In biochemistry, an oxidoreductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from one molecule, the reductant called the electron donor, to another, the oxidant called the electron acceptor. This group of enzymes utilizes NADP or NAD+ as cofactors. Transmembrane oxidoreductases create electron transport chains in bacteria and mitochondria, including respiratory complexes I, II and III; some others can associate with biological membranes as peripheral membrane proteins or be anchored to the membranes through a single transmembrane helix. For example, an enzyme that catalyzed this reaction would be an oxidoreductase: A– + B → A + B–In this example, A is the reductant and B is the oxidant. In biochemical reactions, the redox reactions are sometimes more difficult to see, such as this reaction from glycolysis: Pi + glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate + NAD+ → NADH + H+ + 1,3-bisphosphoglycerateIn this reaction, NAD+ is the oxidant, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is the reductant. Proper names of oxidoreductases are formed as "donor:acceptor oxidoreductase".

The common name is "donor dehydrogenase" when possible, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase for the second reaction above. Common names are sometimes formed as "acceptor reductase", such as NAD+ reductase. "Donor oxidase" is a special case. Oxidoreductases are classified as EC 1 in the EC number classification of enzymes. Oxidoreductases can be further classified into 22 subclasses: EC 1.1 includes oxidoreductases that act on the CH-OH group of donors EC 1.2 includes oxidoreductases that act on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors EC 1.3 includes oxidoreductases that act on the CH-CH group of donors EC 1.4 includes oxidoreductases that act on the CH-NH2 group of donors EC 1.5 includes oxidoreductases that act on CH-NH group of donors EC 1.6 includes oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH EC 1.7 includes oxidoreductases that act on other nitrogenous compounds as donors EC 1.8 includes oxidoreductases that act on a sulfur group of donors EC 1.9 includes oxidoreductases that act on a heme group of donors EC 1.10 includes oxidoreductases that act on diphenols and related substances as donors EC 1.11 includes oxidoreductases that act on peroxide as an acceptor EC 1.12 includes oxidoreductases that act on hydrogen as donors EC 1.13 includes oxidoreductases that act on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen EC 1.14 includes oxidoreductases that act on paired donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen EC 1.15 includes oxidoreductases that act on superoxide radicals as acceptors EC 1.16 includes oxidoreductases that oxidize metal ions EC 1.17 includes oxidoreductases that act on CH or CH2 groups EC 1.18 includes oxidoreductases that act on iron-sulfur proteins as donors EC 1.19 includes oxidoreductases that act on reduced flavodoxin as a donor EC 1.20 includes oxidoreductases that act on phosphorus or arsenic in donors EC 1.21 includes oxidoreductases that act on X-H and Y-H to form an X-Y bond EC 1.97 includes other oxidoreductases Hydroxylase List of enzymes EC 1 Introduction from the Department of Chemistry at Queen Mary, University of London

Bill Chalker

Bill Chalker is an Australian author and UFO researcher. He is a contributing editor for the International UFO Reporter and has been the Australian representative for the Aerial Phenomena Research Organisation and a New South Wales state representative for the Mutual UFO Network. Chalker was born in Grafton, New South Wales in 1952, he studied at the University of New England, receiving a degree in mathematics. Bill Chalker; the Oz Files: The Australian UFO Story. Duffy and Snellgrove. ISBN 978-1-875989-04-1. Retrieved 16 July 2013. Bill Chalker. Hair of the Alien: DNA and Other Forensic Evidence of Alien Abductions. Pocket Books. ISBN 978-1-4165-1024-6. Retrieved 16 July 2013. "Bill Chalker, the Aussie X-Files agent who says the aliens have landed", The Daily Telegraph, March 25, 2010 Chalker, Bill. Hair of the Alien: DNA and Other Forensic Evidence for Alien Abductions. Booklist, v.101, no.21, 2005 July, p. 1880 "Australia loses UFO documents", UPI NewsTrack, 2011 June 9. Quote by Chalker as UFO expert.

"Up-to-date aliens grey not green, experts tell UFO fans.", Asia Africa Intelligence Wire, 2002 August 5. Quote by Chalker as UFO expert. "UFOs leaving traces UFOs leaving traces." Hornsby and Upper North Shore Advocate. News: p14 "Space oddity." Hills Shire Times. News: p1. "UFO sighting probed." Macarthur Chronicle. News: p7. "Division over UFOs." mX Sydney. News: p5. "Close encounters." The Sun-Herald. News: p5. "Spike", Sydney Morning Herald, 04/24/2001 "THE TRUTH IS OUT THERE." Daily Telegraph. Regional News: p034 "Revealed: SA's alien spaceship secrets; the Sunday Mail. News: p030. "Family's terror in Nullarbor incident." The Sunday Mail. News: p030. Quote: "Bill Chalker is the only researcher given access to government UFO files." "UFO FILES." The Sunday Mail. News: p068. "STRANGER THAN FICTION." The Australian. Regional News: pB12. Http://

John Philip Nolan

Lieutenant-Colonel John Philip Nolan was an Irish nationalist landowner and Member of Parliament in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and as member of the Irish Parliamentary Party represented Galway County and Galway North. He was the eldest son of John Nolan, Justice of the Peace, of Ballinderry and Mary Anne, Walter Nolan, of Loughboy, he received his education at Clongowes Wood College, Trinity College, the Staff College and Woolwich. He entered the British Royal Artillery in 1857 and served throughout the 1868 Expedition to Abyssinia; as adjutant to Colonel Milward, he was present at the capture of Amba Mariam and was mentioned in despatches. He was awarded the Abyssinian War Medal and retired from the Army with the rank of lieutenant-colonel in 1881. Nolan became involved in the nascent home rule campaign of the Home Rule League. On 8 February 1872 Nolan was elected MP for Galway County in a by-election, defeating by a large majority the Conservative William Le Poer Trench.

Of the 4,686 available electors, who were chiefly Catholic, 2,823 voted for Nolan and 658 for Trench. Trench appealed the result, claiming on petition that there was widespread intimidation during the election campaign; the local Catholic bishops and clergy had supported Nolan, chiefly because the family of his opponent, a Captain Trench, was active in proselytism. The trial of the Galway County Election Petition began, before Judge William Keogh, on 1 April and ended on 21 May 1872. Judge Keogh found that Capt. Nolan had been elected by the undue influence and intimidation and in his report stated that he found 36 persons guilty of undue influence and intimidation, including John MacHale, the Archbishop of Tuam, the Bishop of Clonfert, Patrick Duggan, the Bishop of Galway, John McEvilly, twenty nine named priests, such intimidation being in some cases exercised in the churches; as a result, Captain Nolan was unseated on the seat going to Captain Trench. The judgement caused an uproar. Nolan retook the seat at the 1874 election.

He remained MP after the 1885 constituency reforms as MP for Galway North until 1895. When the Irish Parliamentary Party split over Charles Stewart Parnell's long-term family relationship with Katharine O'Shea, the separated wife of a fellow MP, Nolan sided with his deposed leader and seconded the motion to retain Parnell as chairman at the ill-fated party meeting in Committee Room 15 of the House of Commons, he went on to become whip of the pro-Parnellite rump of the Irish National League. He lost the Galway North seat to an Anti-Parnellite, Denis Kilbride, in 1895 and stood unsuccessfully as a Parnellite for Louth South in 1896, he was re-elected unopposed at Galway North after the reunification of the Parliamentary Party in 1900, but lost the seat again for the last time in 1906 when he stood as an Independent Nationalist. "Galway Castles and Owners in 1574", Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society 1:2, pp. 109–123 “The Castles of Clare Barony. The thirty-four De Burgo Castles in the Barony of Clare”, Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society 1:1, pp. 11–48 Samuel J. Maguire, "Trench v. Nolan The Galway Election Petition" Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Philip Nolan