click links in text for more info

Oxalis latifolia

Oxalis latifolia is a species of flowering plant in the woodsorrel family known by the common names garden pink-sorrel and broadleaf woodsorrel. It is native to parts of Central and South America; this is a perennial herb spreading via stolons. There is no stem; the leaves arise on long petioles from ground level, each made up of three heart-shaped leaflets about 4.5 centimeters wide. The inflorescence is an array of each with five pink petals, it is known on most other continents as an introduced species and a noxious weed and invasive species, as it infests many types of agricultural crops. Jepson Manual Treatment "Oxalis latifolia". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Oxalis latifolia - Photo gallery

Alcione elainus

Alcione is a nyctosaurid pterosaur from the Ouled Abdoun Basin of Morocco and is from the Maastrichtian of the Upper Cretaceous. Only one species, A. elainus, is known. This pterosaur lived in a marine environment alongside several other pterosaurs, including the nyctosaurids Simurghia and Barbaridactylus. Alcione was a small nyctosaurid pterosaur, its limb proportions were short compared to related pterosaurs. Its anatomy was typical for the group, its mandible was narrow and Y-shaped, lacked teeth. Instead, it had sharp edges; the scapulocoracoid was fused in the type specimen. This bone was boomerang-shaped, a condition seen in many nyctosaurids, to a lesser degree in pteranodontids. All known specimens of Alcione were uncovered in a 3-year dig that unearthed about 200 pterosaur specimens; the type specimen, FSAC-OB 2, consists of a partial skeleton that preserves various elements, including the femur, humerus and sternum. Referred specimens include FSAC-OB 217, which consists of metacarpal IV, FSAC-OB 156, a mandible, the more complete FSAC-OB 4.

This specimen consists of the humerus, ulna, a partial metacarpal IV, phalanx IV-1, synsacra. Alcione is named after Alcyone, transformed into a seabird, from Greek mythology; the species name, A. elainus, comes from the Greek elaino, which means "to stray or wander." A phylogenetic analysis by Longrich et. al. uncovered Alcione as a member of Nyctosauridae. The shorter wings of Alcione suggest that it was better adapted for rapid flapping during flight than other nyctosaurids. An alternative explanation is that this adaptation was to aid with underwater movement, as shortened wings are present in modern piscivorous birds. Alcione was discovered in upper Maastrichtian phosphates located in the Ouled Abdoun Basin of Northern Morocco; this geological formation does not belong to a formation. It is divided into couches, with Alcione being discovered in Couche III; this layer dates back to the latest Maastrichtian, about 1 million years before the extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous. Couche III represents the most diverse marine ecosystem known from the time.

A large variety of marine life is known from the region, including sharks and bony fish, in addition to turtles and mosasaurs. A few rare, fragmentary dinosaur fossils are known, including a sauropod. Other pterosaurs in the formation were only represented by the azhdarcid Phosphatodraco mauritanicus. However, in addition to Alcione, more recent studies have revealed at least five more pterosaur species from this location, including Barbaridactylus and Tethydraco

2019 Taplejung helicopter crash

On February 27, 2019, Air Dynasty's Eurocopter AS350 B3e carrying six passengers and one pilot was scheduled to travel on a domestic flight from Pathibhara Devi Temple in Taplejung to Chuhandanda in Tehrathum, Nepal. The aircraft crashed at 1.30 p.m. due to bad weather in Taplejung. All seven people on board died in the crash, including Nepal's Minister for Tourism and Civil Aviation Rabindra Prasad Adhikari. Minister of Culture and Civil Aviation of Nepal Rabindra Prasad Adhikari came to Taplejung to inspect the under-construction airport at Chuhandanda. After inspecting the airport, the fellow passengers and crew went to see one of the most significant temples in Nepal, Pathibhara Devi Temple by helicopter. After visiting the temple Adhikari and other passengers were returning to Chuhandanda in Tehrathum; the aircraft involved was a Eurocopter AS350 B3e bearing the registration 9N-AMI. It was delivered to Air Dynasty brand new. On board the helicopter were, among the minister Adhikari, Ang Tshering Sherpa, managing director of Yeti Airlines and Air Dynasty, an aid to Prime Minister Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli, two representatives of the Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal, a security personnel and the Captain of the aircraft.

The helicopter crash occurred due to critical weather in Nepal. The crash killed all seven people on board, including Nepalese Tourism and Civil Aviation Minister Rabindra Prasad Adhikari; the pilot of the helicopter reported heavy snowfall in the area of the airport and stated that he was unable to remain airborne, according to The Kathmandu Post. After the incident Air Dynasty was informed at 1:30 p.m. Nepal Standard Time; the helicopter crashed at Sisne Khola, Taplejung, Nepal. Nepalese police reported that another passenger were in an identifiable state. Moments after the helicopter went missing, Taplejung residents reported to the police that they had heard a loud bang and seen smoke and fire in the area. Suraj Bhattarai, a witness reported to the police "The helicopter is in pieces, scattered all over"; the helicopter caught fire after falling down to Sisne Khola. The Office of the Prime Minister declared 28 February 2019 to be national mourning day in Nepal to pay respect to those who died in the helicopter crash.

Nepal's Home Minister Ram Bahadur Thapa said "All educational institutes, government offices, diplomatic missions will remain closed with a national flag lowered half-mast to mourn the death." Thapa said that "The national flag will be hoisted at half-staff to mourn the departed souls."The bodies of four people were brought to Suketar Airport on Wednesday afternoon. Chief District Officer of Taplejung District Anuj Bhandari said "There has been heavy snowfall. We could not take out all the bodies. We will try again tomorrow", he added that recovering bodies in the crash site is difficult due to helicopter crash site being at the slope of a hill. Nepal's prime minister Khadga Prasad Oli and Pushpa Kamal Dahal told the media "The country has lost a dependable youth leader with abundant possibilities in the demise of Minister for Culture and Civil Aviation Rabindra Adhikari". Mourning the loss of their managing director, Yeti Airlines, Tara Air cancelled all flights on 1 March 2019; the bodies of the passengers and the pilot were brought to Kathmandu on February 28 at 12:10 p.m. Nepal Communist Party said all of the bodies would be cremated with state honours at Ramghat in Nepal.

Before the funeral Adhikari's body would be kept at Exhibition Centre at local Nayabazar to pay respect toward him and his body would be cremated at Pokhara, Nepal. On 28 February, the Government of Nepal opened an investigation into the accident. Four months after the accident, the investigation committee released a preliminary report which blamed violations of operating procedures, such as a misbalance of weights and an inexperienced pilot, the weather conditions for causing the crash. 2019 Taplejung helicopter crash on Aviation Safety Network


A nucleogenic isotope, or nuclide, is one, produced by a natural terrestrial nuclear reaction, other than a reaction beginning with cosmic rays. The nuclear reaction that produces nucleogenic nuclides is interaction with an alpha particle or the capture of fission or thermal neutrons; some nucleogenic isotopes are stable and others are radioactive. An example of a nucleogenic nuclide is neon-21 produced from neon-20. Other nucleogenic reactions that produce heavy neon isotopes are reactions, starting with magnesium-24 and magnesium-25, respectively; the source of the neutrons in these reactions is secondary neutrons produced by alpha radiation from natural uranium and thorium in rock. Because nucleogenic isotopes have been produced than the birth of the solar system, nucleogenic isotopes, by definition, are not primordial nuclides. However, nucleogenic isotopes should not be confused with much more common radiogenic nuclides that are younger than primordial nuclides, but which arise as simple daughter isotopes from radioactive decay.

Nucleogenic isotopes, as noted, are the result of a more complicated nuclear reaction, although such reactions may begin with a radioactive decay event. Alpha particles that produce nucleogenic reactions come from natural alpha particle emitters in uranium and thorium decay chains. Neutrons to produce nucleogenic nuclides may be produced by a number of processes, but due to the short half-life of free neutrons, all of these reactions occur on Earth. Among the most common are cosmic ray spallation production of neutrons from elements near the surface of the Earth. Alpha emission produced by some radioactive decay produces neutrons by spallation knockout of neutron rich isotopes, such as the reaction of alpha particles with oxygen-18. Neutrons are produced by neutron emission and spontaneous fission of fissile isotopes on Earth. Nucleogenesis as a general phenomenon is a process associated with production of nuclides in the Big Bang or in stars, by nuclear reactions there; some of these neutron reactions involve absorption by atomic nuclei of high-temperature neutrons from the star.

These processes produce most of the chemical elements in the universe heavier than zirconium, because nuclear fusion processes become inefficient and unlikely for elements heavier than this. By convention, such heavier elements produced in normal elemental abundance, are not referred to as "nucleogenic". Instead, this term is reserved for nuclides made on Earth from natural nuclear reactions; the term "nucleogenic" by convention excludes artificially produced radionuclides, for example tritium, many of which are produced in large amounts by a similar artificial processes, but using the copious neutron flux produced by conventional nuclear reactors

Athol, Idaho

Athol is a city in Kootenai County, United States. The population was 692 at the 2010 census, up from 676 in 2000, it is part of the Coeur d'Alene Metropolitan Statistical Area. Athol is notable for the nearby Silverwood theme park. Several miles east of town is Farragut State Park at the southern end of Lake Pend Oreille. A post office called Athol has been in operation since 1895; the city may be named after the Duke of Atholl. Athol is located at 47°56′46″N 116°42′26″W, at an elevation of 2,392 feet above sea level. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.79 square miles, all of it land. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $30,595, the median income for a family was $31,875. Males had a median income of $28,438 versus $17,813 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,632. About 11.0% of families and 14.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.3% of those under age 18 and 23.7% of those age 65 or over.

As of the census of 2010, there were 692 people, 282 households, 176 families residing in the city. The population density was 875.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 305 housing units at an average density of 386.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.0% White, 0.9% Native American, 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.3% of the population. There were 282 households of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.9% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.6% were non-families. 28.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age in the city was 41.8 years. 23.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.8 % female. Hattie Johnson, Olympic shooter, resident of Athol Kootenai-Shoshone Area Libraries - Athol


APOPT is a software package for solving large-scale optimization problems of any of these forms: Linear programming Quadratic programming Quadratically constrained quadratic program Nonlinear programming Mixed integer programming Mixed integer linear programming Mixed integer nonlinear programming Applications of the APOPT include chemical reactors,friction stir welding, prevention of hydrate formation in deep-sea pipelines, computational biology, solid oxide fuel cells, flight controls for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. APOPT is supported in AMPL, APMonitor, Julia, MATLAB, Python. Official website Web interface to solve optimization problems with the APOPT solver Download APOPT for AMPL, MATLAB, Python, or APMonitor