Montfort and those supporting the king grew more hostile to each other. Henry obtained a papal bull in 1263 exempting him from his oath and both sides began to raise armies. At the Battle of Lewes on 14 May 1264, Henry was taken prisoner by Montfort's army. However, many of the peers who had supported Montfort began to suspect that he ha
Yoxford is a village in the east of Suffolk, England close to the Heritage Coast, Minsmere Reserve and Southwold. Yoxford, some 94 miles north-east of London and 25 miles north-east of Ipswich, is surrounded by the parkland of three country houses, in an area known as the "Garden of Suffolk", it takes its name from a ford across the nearby River Yox. The village includes the junction of the A12 trunk road and the A1120. An electoral ward in the same name exists; this stretches east to the sea with a total population taken at the 2011 census of 1,901. The Church of St Peter has a 15th-century Perpendicular-style exterior, but is Victorian inside, it possesses a number of 15th -- 17th-century monumental brasses. The finely carved font dates from the pulpit from the 17th century; the church parish belongs to the Diocese of St Ipswich. Up to about 1830, the village came under Blything Hundred. On the edge of the village is Cockfield Hall, once the old home of the Blois family; the village is known for its antique shops.
It has a general store, a restaurant and a village hall. In the village there is Yoxford and Peasenhall Primary School, which caters for children aged 3–11 years old; the school has an Early Year Centre, purpose-built for children aged from 3–6. The school works in partnership with Middleton Primary School in Middleton and Southwold Primary School in Southwold, the three making up Yox Valley Partnership of Schools. Yoxford has two pubs: Griffin Inn, a medieval house that reopened in 2013, The King's Head; the 18th-century Satis House, like the Griffin Inn, offers accommodation. It is sometimes described erroneously as the original for the Satis House in Charles Dickens's Great Expectations. In fact the book describes Restoration House in Rochester, referred to as satis by Queen Elizabeth I of England. Yoxford's Satis House was known as plain Yoxford House until well after the novel appeared, as old Ordnance Survey maps confirm; every year. During the event, a Brawn Queen is picked from the village and her first job as Queen is to ceremoniously cut the cheese.
The village is served by Darsham railway station on the East Suffolk Line one mile away. It offers an hourly weekday service between Ipswich, with connections to London, Lowestoft, with connections to Norwich; the village is served by four weekday buses a day between Aldeburgh and Halesworth and a once-daily Monday-to-Friday service between Leiston and Framlingham. The Blois family
Arthur Hopton (diplomat)
Sir Arthur Hopton was an English diplomat who served as ambassador to Spain. Hopton was the fifth son of Sir Arthur Hopton of Witham and Rachael, daughter of Edmund Hall of Greatford, Lincolnshire, his father, at one time high sheriff of Somerset, was created K. B. in 1603. Sir Owen Hopton, lieutenant of the Tower, was his grandfather, he matriculated at Lincoln College, Oxford, on 15 March 1604/5, graduated with his BA on 11 March 1609. When Lord Cottington was sent as ambassador extraordinary to Spain in October 1629, Hopton accompanied him as secretary, on the conclusion of Cottington's mission was left there as English agent, he was succeeded Lord Aston as the English ambassador to Spain. He seems to have remained in Spain throughout the civil wars. Hopton was again in England in 1649, living in Willett, on 7 June 1649 was visited by John Evelyn, who termed him "a most excellent person," and recorded in his diary some of his stories about Spain. Hopton died on 6 March 1649–50, aged 62, was buried in the chancel of the church of Black Bourton, near Bampton in Oxfordshire.
It does not appear that he married, as his will does not mention a wife or any children. Many of Hopton's despatches are among Clarendon's papers in the Bodleian Library, some are printed in the Clarendon State Papers; the Tanner MSS. contain several letters from Hopton relating to the Portuguese revolution of 1640. "Hopton, Arthur" by Charles Harding Firth in the Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 27.] Miscellanea Genealogica Et Heraldica, Hamilton and Company, 1900, page 84. Abstracts of Somersetshire Wills, Etc. Copied from the Manuscript Collections of the Late Rev. Frederick Brown, Volume 6 printed for F. A. Crisp, 1890, page 53
Cockfield Hall in Yoxford in Suffolk is a Grade I listed private house standing in 40 acres of historic parkland, dating from the 16th century. It was built by the Spring family, wealthy cloth merchants and baronets of Pakenham. Cockfield Hall takes its name from the Cokefeud Family, established there at the beginning of the 14th century, it passed to the Hopton Family, one of whom, Sir Arthur Hopton built the Gatehouses and North Wing in the mid 16th century and was said to have accompanied Henry VIII on the Field of the Cloth of Gold. His successor, Sir Owen Hopton, was lieutenant of the Tower of London and as such, was ordered in October 1567 by Queen Elizabeth to take into custody at Cockfield so that she could recover from her privations, Lady Catherine Grey, sister of Lady Jane Grey and granddaughter of Mary Tudor, she died there a year and was buried in the Cockfield Chapel in Yoxford Church. The estate was subsequently sold to the Brooke family; when Lady Brooke died in 1683, it passed to her daughter Martha's son, Sir Charles Blois, 1st Baronet, who came to live at Cockfield in 1686.
From the house remained in the ownership of the Blois family until 1997. The main part of the house had sash windows installed in the 18th century and in 1896 the Victorian Great Hall was created on the site of the original Tudor Hall in the Jacobean style; the house is now part of Wilderness Reserve. Catherine at Cockfield Hall — Tudor Place Hopton family — National Portrait Gallery The Cockfield Chest — JSTOR Historic England. "Cockfield Hall". Images of England
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives. Hoping to emulate national biographical collections published elsewhere in Europe, such as the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, in 1882 the publisher George Smith, of Smith, Elder & Co. planned a universal dictionary that would include biographical entries on individuals from world history. He approached Leslie Stephen editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become the editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus only on subjects from the United Kingdom and its present and former colonies. An early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work; the first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885.
In May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephen's assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. A dedicated team of sub-editors and researchers worked under Stephen and Lee, combining a variety of talents from veteran journalists to young scholars who cut their academic teeth on dictionary articles at a time when postgraduate historical research in British universities was still in its infancy. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, who included several respected writers and scholars of the late nineteenth century. By 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63; the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below. Since the scope included only deceased figures, the DNB was soon extended by the issue of three supplementary volumes, covering subjects who had died between 1885 and 1900 or, overlooked in the original alphabetical sequence.
The supplements brought the whole work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. Corrections were added. After issuing a volume of errata in 1904, the dictionary was reissued with minor revisions in 22 volumes in 1908 and 1909. In the words of the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, the dictionary had "proved of inestimable service in elucidating the private annals of the British", providing not only concise lives of the notable deceased, but additionally lists of sources which were invaluable to researchers in a period when few libraries or collections of manuscripts had published catalogues or indices, the production of indices to periodical literatures was just beginning. Throughout the twentieth century, further volumes were published for those who had died on a decade-by-decade basis, beginning in 1912 with a supplement edited by Lee covering those who died between 1901 and 1911; the dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917.
Until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the twentieth century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published; this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. This did not seek to replace any articles on existing DNB subjects though the original work had been written from a Victorian perspective and had become out of date due to changes in historical assessments and discoveries of new information during the twentieth century; the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work. In 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, which covered everyone in the main work but with much shorter articles.
The last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986. In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB. Work on what was known until 2001 as the New Dictionary of National Biography, or New DNB, began in 1992 under the editorship of Colin Matthew, professor of Modern History at the University of Oxford. Matthew decided that no subjects from the old dictionary would be excluded, however insignificant the subjects appeared to a late twentieth-century eye. Suggestions for new subjects were solicited through questionnaires placed in libraries and universities and, as the 1990s advanced and assessed by the editor, the 12 external consultant editors and several hundred associate editors and in-house staff. Digitization of the DNB was performed by the Alliance Photosetting Company in India; the new dictionary would cover British history, "broadly defined", up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a collaborative one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of
Middlesex (UK Parliament constituency)
Middlesex is a former constituency. It was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800, of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1885, it returned two members by various voting systems including hustings. This county constituency consisted of the historic county of Middlesex, in south-eastern England, comprising Spelthorne, South Mimms and Potters Bar in other modern counties, together with the north and north-west sectors of the present-day Greater London. Central London was removed from the seat, its southern boundary was the River Thames. The county seat returned two Members of Parliament; the place of election for the county was until 1700 at Hampstead Heath, thereafter at The Butts in the town centre of Brentford. Hustings were over a period of a fortnight when candidates set out their stall, visible bribery had become not uncommon in closer contests around the country in such larger seats at the time, inspiring William Hogarth’s series of four pictures titled ‘Four Prints of An Election’.
Until 1832 the county franchise was limited to forty shilling freeholders. The decrease in the value of money due to inflation and the expansion of the wealth and population as the urbanised area in the east around London and Westminster grew contributed to expanding the electorate; the county was estimated by Henning to have about 1,660 voters in 1681. Sedgwick estimated about 3,000 in the 1715–54 period. Namier and Brook suggested there were about 3,500 in 1754–90; the number had reached about 6,000 according to Thorne. Close elections between popular candidates would therefore be expensive - the worth of being a local magistrate, major landowner or other dignitary carrying little weight among such a urban and numerous upper-middle class forming the bulk of the electorate. For subsequent changes in the franchise see Reform Act 1832 and Reform Act 1867. From 1832 voters were registered; the geographic county until 1885 contained the borough constituencies of City of London and Westminster. In 1832 three two-seat Boroughs were added: Finsbury and Tower Hamlets.
In 1867 two new parliamentary boroughs each returning two MPs were constituted:'Hackney' represented in borough elections via Tower Hamlets and'Chelsea'. The single-member non-territorial University constituency of London University was somewhat connected to the county by having most of its graduates eligible to vote. Possession of a county electoral qualification, deriving from owning various types of property or having ecclesiastical'offices' in an area not otherwise represented, conferred the right to vote in the county elections. An 1885 redistribution of seats saw Middlesex and its early breakaway seats in and around the City reformed under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 reflecting the wider electorate of the Reform Act 1884 and need to'liberate' boroughs, i.e. urban areas without properly apportioned representation: Constituencies in the urban south-east part that returned 18 MPs were replaced by 38 single-member seats. The City of London constituency was reduced from 4 to 2 members.
The Middlesex constituency latterly covering the north and south-west of the county returning 2 MPs was replaced by 7 single-member seats. Local government bodiesIn 1889 the 40 urban constituencies that comprised the south-eastern part fell into a County of London save for the much smaller City of London which remained a separate quasi-county and legal jurisdiction; the seven county divisions in the north and west of the historic county came under a new local government body, the administrative county of Middlesex. Both counties were known by their governing bodies' name, County Councils; the seven successor seats were Brentford, Enfield, Hornsey and Uxbridge. These had MCC local governance until its abolition in 1965. Preliminary note: The English civil year started on Lady Day, 25 March, until 1752; the year used in the lists of Parliaments in this article have been converted to the new style where necessary. It should be noted that old style dates for days between 1 January and 24 March referred to days after 31 December.
No attempt has been made to compensate for the eleven days which did not occur in September 1752 in both England and Scotland as well as other British controlled territories, so as to bring the British Empire in line with the Gregorian calendar. Constituency created: See Montfort's Parliament for further details. Knights of the shire are known to have been summoned to most Parliaments from 1290 and to every one from 1320; some of the members elected during this period have been identified, but this list does not include Parliaments where no member has been identified before the reign of King Henry VIII. In the list the year given is for the first meeting of the Parliament, with the month added where there was more than one Parliament in the year. If a second year i
Lieutenant of the Tower of London
The Lieutenant of the Tower of London serves directly under the Constable of the Tower. The office has been appointed at least since the 13th century. There were many privileges and perquisites attached to the office. Like the Constable, the Lieutenant was appointed by letters patent, either for life or during the King's pleasure; the Lieutenants had custody of many eminent prisoners of state, including Anne Boleyn, Sir Thomas More, Lady Jane Grey, Princess Elizabeth and Sir Walter Raleigh. At least five of the Lieutenants, Sir Edward Warner, Sir Gervase Helwys, Isaac Penington, Colonel Robert Tichborne, Sir Edward Hales, themselves became prisoners in the Tower; the earliest known Lieutenant was Giles de Oudenard at the beginning of the reign of Edward I, while Anthony Bek Bishop of Durham, was Constable. The next Lieutenant of whom there is record was Ralph Bavant, who served during John de Crumwell's tenure as Constable. In the reign of Henry V, Sir Roger Aston served as Lieutenant under William, Lord Bourchier, Constable.
Among their notable prisoners was James I of Scotland. Sir Robert Scott served as Lieutenant in 1424 during the reign of Henry VI. During the reign of Edward IV, Richard Haute was Lieutenant from 1471 to 1473. John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford was Constable in the reign of Henry VII, at which time Sir John Digby was his Lieutenant. According to some sources, in the reign of Henry VIII Sir Thomas Lovell served as Lieutenant from Michaelmas 1512. Among the prisoners of state in Lovell's custody was the Pretender to the Crown, Lambert Simnel; the Lieutenant from 1513 to 1520 was Sir Richard Cholmondeley. Cholmondeley held office during the Evil May Day riots of 1517. During the riots, he furiously ordered the firing of some of the Tower's artillery at the city during rioting by gangs of young Londoners, who took control of London for several days, drawing the ire of the city elders. In 1520, he resigned his post at the Tower due to ill health, he died in March 1521 in St Katharine's by the Tower. Cholmondeley was succeeded by Sir Edmund Walsingham, Sir William Sidney, Sir Anthony Knyvet, Sir Walter Stonor.
Walsingham had personal charge of a number of eminent prisoners of state during his tenure, among them the Countess of Salisbury, Viscount Lisle, Anne Boleyn, Bishop John Fisher and Sir Thomas More. Leonard Skeffington, son of Sir William Skeffington is said to have served as Lieutenant during the reign of Henry VIII and to have invented an instrument of torture used in the Tower. During the reign of Edward VI, Sir John Markham was appointed Lieutenant in 1549 but dismissed on 31 October 1551 for leniency towards his prisoners, including the Protector Somerset and Sir Michael Stanhope. Sir Arthur Darcy served as Lieutenant during Edward VI's reign. Sir Edward Warner was appointed Lieutenant in October 1552. During the crisis after the death of Edward VI, Warner held the Tower of London for John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, was removed from his post on Queen Mary's accession. In 1554 he was a prisoner in the Tower, but was pardoned in 1555. Queen Mary appointed John Brydges, 1st Baron Chandos as Lieutenant from August 1553 to June 1554.
He is said to have'rigorously' shaken the rebel Thomas Wyatt when he was brought to the Tower, to have called him a "villain and unhappy traitor". He had custody of Lady Jane Grey, who gave him her prayer book as a memento when she was executed, of the future Queen Elizabeth, whom he was considered to have treated too leniently, he was succeeded by Sir Thomas Bridges. Sir Henry Bedingfield was appointed in October 1555 and served until the end of 1556, he was succeeded by Sir Robert Oxenbridge, appointed Lieutenant in 1556, was Constable in 1557. When Elizabeth I acceded to the throne in November 1558, she reappointed Sir Edward Warner as Lieutenant jointly with Sir Thomas Cawarden, they served together for less than a month, from 17 November to 10 December 1558, Cawarden died shortly thereafter in August 1559. Warner's most notable prisoner was Lady Katherine Grey, who had incurred the Queen's wrath by secretly marrying Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford. Warner was dismissed about 1561 for excessive leniency, was succeeded by Sir Richard Blount, after whose sudden death Sir Francis Jobson was appointed on 20 August 1564.
Jobson was Lieutenant during the Northern Rising, according to Narsingha held office until his own death on 4 June 1573. However according to other sources Sir Owen Hopton was appointed Lieutenant in 1570. Among his prisoners were Henry Wriothesley, 2nd Earl of Southampton, Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, Norfolk's son and heir, Philip Howard, Earl of Arundel. Financial difficulties occasioned Hopton's resignation in the summer of 1590. Hopton was followed in office by Sir Michael Blount, Sir Richard Berkeley and Sir Drue Drury, appointed in November 1595, but resigned due to ill health in September 1596. Sir John Peyton was appointed Lieutenant in June 1597, as Lieutenant was present at the execution in 1601 of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex. Another of Peyton's eminent prisoners was Sir Walter Raleigh. On 30 July 1603, shortly after the accession of James I, Peyton was relieved of his post, appointed Governor of Jersey. Sir George Harvey was the first Lieutenant of the Tower under King James.
He was succeeded by Sir William Waad, Lieutenant during the Gunpowder plot. Waad retired from public life