# Oxide minerals

The **oxide mineral** class includes those minerals in which the oxide anion (O^{2−}) is bonded to one or more metal ions. The hydroxide bearing minerals are typically included in the oxide class. The minerals with complex anion groups such as the silicates, sulfates, carbonates and phosphates are classed separately.

Simple oxides:

- X
_{2}O and XO- Cuprite Cu
_{2}O - Ice H
_{2}O - Periclase group
- Periclase MgO
- Manganosite MnO

- Zincite group
- Zincite ZnO
- Bromellite BeO
- Tenorite CuO
- Litharge PbO

- Cuprite Cu
- X
_{2}O_{3} - XO
_{2}- Rutile group
- Rutile TiO
_{2} - Pyrolusite MnO
_{2} - Cassiterite SnO
_{2}

- Rutile TiO
- Baddeleyite ZrO
_{2} - Uraninite UO
_{2} - Thorianite ThO
_{2}

- Rutile group
- XY
_{2}O_{4}- Spinel group
- Spinel MgAl
_{2}O_{4} - Gahnite ZnAl
_{2}O_{4} - Magnetite Fe
_{3}O_{4}(Fe^{2+}Fe^{3+}_{2}O_{4}) - Franklinite (Zn,Fe,Mn)(Fe,Mn)
_{2}O_{4} - Chromite FeCr
_{2}O_{4}

- Spinel MgAl
- Chrysoberyl BeAl
_{2}O_{4} - Columbite(Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)
_{2}O_{6}

- Spinel group

Hydroxide subgroup:

- Brucite Mg(OH)
_{2} - Manganite MnO(OH)
- Romanechite BaMn
^{2+}Mn^{4+}_{8}O_{16}(OH)_{4} - Goethite group

## Contents

## Nickel–Strunz Classification -04- Oxides[edit]

IMA-CNMNC proposes a new hierarchical scheme (Mills et al., 2009). This list uses it to modify the Classification of Nickel–Strunz (mindat.org, 10 ed, pending publication).

- Abbreviations:
- "*" - discredited (IMA/CNMNC status).
- "?" - questionable/doubtful (IMA/CNMNC status).
- "REE" - Rare-earth element (Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu)
- "PGE" - Platinum-group element (Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt)
- 03.C Aluminofluorides, 06 Borates, 08 Vanadates (04.H V
^{[5,6]}Vanadates), 09 Silicates:- Neso: insular (from Greek νησος nēsos, island)
- Soro: grouping (from Greek σωροῦ sōros, heap, mound (especially of corn))
- Cyclo: ring
- Ino: chain (from Greek ις [genitive: ινος
*inos*], fibre) - Phyllo: sheet (from Greek φύλλον
*phyllon*, leaf) - Tekto: three-dimensional framework

- Nickel–Strunz code scheme: NN.XY.##x
- NN: Nickel–Strunz mineral class number
- X: Nickel–Strunz mineral division letter
- Y: Nickel–Strunz mineral family letter
- ##x: Nickel–Strunz mineral/group number, x add-on letter

### Class: oxides[edit]

- 04.A Metal:Oxygen = 2.1 and 1:1
- 04.AA Cation:Anion (M:O) = 2:1 (and 1.8:1): 05 Ice, 10 Cuprite, 15 Paramelaconite
- 04.AB M:O = 1:1 (and up to 1:1.25); with small to medium-sized cations only: 05 Crednerite, 10 Tenorite; 15 Delafossite, 15 Mcconnellite; 20 Bromellite, 20 Zincite; 25 Lime, 25 Bunsenite, 25 Monteponite, 25 Manganosite, 25 Periclase, 25 Wustite
- 04.AC M:O = 1:1 (and up to 1:1.25); with large cations (± smaller ones): 05 Swedenborgite; 10 Brownmillerite, 10 Srebrodolskite; 15 Montroydite, 20 Litharge, 20 Romarchite, 25 Massicot

- 04.B Metal:Oxygen = 3:4 and similar
- 04.BA With small and medium-sized cations: 05 Chrysoberyl, 10 Manganostibite
- 04.BB With only medium-sized cations: 05 Filipstadite, 05 Donathite?, 05 Gahnite, 05 Galaxite, 05 Hercynite, 05 Spinel, 05 Cochromite, 05 Chromite, 05 Magnesiochromite, 05 Manganochromite, 05 Nichromite, 05 Zincochromite, 05 Magnetite, 05 Cuprospinel, 05 Franklinite, 05 Jacobsite, 05 Magnesioferrite, 05 Trevorite, 05 Brunogeierite, 05 Coulsonite, 05 Magnesiocoulsonite, 05 Qandilite, 05 Ulvospinel, 05 Vuorelainenite; 10 Hydrohetaerolite, 10 Hausmannite, 10 Iwakiite, 10 Hetaerolite; 15 Maghemite, 20 Tegengrenite, 25 Xieite
- 04.BC With medium-sized and large cations: 05 Marokite, 10 Dmitryivanovite
- 04.BD With only large cations: 05 Minium

- 04.C Metal:Oxygen = 2:3, 3:5, and Similar
- 04.CB With medium-sized cations: 05 Tistarite, 05 Auroantimonate*, 05 Brizziite-VII, 05 Brizziite-III, 05 Corundum, 05 Eskolaite, 05 Hematite, 05 Karelianite, 05 Geikielite, 05 Ecandrewsite, 05 Ilmenite, 05 Pyrophanite, 05 Melanostibite, 05 Romanite*; 10 Bixbyite, 10 Avicennite; 15 Armalcolite, 15 Mongshanite*, 15 Pseudobrookite; 20 Magnesiohogbomite-6N6S, 20 Magnesiohogbomite-2N3S, 20 Magnesiohogbomite-2N2S, 20 Zincohogbomite-2N2S, 20 Ferrohogbomite-2N2S; 25 Pseudorutile, 25 Ilmenorutile; 30 Oxyvanite, 30 Berdesinskiite; 35 Olkhonskite, 35 Schreyerite; 40 Kamiokite, 40 Nolanite, 40 Rinmanite; 45 Stibioclaudetite, 45 Claudetite; 50 Arsenolite, 50 Senarmontite; 55 Valentinite, 60 Bismite, 65 Sphaerobismoite, 70 Sillenite, 75 Kyzylkumite
- 04.CC With large and medium-sized cations: 05 Chrombismite, 10 Freudenbergite, 15 Grossite, 20 Mayenite, 25 Yafsoanite; 30 Barioperovskite, 30 Lakargiite, 30 Natroniobite, 30 Latrappite, 30 Lueshite, 30 Perovskite; 35 Macedonite, 35 Isolueshite, 35 Loparite-(Ce), 35 Tausonite; 40 Crichtonite, 40 Dessauite, 40 Davidite-(Ce), 40 Davidite-(La), 40 Mathiasite, 40 Lindsleyite, 40 Landauite, 40 Loveringite, 40 Loveringite, 40 Cleusonite, 40 Gramaccioliite-(Y); 45 Hawthorneite, 45 Magnetoplumbite, 45 Haggertyite, 45 Batiferrite, 45 Hibonite, 45 Nezilovite, 45 Yimengite, 45 Diaoyudaoite, 45 Lindqvistite, 45 Plumboferrite; 50 Jeppeite, 55 Zenzenite, 60 Mengxianminite*

- 04.D Metal:Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
- 04.DA With small cations
- (moved to -09- Subclass: tektosilicates)

- 04.DB With medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra: 05 Tripuhyite, 05 Tugarinovite, 05 Varlamoffite*, 05 Argutite, 05 Cassiterite, 05 Rutile, 05 Pyrolusite, 05 Plattnerite, 05 Squawcreekite?; 10 Bystromite, 10 Ordonezite, 10 Tapiolite-(Fe), 10 Tapiolite-(Mn), 10 Tapiolite*, 15a Paramontroseite, 15a Ramsdellite, 15b Akhtenskite, 15c Nsutite; 20 Scrutinyite; 25 Ixiolite, 25 Ishikawaite, 25 Srilankite, 25 Samarskite-(Y), 25 Samarskite-(Yb), 25 Yttrocolumbite-(Y); 30 Heftetjernite, 30 Wolframoixiolite*, 30 Krasnoselskite*, 30 Ferberite, 30 Hubnerite, 30 Sanmartinite, 30 Wolframite*; 35 Tantalite-(Mg), 35 Tantalite-(Fe), 35 Tantalite-(Mn), 35 Columbite-(Mg), 35 Columbite-(Fe), 35 Columbite-(Mn), 35 Qitianlingite; 40 Ferrowodginite, 40 Lithiotantite, 40 Lithiowodginite, 40 Tantalowodginite*, 40 Titanowodginite, 40 Wodginite, 40 Ferrotitanowodginite; 45 Tivanite, 50 Carmichaelite, 55 Alumotantite, 60 Biehlite
- 04.DC With medium-sized cations; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra: 05 Bahianite, 10 Simpsonite
- 04.DD With medium-sized cations; frameworks of edge-sharing octahedra: 05 Anatase, 10 Brookite
- 04.DE With medium-sized cations; with various polyhedra: 05 Downeyite, 10 Koragoite; 15 Koechlinite, 15 Russellite, 15 Tungstibite; 20 Tellurite, 25 Paratellurite; 30 Cervantite, 30 Bismutotantalite, 30 Bismutocolumbite, 30 Clinocervantite, 30 Stibiocolumbite, 30 Stibiotantalite; 35 IMA2007-058, 35 Baddeleyite
- 04.DF With large (± medium-sized) cations; dimers and trimers of edge-sharing octahedra: 05 Nioboaeschynite-(Y), 05 Aeschynite-(Ce), 05 Aeschynite-(Nd), 05 Aeschynite-(Y), 05 Nioboaeschynite-(Ce), 05 Nioboaeschynite-(Nd), 05 Tantalaeschynite-(Y), 05 Rynersonite, 05 Vigezzite, 10 Changbaiite, 15 Murataite
- 04.DG With large (± medium-sized) cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra: 05 Euxenite-(Y), 05 Loranskite-(Y), 05 Polycrase-(Y), 05 Uranopolycrase, 05 Fersmite, 05 Kobeite-(Y), 05 Tanteuxenite-(Y), 05 Yttrocrasite-(Y); 10 Fergusonite-beta-(Nd), 10 Fergusonite-beta-(Y), 10 Fergusonite-beta-(Ce), 10 Yttrotantalite-(Y); 15 Foordite, 15 Thoreaulite; 20 Raspite
- 04.DH With large (± medium-sized) cations; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra:
- IMA/CNMNC revised the Pyrochlore supergroup 2010 (04.DH.15 and 04.DH.20)
- 05 Brannerite, 05 Orthobrannerite, 05 Thorutite; 10 Kassite, 10 Lucasite-(Ce)
- Pyrochlore group: Fluorcalciopyrochlore, Fluorkenopyrochlore, Fluornatropyrochlore, Fluorstrontiopyrochlore, Hydropyrochlore, Hydroxycalciopyrochlore, Kenoplumbopyrochlore, Oxycalciopyrochlore, Oxynatropyrochlore, Oxyplumbopyrochlore, Oxyyttropyrochlore-(Y)
- Microlite group: Fluorcalciomicrolite, Fluornatromicrolite, Hydrokenomicrolite, Hydromicrolite, Hydroxykenomicrolite, Kenoplumbomicrolite, Oxycalciomicrolite, Oxystannomicrolite, Oxystibiomicrolite
- Romeite group: Cuproromeite, Fluorcalcioromeite, Fluornatroromeite, Hydroxycalcioromeite, Oxycalcioromeite, Oxyplumboromeite, Stibiconite
- Betafite group: Calciobetafite, Oxyuranobetafite
- Elsmoreite group: Hydrokenoelsmoreite
- 25 Rosiaite; 30 Zirconolite-3O, 30 Zirconolite-3T, 30 Zirconolite-2M, 30 Zirconolite; 35 Liandratite, 35 Petscheckite; 40 Ingersonite, 45 Pittongite
- Discredited minerals 04.DH.15: Bariomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977), Bariopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977), Betafite (of Hogarth 1977), Bismutomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977), Ceriopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977), Jixianite, Natrobistantite, Plumbomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977), Plumbobetafite (of Hogarth 1977), Stannomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977), Stibiobetafite (of Černý et al.), Yttrobetafite (of Hogarth 1977), Yttropyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977), Bismutopyrochlore (of Chukanov et al.) and Bismutostibiconite 04.DH.20

- 04.DJ With large (± medium-sized) cations; polyhedral frameworks: 05 Calciotantite, 05 Irtyshite, 05 Natrotantite
- 04.DK With large (± medium-sized) cations; tunnel structures: 05 Ankangite, 05 Coronadite, 05 Hollandite, 05 Manjiroite, 05 Mannardite, 05 Redledgeite, 05 Priderite, 05 Henrymeyerite, 05 Akaganeite, 10 Cryptomelane, 10 Romanechite, 10 Strontiomelane, 10 Todorokite
- 04.DL With large (± medium-sized) cations; fluorite-type structures: 05 Cerianite-(Ce), 05 Zirkelite, 05 Thorianite, 05 Uraninite; 10 Calzirtite, 10 Hiarneite, 10 Tazheranite
- 04.DM With large (± medium-sized) cations; unclassified: 05 Sosedkoite, 05 Rankamaite; 15 Cesplumtantite, 20 Eyselite, 25 Kuranakhite

- 04.DA With small cations
- 04.E Metal:Oxygen = < 1:2
- 04.E: IMA2008-040
- 04.EA Oxides with metal : oxygen < 1:2 (M
_{2}O_{5}, MO_{3}): 05 Tantite, 10 Krasnogorite*, 10 Molybdite

- 04.X Unclassified Strunz Oxides
- 04.XX Unknown: 00 Allendeite, 00 Ashanite?, 00 Hongquiite*, 00 Psilomelane?, 00 Uhligite?, 00 Clinobirnessite*, 00 Kleberite*, 00 Chubutite*, 00 Struverite?, 00 IMA2000-016, 00 IMA2000-026

### Class: hydroxides[edit]

- 04.F Hydroxides (without V or U)
- 04.FA Hydroxides with OH, without H
_{2}O; corner-sharing tetrahedra: 05a Behoite, 05b Clinobehoite; 10 Sweetite, 10 Wulfingite, 10 Ashoverite - 04.FB Hydroxides with OH, without H
_{2}O; insular octahedra: 05 Shakhovite; 10 Cualstibite, 10 Zincalstibite - 04.FC Hydroxides with OH, without H
_{2}O; corner-sharing octahedra: 05 Dzhalindite, 05 Sohngeite, 05 Bernalite; 10 Burtite, 10 Mushistonite, 10 Natanite, 10 Vismirnovite, 10 Schoenfliesite, 10 Wickmanite; 15 Jeanbandyite, 15 Mopungite, 15 Stottite; 15 Tetrawickmanite; 20 Ferronigerite-6N6S, 20 Ferronigerite-2N1S, 20 Magnesionigerite-6N6S, 20 Magnesionigerite-2N1S; 25 Magnesiotaaffeite-6N3S, 25 Magnesiotaaffeite-2N2S, 25 Ferrotaaffeite-6N3S - 04.FD Hydroxides with OH, without H
_{2}O; chains of edge-sharing octahedra: 05 Spertiniite; 10 Bracewellite, 10 Diaspore, 10 Guyanaite, 10 Groutite, 10 Goethite, 10 Montroseite, 10 Tsumgallite; 15 Manganitev; 20 Cerotungstite-(Ce), 20 Yttrotungstite-(Y), 20 Yttrotungstite-(Ce); 25 Frankhawthorneite; 30 Khinite, 30 Parakhinite - 04.FE Hydroxides with OH, without H
_{2}O; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra: 05 Amakinite, 05 Brucite, 05 Portlandite, 05 Pyrochroite, 05 Theophrastite, 05 Fougerite; 10 Bayerite, 10 Doyleite, 10 Gibbsite, 10 Nordstrandite; 15 Boehmite, 15 Lepidocrocite; 20 Grimaldiite, 20 Heterogenite-2H, 20 Heterogenite-3R; 25 Feitknechtite, 25 Lithiophorite; 30 Quenselite, 35 Ferrihydrite; 40 Feroxyhyte, 40 Vernadite; 45 Quetzalcoatlite - 04.FF Hydroxides with OH, without H
_{2}O; various polyhedra: 05 Hydroromarchite - 04.FG Hydroxides with OH, without H
_{2}O; unclassified: 05 Janggunite, 10 Cesarolite, 15 Kimrobinsonite - 04.FH Hydroxides with H
_{2}O ± (OH); insular octahedra: 05 Bottinoite, 05 Brandholzite - 04.FJ Hydroxides with H
_{2}O ± (OH); corner-sharing octahedra: 05 Sidwillite, 05 Meymacite; 10 Tungstite; 15 Ilsemannite, 15 Hydrotungstite; 20 Parabariomicrolite - 04.FK Hydroxides with H
_{2}O ± (OH); chains of edge-sharing octahedra: 05 Bamfordite - 04.FL Hydroxides with H
_{2}O ± (OH); sheets of edge-sharing octahedra: 05 Meixnerite, 05 Jamborite, 05 Iowaite, 05 Woodallite, 05 Akdalaite, 05 Muskoxite; 10 Hydrocalumite, 15 Kuzelite; 20 Aurorite, 20 Chalcophanite, 20 Ernienickelite, 20 Jianshuiite; 25 Woodruffite, 30 Asbolane; 40 Takanelite, 40 Rancieite; 45 Birnessite, 55 Cianciulliite, 60 Jensenite, 65 Leisingite, 75 Cafetite, 80 Mourite, 85 Deloryite - 04.FM Hydroxides with H
_{2}O ± (OH); Unclassified: 15 Franconite, 15 Hochelagaite, 15 Ternovite; 25 Belyankinite, 25 Gerasimovskite, 25 Manganbelyankinite; 30 Silhydrite, 35 Cuzticite, 40 Cyanophyllite - 04.FN: 05 Menezesite

- 04.FA Hydroxides with OH, without H
- 04.G Uranyl Hydroxides
- 04.GA Without additional cations: IMA2008-022; 05 Metaschoepite, 05 Paraschoepite, 05 Schoepite; 10 Ianthinite; 15 Metastudtite, 15 Studtite
- 04.GB With additional cations (K, Ca, Ba, Pb, etc.); with mainly UO
_{2}(O,OH)_{5}pentagonal polyhedra: 05 Compreignacite, 05 Agrinierite, 05 Rameauite; 10 Billietite, 10 Becquerelite, 10 Protasite; 15 Richetite; 20 Calciouranoite, 20 Bauranoite, 20 Metacalciouranoite; 25 Fourmarierite, 30 Wolsendorfite, 35 Masuyite; 40 Metavandendriesscheite, 40 Vandendriesscheite; 45 Vandenbrandeite, 50 Sayrite, 55 Curite, 60 Iriginite, 65 Uranosphaerite, 70 Holfertite - 04.GC With additional cations; with UO
_{2}(O,OH)_{6}hexagonal polyhedra: 05 Clarkeite, 10 Umohoite, 15 Spriggite

- 04.H V
^{[5,6]}Vanadates- (moved to -08- Class: vanadates)

- 04.I Ice group
- 04.X Unclassified Strunz Oxides (Hydroxides)
- 04.XX Unknown: 00 Ungursaite*, 00 Scheteligite?

## References[edit]

- Palache, Charles, Harry Berman and Clifford Frondel, 1944,
*The System of Mineralogy,*Wiley, 7th ed. Vol. 1, p. 490 ff. - Klein, Cornelis and Cornelius S. Hurlbut, Jr., 1985,
*Manual of Mineralogy*, Wiley, 20th ed., pp. 295–318 - Webmineral Dana Oxides
- Stuart J. Mills; Frédéric Hatert; Ernest H. Nickel & Giovanni Ferraris (2009). "The standardisation of mineral group hierarchies: application to recent nomenclature proposals" (PDF).
*Eur. J. Mineral*.**21**: 1073–1080. doi:10.1127/0935-1221/2009/0021-1994. - Nickel, Ernest H.; Nichols, Monte C. (March 2009). "IMA-CNMNC List of Mineral Names" (PDF). IMA-CNMNC.
- Ferraiolo, Jim. "Nickel–Strunz (Version 10) Classification System". webmineral.com.