Oxidizing agent

In chemistry, an oxidizing agent is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to accept their electrons. Common oxidizing agents are hydrogen peroxide and the halogens. In one sense, an oxidizing agent is a chemical species that undergoes a chemical reaction in which it gains one or more electrons. In that sense, it is one component in an oxidation–reduction reaction. In the second sense, an oxidizing agent is a chemical species that transfers electronegative atoms oxygen, to a substrate. Combustion, many explosives, organic redox reactions involve atom-transfer reactions. Electron acceptors participate in electron-transfer reactions. In this context, the oxidizing agent is called an electron acceptor and the reducing agent is called an electron donor. A classic oxidizing agent is the ferrocenium ion Fe+2, which accepts an electron to form Fe2. One of the strongest acceptors commercially available is "Magic blue", the radical cation derived from N3. Extensive tabulations of ranking the electron accepting properties of various reagents are available, see Standard electrode potential.

In more common usage, an oxidising agent transfers oxygen atoms to a substrate. In this context, the oxidising agent can be called an oxygenation reagent or oxygen-atom transfer agent. Examples include MnO−4, CrO2−4, OsO4, ClO−4. Notice that these species are all oxides. In some cases, these oxides can serve as electron acceptors, as illustrated by the conversion of MnO−4 to MnO2−4, manganate. Oxygen Ozone Hydrogen peroxide and other inorganic peroxides, Fenton's reagent Fluorine and other halogens Nitric acid and nitrate compounds Sulfuric acid Peroxydisulfuric acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Chlorite, chlorate and other analogous halogen compounds Hypochlorite and other hypohalite compounds, including household bleach Hexavalent chromium compounds such as chromic and dichromic acids and chromium trioxide, pyridinium chlorochromate, chromate/dichromate compounds Permanganate compounds such as potassium permanganate Sodium perborate Nitrous oxide, Nitrogen dioxide/Dinitrogen tetroxide Potassium nitrate, the oxidizer in black powder Sodium bismuthate Cerium compounds such as ceric ammonium nitrate and ceric sulfate Ethanol The dangerous materials definition of an oxidizing agent is a substance that can cause or contribute to the combustion of other material.

By this definition some materials that are classified as oxidizing agents by analytical chemists are not classified as oxidizing agents in a dangerous materials sense. An example is potassium dichromate, which does not pass the dangerous goods test of an oxidizing agent; the U. S. Department of Transportation defines oxidizing agents specifically. There are two definitions for oxidizing agents governed under DOT regulations; these two are Class 5. Division 5.1 "means a material that may by yielding oxygen, cause or enhance the combustion of other materials." Division 5.1 of the DOT code applies to solid oxidizers "if, when tested in accordance with the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria, its mean burning time is less than or equal to the burning time of a 3:7 potassium bromate/cellulose mixture." 5.12 of the DOT code applies to liquid oxidizers "if, when tested in accordance with the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria, it spontaneously ignites or its mean time for a pressure rise from 690 kPa to 2070 kPa gauge is less than the time of a 1:1 nitric acid /cellulose mixture."

Combustion Dye Electrosynthesis Solvated electron Organic oxidation Organic redox reaction Reducing agent

Cock and Bull (film)

Cock and Bull is a 2016 Chinese crime comedy drama film directed by Cao Baoping and starring Liu Ye, Zhang Yi, Duan Bowen, Wang Ziwen, Tan Zhuo, Wang Yanhui, Yan Bei and Sun Lei. It was released in China on September 14, 2016; when a murder occurs in a small town in Southeast China, a local mechanic, known for his honesty, comes under suspicion. When the police target him to take the fall, he’s forced to try and exonerate himself, uncovering a number of disturbing facts, most much bigger than the initial crime. Liu Ye Zhang Yi Duan Bowen Wang Ziwen Tan Zhuo Wang Yanhui Yan Bei Sun Lei The film has grossed CN¥135.89 million at the Chinese box office. Cock & Bull at Fandango Cock at Rotten Tomatoes Cock & Bull at moviefone

Hebei Normal University

Hebei Normal University is a university in Shijiazhuang, Hebei province, China. It is a provincial key university with more than 100 years history, is supported by both Hebei Province and Education Department of China; the university originated from Shuntian School established in Beijing in 1902 and Beiyang Women Normal School established in Tianjin in 1906. Approved by Hebei provincial government, the former Hebei Teachers University, Hebei Teachers College, Hebei Education Institute established in 1952 and Hebei Vocational and Technological College merged into one in June 1996 and was named Hebei Normal University. Hebei Normal University is an early-established large-scale university in China. Many great revolutionary pioneers such as Deng Yingchao, Liu Qingyang, Guo Longzhen, Yang Xiufeng and Kang Shien are on the list of graduates. Famous scholars like Liang Suming, Zhang Shenfu and Tang Yongtong and others are on the list, too. Among the graduates are academicians such as Yan Luguang and Hao Bolin and famous coaches and athletes who won championship in international games such as Xu Shaofa and Cai Zhenhua.

Since 1949, Hebei Normal University has educated more than 200,000 students. Hebei Normal University covers 1829 mu; the university library has a collection of 3,300,000 volumes of books. The university embraces a faculty and staff of 2,852 with a teaching faculty of 1,480 among whom there are 359 professors, 974 associate professors, one academician of China Academy of Sciences, 106 provincial model experts, 138 Ph. D. supervisors and 871 postgraduate tutors. Total number of on-campus undergraduate students is 57,658, including 33404 students majored in two- or four-year programs, 3,866 graduate students and 20,388 further education students. At present, Hebei Normal University has one independent college. There are 81 four-year undergraduate programs, 91 master's degree programs and 24 doctoral degree programs. In addition, there are four post-doctoral-research stations, two State Demo Centers of Experimental Teaching, four Province Demo Centers of Experimental Teaching. College of Life Science College of Mathematics and Information Sciences College of Physics and Information Engineering College of Law and Politics College of Education College of Literature College of History and Culture College of Foreign Languages College of Music College of Fine Arts and Design College of Journalism and Communication College of Business College of Public Administration College of Resources and Environment College of Physical Education College of Chemistry and Material Sciences College of Information Technology College of Vocational and Technology College of Tourism College of Software Huihua CollegeThe disciplines and specialties in Hebei Normal University have covered nine fields: philosophy, laws, history, management and engineering.

The university now has one state first-rank discipline, four provincial-rank excellent disciplines, 15 provincial key laboratories. There are nine units directly under the governing of the university: CCP Training School, Graduate School, College of Further Education and Teacher Training; the other affiliated units of the university include Network Center. Since the merging of four universities in 1996, the university got two national awards of teaching achievements, 41 provincial awards of teaching achievements and has undertaken eight state projects of teaching innovation as well as 11 provincial level projects concerning the same areas. From 1997 to 2011, the university undertook 718 research programs above department level, among them 231 programs are national and 199 research programs at the provincial. There are a group of programs having nationwide influence such as national 937 Project, the project of the State Natural Scientific Funds and the Projects of Excellent Youth Scientific Funds.

Some of the scientific research achievements take the lead in the province. Up to now, 483 academic books and 6,542 essays have been published publicly. According to the statistics of the essays from universities and college provided by China Science and Technology Information Office, in the years of 1999, 2000 and 2001 the scientific essays collected in SCI rank as No. 49, No. 44 and No. 62. Since 2002, the annually funds for research has increased from ¥6 million to ¥42.29 million in 2008. There are 143 newly-undertaken state research projects, including 112 natural science programs and 31 social science programs; the university has undertaken some state key research programs with significance, for example, programs of National "973" Plan, State "863" Plan, key programs and special programs, for example, key programs on transferring agricultural research into technology and transgenic industry development program spo