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An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula. "Oxide" itself is the dianion of an O2 -- atom. Metal oxides thus contain an anion of oxygen in the oxidation state of −2. Most of the Earth's crust consists of solid oxides, the result of elements being oxidized by the oxygen in air or in water. Materials considered pure elements develop an oxide coating. For example, aluminium foil develops a thin skin of Al2O3 that protects the foil from further corrosion. Certain elements can form multiple oxides, differing in the amounts of the element combining with the oxygen. Examples are carbon, nitrogen, silicon and aluminium. In such cases the oxides are distinguished by specifying the numbers of atoms involved, as in carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, or by specifying the element's oxidation number, as in iron oxide and iron oxide. Due to its electronegativity, oxygen forms stable chemical bonds with all elements to give the corresponding oxides.

Noble metals are prized because they resist direct chemical combination with oxygen, substances like gold oxide must be generated by indirect routes. Two independent pathways for corrosion of elements are oxidation by oxygen; the combination of water and oxygen is more corrosive. All elements burn in an atmosphere of oxygen or an oxygen-rich environment. In the presence of water and oxygen, some elements— sodium—react to give the hydroxides. In part, for this reason and alkaline earth metals are not found in nature in their metallic, i.e. native, form. Cesium is so reactive with oxygen that it is used as a getter in vacuum tubes, solutions of potassium and sodium, so-called NaK are used to deoxygenate and dehydrate some organic solvents; the surface of most metals consists of hydroxides in the presence of air. A well-known example is aluminium foil, coated with a thin film of aluminium oxide that passivates the metal, slowing further corrosion; the aluminum oxide layer can be built to greater thickness by the process of electrolytic anodizing.

Though solid magnesium and aluminum react with oxygen at STP—they, like most metals, burn in air, generating high temperatures. Finely grained powders of most metals can be dangerously explosive in air, they are used in solid-fuel rockets. In dry oxygen, iron forms iron oxide, but the formation of the hydrated ferric oxides, Fe2O3−x2x, that comprise rust requires oxygen and water. Free oxygen production by photosynthetic bacteria some 3.5 billion years ago precipitated iron out of solution in the oceans as Fe2O3 in the economically important iron ore hematite. Oxides have a range of different structures, from individual molecules to polymeric and crystalline structures. At standard conditions, oxides may range from solids to gases. Oxides of most metals adopt polymeric structures; the oxide links three metal atoms or six metal atoms. Because the M-O bonds are strong and these compounds are crosslinked polymers, the solids tend to be insoluble in solvents, though they are attacked by acids and bases.

The formulas are deceptively simple where many are nonstoichiometric compounds. Some important gaseous oxides. Examples of molecular oxides are carbon monoxide. All simple oxides of nitrogen are molecular, e.g. NO, N2O, NO2 and N2O4. Phosphorus pentoxide is a more complex molecular oxide with a deceptive name, the real formula being P4O10; some polymeric oxides depolymerize when heated to give molecules, examples being selenium dioxide and sulfur trioxide. Tetroxides are rare; the more common examples: ruthenium tetroxide, osmium tetroxide, xenon tetroxide. Many oxyanions are known, such as polyoxometalates. Oxycations are rarer, some examples being nitrosonium and uranyl. Of course many compounds are known with other groups. In organic chemistry, these include many related carbonyl compounds. For the transition metals, many oxo complexes are known as well as oxyhalides. Conversion of a metal oxide to the metal is called reduction; the reduction can be induced by many reagents. Many metal oxides convert to metals by heating.

Metals are "won" from their oxides by chemical reduction, i.e. by the addition of a chemical reagent. A common and cheap reducing agent is carbon in the form of coke; the most prominent example is that of iron ore smelting. Many reactions are involved, but the simplified equation is shown as: 2 Fe2O3 + 3 C → 4 Fe + 3 CO2Metal oxides can be reduced by organic compounds; this redox process is the basis for many important transformations in chemistry, such as the detoxification of drugs by the P450 enzymes and the production of ethylene oxide, converted to antifreeze. In such systems, the metal center transfers an oxide ligand to the organic compound followed by regeneration of the metal oxide by oxygen in the air. Metals that are lower in the reactivity series can be reduced by heating alone. For example, silver oxide decomposes at 200 °C: 2 Ag2O → 4 Ag + O2 Metals that are more reactive displace the oxide of the metals that are less reactive. For example, zinc is more reactive than copper, so it displaces copper oxide to form zinc oxide: Zn + CuO → ZnO + Cu Apart from metals, hydrogen can displace metal oxides to form hydrogen oxide known as water: H2 + CuO → Cu + H2O Since metals that are reactive form o

Jeffery Pettis

Jeffery Stuart Pettis is an American-born biologist and entomologist known for his extensive research on honeybee behavior. He is head of Apimondia, he was the research leader at the United States Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Bee Laboratory. His research has led to significant breakthroughs in understanding and managing CCD, a primary cause of North American bee population decline, he is known for discovering with Dennis vanEngelsdorp at Pennsylvania State University, the ability of bees to detect pesticides and harmful fungi in collected pollen and subsequently quarantine the harmful substances from the rest of the hive. His research has studied the synergistic effects of Imidacloprid on bees, an insecticide derived from nicotine, shown to contribute to CCD

Culture during the Cold War

The Cold War was reflected in culture through music, books and other media, as well as sports and social beliefs and behavior. One major element of the Cold War was the threat of a nuclear war. Many works use the Cold War as a backdrop, or directly take part in fictional conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union; the period 1953 -- 62 saw. For the historical context in America see United States in the 1950s. Cloak and dagger stories became part of the popular culture of the Cold War in both East and West, with innumerable novels and movies that showed how polarized and dangerous the world was. Soviet audiences thrilled at spy stories showing how their KGB agents protected the motherland by foiling dirty work by America's nefarious CIA, Britain's devious MI-6, Israel's devilish Mossad. After 1963, Hollywood depicted the CIA as clowns or villains. Atomsk by Paul Linebarger, published in 1949, is the first espionage novel of the Cold War. Alas, Babylon by Pat Frank Arc Light by Eric L. Harry Berts vidare betraktelserAnders Jacobsson and Sören Olsson, features Bert travel with his family to New York City in July 1989, but fearing United States agents arriving to Öreskoga to prevent him from going to the US, as he has fallen in love with Paulina, who's cousine Pavel has arrived to Sweden from Czechoslovakia, Bert has been talking to Pavel.

Cat's Cradle by Kurt Vonnegut The Dispossessed by Ursula Le Guin is a science fiction novel exploring the differences in culture and philosophy between several alien societies, including that of an anarcho-syndicalist planet where most of the novel is set. Good Morning Comrades by Ondjaki, a novel about a young boy in Luanda and the end of the Cold War. Resurrection Day by Brendan DuBois Twilight 2000, role-playing game. Warday by Whitley Strieber and James Kunetka Red Storm Rising a 1986 novel by Tom Clancy, about a conventional NATO/Warsaw Pact war. Other Tom Clancy novels which are part of the Jack Ryan universe, most The Hunt for Red October and The Cardinal of the Kremlin, though all of his books from this era are featured against a background of East-West conflict. 1984 by George Orwell Frederick Forsyth's spy novels sold in the hundreds of thousands. The Fourth Protocol, whose title refers to a series of conventions that, if broken, will lead to nuclear war and that are now, of course, all broken except for the fourth and last thread, was made into a major film starring British actor Michael Caine.

The Manchurian Candidate, by Richard Condon, took a different approach and portrayed a Communist conspiracy against the U. S. acting not through leftists or pacifists but through a thinly veiled allusion to Joseph McCarthy. The logic of this was that if McCarthyists were accusing so many people of being communist agents, it could only be to divert attention from the real communists; the theme of collusion between international communists and Western rightists would be picked up again by many movies or television shows, which would feature an alliance between power-hungry communists attacking the free world from the outside and profit-driven capitalists undermining it for financial gain. Sacrifice by Graham Masterton Masters of Deceit – a non-fiction work written by the FBI, through J. Edgar Hoover's office, extolling the vices of Communism, the virtues of Americanism. Glasnost radically changed Russian culture, as books, forbidden became available, people were reading them all the time, everywhere.

The Ugly American by William J. Lederer and Eugene Burdick. Published in 1958, this book tells the story of how the U. S government handled foreign policy poorly; the main character, Homer Atkins, discovers this sad truth when he is dispatched to the fictitious country of Sarkhan One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich by Alexander Solzhenitsyn. This acclaimed book, first published in 1962, exposed the horrors of the Russian prison camps during WWII under the Stalinist regime, it is a semi-autobiographical tale about a dutiful soldier, sent to a Siberian camp, after being falsely accused of treason. Solzhenitsyn received the Nobel Prize in literature. During the Cold War, films functioned as a means to control public opinion internally; the United States and the Soviet Union invested in propaganda designed to influence the hearts and minds of people around the world using motion pictures. Cold War films produced by both sides attempted to address different facets of the superpower conflict and sought to influence both domestic and foreign opinion.

The gap between American and Soviet film gave the Americans a distinct advantage over the Soviet Union. Cinema, Americans hoped, would help close the gap caused by Soviet development of nuclear weapons and advancements in space technology; the use of film as an effective form of widespread propaganda transformed cinema into another Cold War battlefront. The Americans took advantage of their pre-existing cinematic advantage over the Soviet Union, using movies as another way to create the Communist enemy. In the early years of the Cold War, seventy explicitly anti-communist films were released. American films incorporated a wide scale of Cold War themes and issues into all genres of film, which gave American motion pictures a particular lead over Soviet film. Despite the audiences' lack of zeal for Anti-Co

Cuban Rebel Girls

Cuban Rebel Girls is a 1959 semi-dramatic documentary B movie, notable for being the last on-screen performance of Errol Flynn. He stars with his girlfriend of Beverly Aadland, it was written and narrated by Flynn, sympathetic to the Cuban revolution being led by Fidel Castro in its early phase. In his memoir Flynn called it "an interesting side venture... I spent many days with Fidel just before the Batistans quit." Errol Flynn arrives in Cuba on behalf of the Hearst Press to do a series of articles on the revolution of Fidel Castro. He notices some changes in Cuba caused by the rebellion, he checks into a hotel and is contacted by one of Castro's agents, a female, who takes him to a beach resort. He meets a young man. Flynn flies his own plane, meets the rebels, files several articles, including one of the Cuban Rebel Girls; the movie goes into the story of two American girls and her friend, whose brother Johnny is fighting for Castro in Cuba. The two girls decide to visit Cuba, they take $50,000 raised by American friends of the revolution to be used to buy guns.

They visit Key West and fly to Cuba. Errol Flynn as Errol Flynn Beverly Aadland as Beverly Woods John McKay as Johnny Wilson Jackie Jackler as Jacqueline Dominguez Marie Edmund as Maria Rodriguez Ben Ostrowsky as Raoul'Ben' Dominguez Reynerio Sanchez Andrés Fernández Esther Oliva Tod Scott Brody Allen Baron Clelle Mahon Ramon Ramierez Also known as Assault of the Rebel Girls. In opening credits: "Our thanks to the New Army of Cuba, whose help in creating this picture was invaluable." After making the film, Beverly Aadland got into a brawl with Flynn's second wife, Nora Edington, at Aadland's birthday party in a night club. Nora said this was because she took exception to Aadland referring to Flynn as "elderly". Rights to the movie were bought by Joseph Brenner Associates. Brenner described the film as "an authentic and non political background drama." The New York Times said "Flynn and his associates provide little, entertaining, artistic, or informative in this static, jerry-built independently made adventure...

Mr Flynn cannot be blamed for giving the appearance of being very tired throughout these phlegmatic proceedings."The Los Angeles Times said the: Only interest this picture could have is, happens to be the last performance by the late Errol Flynn before the movie camera. That, the fact that it gives the public a chance to see Beverly Aadland for the first time. Both are disappointing... The storyline is weak and poor direction and editing add to the confusion; the remainder of the cast is inconsequential and their acting, if it can be called that, is on a par with the over-all production, uniformly bad. It is a sad ending to one of the most flamboyant actors of our times. Filmink magazine wrote that the film "compels interest by virtue of showing Aadland in a lead role, Flynn on death’s door, the weirdness of such a pro-Castro film coming from a Hollywood movie star." Flynn, E. My Wicked, Wicked Ways. G. P. Putnam's Sons 1959, Pan Books 1961 in association with William Heinemann Ltd, 5th Printing 1979.

Thomas, T. Behlmer, R. & McCarty, C. The Films of Errol Flynn. Citadel Press. 1969. Cuban Rebel Girls on IMDb Cuban Rebel Girls at TCMDB Review of film at The New York Times Detailed Movie House article

Flag of Washington, D.C.

The flag of Washington, D. C. consists of three red stars above two red bars on a white background. It is an armorial banner based on the design of the coat of arms granted to George Washington's great-great-great-grandfather, Lawrence Washington of Sulgrave Manor, England in 1592; this coat of arms was used by the President in his home at Mount Vernon. In heraldry, the stars are called mullets and the coat of arms is blazoned as argent two bars gules, in chief three mullets of the second. In 1938, the flag was selected by a commission created by Act of Congress with the help of the Commission of Fine Arts; the District Flag Commission was composed of three non-elected federally-appointed members: the president of the Board of Commissioners, the secretary of war and the secretary of the Navy. The flag was seen at the time as a symbol of the lack of Representation of Washingtonians as no local group was involved in the selection process. Paradoxically, it went from being rejected by many in the local population to being embraced by most DC residents, the DC Statehood Movement and businesses as a symbol of the local identity in the 21st century.

Today, it can be seen all around the city on DC Government property, flying in front of homes, in logos of local businesses and on some local residents' bodies as tattoos. It is flown proudly on Flag Day; the Washington family traces its roots to England in the 13th Century to Wessyngton, a small rural estate in the northeastern part of the country where Sir William de Hertburn receives a lordship. The original coat of arms evolves drastically over the next 150 years through alliances, land acquisitions and conflicts. In 1346, the first appearance of the family coat of arms as we would recognize it is recorded for Sir William de Wessyngton's great-grandson; the two horizontal bars below three mullets are, however Argent on Gules. By the end of the 14th Century, the current design is recorded for the family. After various events, the family is dispersed around England in Buckinghamshire, Kent and Northamptonshire. In 1592, Robert Cooke, Clarenceux King of Arms confirms the coat of arms upon Lawrence Washington of Sulgrave Manor in Northamptonshire during the reign of Elizabeth I.

Two grandsons of Lawrence Washington settled in the Americas in the 1660s. One of them was Colonel John Washington who settles in the Colony of Virginia in 1656 where he becomes a planter, his great-grandson was George Washington. He used the coat of arms extensively on his Mount Vernon property including on personal objects and on the livery uniforms of his servants; this was a common practice among wealthy British plantation owners. After the United States was recognized as independent from Britain in 1783, George Washington started a communication by mail with Sir Isaac Heard, Garter Principal King of Arms of the College of Arms in London on the matter of the coat of arms; this correspondence took place between 1791 and 1796 and appears to have been genealogical and also heraldic in nature. The President and the Garter appear to have been working together to trace George Washington's ancestors and the link to the British Isles. Mr. Heard confirmed the events that took place in England regarding his ancestors in a letter dated December 7, 1791.

George Washington acknowledged that this was the same coat of arms used in the Colony prior to Independence. Since its creation by Congress on July 9, 1790, by the Residence Act and for over a century, the District of Columbia was without an official flag and flew several unofficial banners the flag of the D. C. National Guard. In the early 20th Century, the Thompsen-Bryan-Ellis Company was a firm of printers working on a flag book under the direction of Lieutenant Commander Byron McCandless who had a great interest in vexillology; the work was taken over by the National Geographic. It became the now well known "Our Flag Number" which contained 1197 flags in full colors and an additional 300 in black and white. On page 335, the National Guard's flag is shown as the representation of the District of Columbia, it showed a blue flag with two banners on it: one above with the word "Headquarters" and one below with "District of Columbia Militia" written on it. In between was an axe. One of the artists working on the project was Charles A. R. Dunn.

While drawing some of the flags, he noticed the lack of good design for many of the state flags with many being the state seal on a blue field. He realized that the District of Columbia did not have a flag, he started thinking about designing a flag for the capital. He was attracted to the design of the neighboring state flag of Maryland which used the arms of Lord Baltimore, it was only natural. In 1921, he had moved on to work for the Chamber of Commerce of the United States. While working in the Mills Building, Dunn drew a design for the flag in the office studio, he took the design directly from the coat of arms which belonged to the Washington family with no change to the design but did not release it at the time. On February 8, 1924, the Daughters of the American Revolution managed to get a bill introduced in Congress to set up a commission to select a design, it was introduced by Chairman Reed of the House District Committee. The commission would be composed of the president of the United States, the secretary of war and the president of the board of commissioners of the district.

It would have an appropriation of $1,500. On February 20, 1924, the Evening Star published a proposed design by John Mackaye Dunbar, it featured the shield portion of the coat-of-arms on a red field with a blue cross. While this design was

Eric van Tijn

Eric Job van Tijn is a Dutch music producer and judge on the Dutch versions of the music competitions Idols and X Factor. He comes from a musical family, his parents Eli and Lena van Tijn founded Artisound the year he was born and he grew up around the studio. In his youth, during school years, he played in various bands, he studied composition and playing the piano in the conservatory. His initial musical work was producing Patricia Paay. Soon after, he arranged and produced for the Dutch television show De Familie Knots, which resulted in an album produced by him, it was the beginning of a long-running cooperation with Jochem Fluitsma. The two became known as Fluitsma & Van Tijn, they went on to produce many hits interpreted by The Scene, Guus Meeuwiss & Vagant, Loïs Lane, De Kast, Willeke Alberti, the Dolly Dots and Mathilde Santing. Other credits include Mai Tai, Henk Westbroek, Caught in the Act, the trio Linda, Roos & Jessica, the band 4 Fun, Hind Laroussi and Status Quo, their biggest hit came through a promotional song 15 Miljoen Mensen for the Dutch bank Postbank N.

V.. He is known for co-writing "Vrede" with Jochem Fluitsma, a song performed by Ruth Jacott, who represented the Netherlands in 1993 Eurovision Song Contest, coming 6th overall. Van Tijn and Fluitsma wrote the song "Hemel en aarde" for Edsilia Rombley which represented the Netherlands in 1998 Eurovision Song Contest, coming 4th overall. With Fluitsama he co-wrote "History" by Mai Tai, he composed for the television shows Tarzan and Op zoek naar Evita. He worked as a judge for the Dutch musical competition shows Idols and X Factor with his band participating in the live TV finals of the X Factor