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Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium is a three-volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press. With more than 5,000 entries, it contains comprehensive information in English on topics relating to the Byzantine Empire, it was edited by Alexander Kazhdan, was first published in 1991. Kazhdan was a professor at Princeton University who became a Senior Research Associate at Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC before his death, he contributed to many of the articles in the Dictionary and always signed his initials A. K. at the end of the article to indicate his contribution. The dictionary is available in printed and e-reference text versions from Oxford Reference Online, it covers the main historical events of Byzantium, as well as important religious events. It includes biographies of eminent political and literary personalities and describes in detail religious, cultural and political topics. Cultural topics include music and the arts. Other topics covered include warfare, education, commerce, science and medicine providing a comprehensive picture of the complex and advanced political and social structures of Byzantine society.

Oxford Reference Online

Emile School

Emile School or Emile High School was a segregated high school for African-American students in Bastrop, Texas. A part of the Bastrop Independent School District, it opened in 1893; the school, named after the book Emile, or On Education, housed grades 1-12. The lion was the school's mascot. According to the website of Emile Elementary School the building was a two story structure on a 4-acre plot of land in an African-American area of Bastrop; the lower grades were in four classrooms on the first floor and the upper grades were in two classrooms on the second floor. In the late 1940s a new building opened, it received brick additions about a decade later. Due to racial integration, it closed with students going to Bastrop High School; the building was repurposed for grades 4-5.

Jack Lind

Jackson Hugh Lind is a retired Major League Baseball shortstop, first baseman, second baseman, third baseman. He played during two seasons at the major league level for the Milwaukee Brewers, as well as one season in Japan for the Yomiuri Giants, he was drafted by the Houston Astros in the 7th round of the secondary phase of the 1967 Major League Baseball Draft. After retiring from playing, Lind began a managing career in the minor leagues, he won league championships in his first three seasons as a minor league manager: 1983 with the Redwood Pioneers and 1984 and 1985 with the Vermont Reds. Most he managed the Lexington Legends in 2006, he served as the third base coach for Pittsburgh Pirates from 1997 to 2000. German baseball club Buchbinder Legionäre Regensburg signed Lind as hitting coach and infield coach in 2017. Jack is a 1964 graduate of Mesa High School in Arizona, he is the father of drummer of the band Jimmy Eat World. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs

Smithfield Poultry Market

Smithfield Poultry Market was constructed in 1961–1963 to replace a Victorian market building in Smithfield, destroyed by fire in 1958. Its roof is claimed to be the largest concrete shell structure built, the largest clear spanning dome roof in Europe; the old poultry market was built under the provisions of the Metropolitan Meat and Poultry Market Act 1860 at the western end of Smithfield Market, designed by Sir Horace Jones in a similar style to the other market buildings. It opened in 1875 to the east of Farringdon Road but was destroyed by fire in 1958; the new poultry market was designed by Son. The structural engineers were Ove Arup & Partners, led by Jack Zunz, it was completed in 1963. The market traders opposed the original design, which had deliveries being made to the ground floor and trading on a first floor above; the replacement design has the trading on the ground floor, in a double-height market hall with rows of market stalls, a first floor gallery around the inside for offices.

Deliveries are made to nine delivery bays on each side, to the north and to the south, with hexagonal glass glazing blocks set in the walls. The building has a frame of reinforced concrete, clad externally with dark blue bricks; the basement includes a public house, the Cock Tavern. The design was intended to become a model that could be replicated across the whole Smithfield site, to replace the other Victorian market buildings, but in the event only the Poultry Market was built, it became a Grade II listed building in 2000. The building is no longer in use, is due to become part of the Museum of London's relocation to Smithfield, along with the disused Fish Market and General Market; the concrete shell roof spans 225 × 125 feet, with a double curvature sheet in the form of an elliptical paraboloid only 3 inches thick but up to 6 inches at the edges. It is claimed to be the largest concrete shell structure built, the largest clear spanning dome roof in Europe; the shallow structure only rises 30 feet in the centre, is supported by pre-stressed concrete edge beams with clerestory glazing below, so it appear to balance on its corners.

It is pierced by circular rooflights. The external roof surface and gables on each side are clad in copper. Arup were involved in large concrete shell roofs at Brynmawr Rubber Factory and the Bank of England Printing Works at Debden, Epping Forest, now operated by De La Rue; the engineering calculations for the new roof were tested first with a 1/12 scale model. The roof was constructed using over a thousand plywood shutters, each with a different shape; the shell was cast first, lifted from its formwork as cables for the edge beams were put under tension. The concrete edge beams were cast in situ. Historic England. "Smithfield Poultry Market, City of London". National Heritage List for England. Smithfield Poultry Market, City of London, British Listed Buildings Smithfield Poultry Market, Engineering Timelimes Smithfield Poultry Market, London EC1, 20th Century Society building of the month, June 2003 Design of the dome shell roof for Smithfield Poultry Market, ICE Proceedings, Volume 30, Issue 1, 01 January 1965, pp. 79–130 From:'The Metropolitan Meat-Market', Old and New London: Volume 2, pp. 491–496.

URL: History of the market, Smithfield Market

List of state leaders in 1574

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, other rulers in the year 1574. Ethiopian EmpireSarsa Dengel Kingdom of Kongo – Álvaro I, Manikongo Sennar Sultanate – Dakin Songhai EmpireAskia Daoud, Askia of the Songhai Empire Ahmadnagar SultanateMurtaza Nizam Shah I Arakkal kingdom – Ali Raja Ali, Raja of Arakkal Ayutthaya KingdomMaha Thammaracha China - Wanli Emperor Đại Việt – Lê Thế Tông, Emperor of Đại Việt Đàng Ngoài – Trịnh Tùng, Trịnh lord Đàng TrongNguyễn Hoàng, Nguyễn lord Japan Monarch – Emperor Ōgimachi de facto - Oda Nobunaga JoseonSeonjo Mughal EmpireAkbar Ryukyu KingdomShō Ei Philippines Martín Enríquez de Almanza, Viceroy of New Spain Guido de Lavezaris, Governor General and Captain General of the Philippines Vijayanagara Empire – Sriranga Deva Raya Kingdom of Denmark and NorwayFrederick II Kingdom of EnglandElizabeth I Kingdom of FranceCharles IX Henry III Holland and ZeelandWilliam the Silent, Prince of Orange, Leader of the resistance Grand Pensionary of Holland - Paulus Buys Holy Roman EmpireMaximilian II Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen – Henry III Prince-Bishopric of OsnabrückHenry II Royal Hungary – Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor Moldavia – Ioan Voda cel Viteaz, Voivode of Moldavia Kingdom of Navarre – Henry III Ottoman Empire Selim II Murad III Papal StatesPope Gregory XIII Kingdom of Poland – Henryk III Walezy Anna Jagiellon Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves – Sebastian Grand Duchy of MoscowIvan IV, the Terrible, Grand Prince of Moscow Tsar of Russia Kingdom of ScotlandJames VI Kingdom of SpainPhilip II Kingdom of SwedenJohn III Republic of VeniceAlvise I Mocenigo, Doge of Venice Morocco - Abdallah al-Ghalib Abu Abdallah Mohammed II Safavid EmpireTahmasp I, Shah of Iran

Celtic Congress

The International Celtic Congress is a cultural organisation that seeks to promote the Celtic languages of Ireland, Wales, Brittany and the Isle of Man. The International Celtic Congress is a non-political charitable organisation and its stated object is to "... perpetuate the culture and languages of the Celtic peoples, to maintain an intellectual contact and close cooperation between the respective Celtic communities." The Celtic Congress should not be confused with the Celtic League which focuses on political matters, although the two organisations share a number of objectives. Like the Celtic League, it tries to "hold... an annual international congress in one of the six Celtic countries, if possible according to a fixed rotation". The Celtic League itself, split off the Celtic Congress amicably, to pursue political aims, many people are members of both. There is an International Celtic Congress each year in one of the Celtic countries; the 2017 Congress was held in Perth, Scotland in July 2017.

Following a meeting at the National Eisteddfod of Wales in 1900, the first Pan-Celtic Congress was held in Dublin in 1901, at that time it was proposed to make the Congress a triennial event. In 1904 Cornwall became a member of the Pan-Celtic Congress; the Celtic Congress was founded in 1917 by Edward John, a Welsh nationalist, a MP for East Denbighshire from 1910 until 1918. He was motivated in part by the ideal of reviving the work of the earlier Celtic Association and its annual Pan-Celtic Congresses, but was influenced by the social and culture aftermath of the First World War; the new Celtic Congress held its first meeting in 1917 at the Birkenhead Eisteddfod. The Congress was held in Edinburgh in 1920, in 1921 on the Isle of Man. In 1925 the Congress was held in Dublin. A prominent figure was Agnes O'Farrelly, part of the Gaelic League and for a while was a member of Cumann na mBan, she played a major role in the organisation after John's death in 1931. In 1935, Cardiff was the venue, BBC Western Region broadcast the proceedings.

The 1938 Congress was held on Isle of Man in different halls, so that attendees had a choice of lectures and discussions. Meetings were irregular before World War II although in the 1920s, the National Party of Scotland sought involvement, the Taoiseach of Ireland, Éamon de Valera consented to be a patron of the organisation in the 1930s. There had been an eleven-year gap before the August 1949 Celtic Congress at Bangor, Wales where delegates included Sir Ifor Williams and Conor Maguire, Chief Justice of Ireland. Meetings have been held every year since then; the Celtic Congress of 1950, held at the Royal Institution of Cornwall in Truro, was a catalyst for the foundation of Mebyon Kernow the following year. The Wales branch hosted the meeting at Aberystwyth in 1960; each of the six branches is independent with their own programmes of activities during the year. The Conference is held in each of the six countries in turn, the country, hosting the conference has the privilege of choosing the theme of the lectures for that year.

An International Celtic Congress involves lectures, visits to places of cultural and historic interest, music and dance events. Celtic nations Celtic League Pan-Celticism Celtic languages Eisteddfod Celtic Conference and Festival Cardiff 11-16 August 2014 Celtic Congress Website John, Edward T. "Address delivered at the Edinburgh Celtic Conference", May 24, 1920