Oxycodone, sold under brand name OxyContin among others, is an opioid medication used for treatment of moderate to severe pain. It is taken by mouth, is available in immediate-release and controlled-release formulations. Onset of pain relief begins within 15 minutes and lasts for up to six hours with the immediate-release formulation. In the United Kingdom, it is available by injection. Combination products are available with paracetamol or aspirin. Common side effects include constipation, sleepiness, itching, dry mouth, sweating. Severe side effects may include addiction, respiratory depression, low blood pressure; those allergic to codeine may be allergic to oxycodone. Use of oxycodone in early pregnancy appears safe. Opioid withdrawal may occur if stopped. Oxycodone acts by activating the μ-opioid receptor; when taken by mouth, it has 1.5 times the effect of the equivalent amount of morphine. Oxycodone was first made in Germany in 1916 from thebaine, it is available as a generic medication. In the United States, the wholesale cost per dose is less than US$0.30 as of 2018.
In 2016, it was the 54th most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 14 million prescriptions. Oxycodone has been a common drug of abuse. A number of abuse-deterrent formulations are such as in combination with naloxone. Oxycodone is used for managing moderate to severe acute or chronic pain when other treatments are not sufficient, it may improve quality of life in certain types of pain. It is unclear. Oxycodone is available as controlled-release tablet, intended to be taken every 12 hours. A July 1996 study independent of Purdue Pharma, the drug's originator, found the controlled-release formulation had a variable duration of action ranging from 10–12 hours. A 2006 review found that controlled-release oxycodone is comparable to immediate-release oxycodone and hydromorphone in management of moderate to severe cancer pain, with fewer side effects than morphine; the author concluded that the controlled-release form is a valid alternative to morphine and a first-line treatment for cancer pain.
In 2014, the European Association for Palliative Care recommended oxycodone by mouth as a second-line alternative to morphine by mouth for cancer pain. In the U. S. extended-release oxycodone is approved for use in children as young as 11 years old. The approved uses is for relief of cancer pain, trauma pain, or pain due to major surgery, in children treated with opioids, who can tolerate at least 20 mg per day of oxycodone. Oxycodone is available in a variety of formulations for by mouth or under the tongue: Immediate-release oxycodone Controlled-release oxycodone – 10-12 hour duration Oxycodone tamper-resistant Immediate-release oxycodone with paracetamol Immediate-release oxycodone with aspirin Immediate-release oxycodone with ibuprofen Controlled-release oxycodone with naloxone – 10-12 hour duration Controlled-release oxycodone with naltrexone – 10-12 hour durationIn the U. S. oxycodone is only approved for use by mouth, available as oral solutions. Parenteral formulations of oxycodone are available in other parts of the world however, are used in Europe.
In Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, oxycodone is approved for intravenous and intramuscular use. When first introduced in Germany during World War I, both IV and IM administrations of oxycodone were used for postoperative pain management of Central Powers soldiers. Serious side effects of oxycodone include reduced sensitivity to pain, anxiolysis, feelings of relaxation, respiratory depression. Common side effects of oxycodone include constipation, vomiting, dizziness, dry mouth, sweating. Less common side effects include loss of appetite, abdominal pain, urine retention and hiccups. Most side effects become less intense over time, although issues related to constipation are to continue for the duration of use. Oxycodone in combination with naloxone in managed-release tablets, has been formulated to both deter abuse and reduce "opioid-induced constipation"; the risk of experiencing severe withdrawal symptoms is high if a patient has become physically dependent and discontinues oxycodone abruptly.
Medically, when the drug has been taken over an extended period, it is withdrawn rather than abruptly. People who use oxycodone recreationally or at higher than prescribed doses are at higher risk of severe withdrawal symptoms; the symptoms of oxycodone withdrawal, as with other opioids, may include "anxiety, panic attack, insomnia, muscle pain, muscle weakness and other flu-like symptoms". Withdrawal symptoms have been reported in newborns whose mothers had been either injecting or orally taking oxycodone during pregnancy; as with other opioids, chronic use of oxycodone causes concurrent hypogonadism. In high doses, overdoses, or in some persons not tolerant to opioids, oxycodone can cause shallow breathing, slowed heart rate, cold/clammy skin, pauses in breathing
Manin or Ain Manin is a small town in southern Syria about 18 kilometers north of Damascus. Manin is a popular tourist site, surrounded by seven small mountains with the Manin valley between them; the Manin river flows from a mountain dubbed "Al-Ain" and continues until it reaches the suburbs of Damascus. The town has an elevation of 1,200 meters above sea level. According to the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics, Manin had a population of 17,521 in the 2004 census. In the 1960s it was reported to be a large village with 3,200 inhabitants, its inhabitants are predominantly Sunni Muslims. Recent discoveries at another mountain named show that the town had a long history in the Roman and Byzantine periods, with two temples carved in the mountain’s stone with a lot of houses and tombs. St. Helena had two churches constructed in Manin
Miriam Rafailovich is a materials engineering researcher. She is the director of the Garcia Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at Stony Brook University as well as former co-director of the Chemical and Molecular Engineering program at Stony Brook University, her publications focus on nanoscale materials engineering, including nanofibers, supercritical carbon dioxide, biodegradable polymers. Miriam Rafailovich received a Bachelor of Science degree from Brooklyn College in 1974 and a Ph. D in nuclear physics from SUNY Stony Brook in 1980, she speaks English, Hebrew, Yiddish and German. Rafailovich is married to Jonathan C. Sokolov, a polymer engineering researcher. Rafailovich has had over 140 papers published between 1975 and 2001, she has co-edited the following publications: Women in Chemistry and Physics Polymer International Volume 49, Issue 5, 2000 Eds. M. H. Rafailovich, S. A. Schwarz High Performance Polymers 2001, Eds. B. Hsaio, M. H. RafailovichPatents: "Patterning Method to Produce Nanoscale Magnetic Structures Using Polymer Self Assembly": We demonstrate that it is possible to produce a magnetic nanopattern on a substrate by using a self assembled co-polymer film as a mask.
The scale of the pattern can be selected to range from several nanometers to micrometres. The pattern can be produced on any arbitrary magnetic film or interface and hence the method is applicable to metal multi-layers produced using ultra high vacuum or MBE; the use of this method to produce a working Giant Magneto Resistance device is demonstrated. Developers: Richard J. Gambino, Miriam Rafailovich, Jonathan Sokolov, Shaoming Zhu. "A Compatibilizer for Immiscible Polymer Blends" Developers: Miriam Rafailovich, Jonathan Sokolov, Benjamin Chu, Benjamin Hsiao A procedure was developed for the universal compatibilization of polymer blend thin films using surface functional zed exfoliated clays. The clays are non specific and compatiblization of general multi -component systems is possible. 1987: Ruth E Recu Chair, Weizmann Institute of Science 1997: Fellow, Division of High Polymer Physics 1997: Outstanding Stony Brook Scientist Miriam Rafailovich