A glacial period is an interval of time within an ice age, marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances. Interglacials, on the other hand, are periods of warmer climate between glacial periods; the last glacial period ended about 15,000 years ago. The Holocene epoch is the current interglacial. A time with no glaciers on Earth is considered a greenhouse climate state. Within the Quaternary, there have been a number of interglacials; the last glacial period was the most recent glacial period within the Quaternary Ice Age, occurring in the Pleistocene epoch, which began about 110,000 years ago and ended about 15,000 years ago. The glaciations that occurred during this glacial period covered many areas of the Northern Hemisphere and have different names, depending on their geographic distributions: Wisconsin, Midlandian, Würm, Dali, Taibai Luojishan, Tianchi Qomolangma, Llanquihue; the glacial advance reached its maximum extent about 18,000 BP. In Europe, the ice sheet reached Northern Germany.
In the last 650,000 years, there were, on average, seven cycles of glacial retreat. Since orbital variations are predictable, computer models that relate orbital variations to climate can predict future climate possibilities. Work by Berger and Loutre suggests; the amount of heat trapping gases emitted into Earth's Oceans and atmosphere will prevent the next glacial period, which otherwise would begin in around 1,000 years, more glacial cycles
Water is a transparent, tasteless and nearly colorless chemical substance, the main constituent of Earth's streams and oceans, the fluids of most living organisms. It is vital for all known forms of life though it provides no calories or organic nutrients, its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds. Water is the name of the liquid state of H2O at standard ambient pressure, it forms precipitation in the form of rain and aerosols in the form of fog. Clouds are formed from suspended droplets of its solid state; when finely divided, crystalline ice may precipitate in the form of snow. The gaseous state of water is water vapor. Water moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation, condensation and runoff reaching the sea. Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface in seas and oceans. Small portions of water occur as groundwater, in the glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, in the air as vapor and precipitation.
Water plays an important role in the world economy. 70% of the freshwater used by humans goes to agriculture. Fishing in salt and fresh water bodies is a major source of food for many parts of the world. Much of long-distance trade of commodities and manufactured products is transported by boats through seas, rivers and canals. Large quantities of water and steam are used for cooling and heating, in industry and homes. Water is an excellent solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances. Water is central to many sports and other forms of entertainment, such as swimming, pleasure boating, boat racing, sport fishing, diving; the word water comes from Old English wæter, from Proto-Germanic *watar, from Proto-Indo-European *wod-or, suffixed form of root *wed-. Cognate, through the Indo-European root, with Greek ύδωρ, Russian вода́, Irish uisce, Albanian ujë; the identification of water as a substance Water is a polar inorganic compound, at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue.
This simplest hydrogen chalcogenide is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" for its ability to dissolve many substances. This allows it to be the "solvent of life", it is the only common substance to exist as a solid and gas in normal terrestrial conditions. Water is a liquid at the pressures that are most adequate for life. At a standard pressure of 1 atm, water is a liquid between 0 and 100 °C. Increasing the pressure lowers the melting point, about −5 °C at 600 atm and −22 °C at 2100 atm; this effect is relevant, for example, to ice skating, to the buried lakes of Antarctica, to the movement of glaciers. Increasing the pressure has a more dramatic effect on the boiling point, about 374 °C at 220 atm; this effect is important in, among other things, deep-sea hydrothermal vents and geysers, pressure cooking, steam engine design. At the top of Mount Everest, where the atmospheric pressure is about 0.34 atm, water boils at 68 °C. At low pressures, water cannot exist in the liquid state and passes directly from solid to gas by sublimation—a phenomenon exploited in the freeze drying of food.
At high pressures, the liquid and gas states are no longer distinguishable, a state called supercritical steam. Water differs from most liquids in that it becomes less dense as it freezes; the maximum density of water in its liquid form is 1,000 kg/m3. The density of ice is 917 kg/m3. Thus, water expands 9% in volume as it freezes, which accounts for the fact that ice floats on liquid water; the details of the exact chemical nature of liquid water are not well understood. Pure water is described as tasteless and odorless, although humans have specific sensors that can feel the presence of water in their mouths, frogs are known to be able to smell it. However, water from ordinary sources has many dissolved substances, that may give it varying tastes and odors. Humans and other animals have developed senses that enable them to evaluate the potability of water by avoiding water, too salty or putrid; the apparent color of natural bodies of water is determined more by dissolved and suspended solids, or by reflection of the sky, than by water itself.
Light in the visible electromagnetic spectrum can traverse a couple meters of pure water without significant absorption, so that it looks transparent and colorless. Thus aquatic plants and other photosynthetic organisms can live in water up to hundreds of meters deep, because sunlight can reach them. Water vapour is invisible as a gas. Through a thickness of 10 meters or more, the intrinsic color of water is visibly turquoise, as its absorption spectrum has
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks as the minerals calcite and aragonite and is the main component of pearls and the shells of marine organisms and eggs. Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime and is created when calcium ions in hard water react with carbonate ions to create limescale, it is medicinally used as a calcium supplement or as an antacid, but excessive consumption can be hazardous. Calcium carbonate shares the typical properties of other carbonates. Notably it reacts with acids, releasing carbon dioxide:CaCO3 + 2 H+ → Ca2+ + CO2 + H2Oreleases carbon dioxide upon heating, called a thermal decomposition reaction, or calcination, to form calcium oxide called quicklime, with reaction enthalpy 178 kJ/mol:CaCO3 → CaO + CO2Calcium carbonate will react with water, saturated with carbon dioxide to form the soluble calcium bicarbonate. CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O → Ca2This reaction is important in the erosion of carbonate rock, forming caverns, leads to hard water in many regions.
An unusual form of calcium carbonate is the hexahydrate, ikaite, CaCO3·6H2O. Ikaite is stable only below 8 °C; the vast majority of calcium carbonate used in industry is extracted by quarrying. Pure calcium carbonate, can be produced from a pure quarried source. Alternatively, calcium carbonate is prepared from calcium oxide. Water is added to give calcium hydroxide carbon dioxide is passed through this solution to precipitate the desired calcium carbonate, referred to in the industry as precipitated calcium carbonate: CaO + H2O → Ca2 Ca2 + CO2 → CaCO3↓ + H2O The thermodynamically stable form of CaCO3 under normal conditions is hexagonal β-CaCO3. Other forms can be prepared, the denser orthorhombic λ-CaCO3 and μ-CaCO3, occurring as the mineral vaterite; the aragonite form can be prepared by precipitation at temperatures above 85 °C, the vaterite form can be prepared by precipitation at 60 °C. Calcite contains calcium atoms coordinated by six oxygen atoms, in aragonite they are coordinated by nine oxygen atoms.
The vaterite structure is not understood. Magnesium carbonate has the calcite structure, whereas strontium carbonate and barium carbonate adopt the aragonite structure, reflecting their larger ionic radii. Calcite and vaterite are pure calcium carbonate minerals. Industrially important source rocks which are predominantly calcium carbonate include limestone, chalk and travertine. Eggshells, snail shells and most seashells are predominantly calcium carbonate and can be used as industrial sources of that chemical. Oyster shells have enjoyed recent recognition as a source of dietary calcium, but are a practical industrial source. Dark green vegetables such as broccoli and kale contain dietarily significant amounts of calcium carbonate, they are not practical as an industrial source. Beyond Earth, strong evidence suggests the presence of calcium carbonate on Mars. Signs of calcium carbonate have been detected at more than one location; this provides some evidence for the past presence of liquid water.
Carbonate, is found in geologic settings and constitutes an enormous carbon reservoir. Calcium carbonate occurs as aragonite and dolomite as significant constituents of the calcium cycle; the carbonate minerals form the rock types: limestone, marble, travertine and others. In warm, clear tropical waters corals are more abundant than towards the poles where the waters are cold. Calcium carbonate contributors, including plankton, coralline algae, brachiopods, echinoderms and mollusks, are found in shallow water environments where sunlight and filterable food are more abundant. Cold-water carbonates do exist at higher latitudes but have a slow growth rate; the calcification processes are changed by ocean acidification. Where the oceanic crust is subducted under a continental plate sediments will be carried down to warmer zones in the asthenosphere and lithosphere. Under these conditions calcium carbonate decomposes to produce carbon dioxide which, along with other gases, give rise to explosive volcanic eruptions.
The carbonate compensation depth is the point in the ocean where the rate of precipitation of calcium carbonate is balanced by the rate of dissolution due to the conditions present. Deep in the ocean, the temperature pressure increases. Calcium carbonate is unusual in. Increasing pressure increases the solubility of calcium carbonate; the carbonate compensation depth can range from 4,000 to 6,000 meters below sea level. Calcium carbonate can preserve fossils through permineralization. Most of the vertebrate fossils of the Two Medicine Formation—a geologic formation known for its duck-billed dinosaur eggs—are preserved by CaCO3 permineralization; this type of preservation conserves high levels of detail down to the microscopic level. However, it leaves specimens vulnerable to weathering when exposed to the surface. Trilobite populations were once thought to have composed the majority of aquatic life during the Cambrian, due to the fact that their calcium carbonate-rich shells were more preserved than those of other species, which had purely chitinous shells.
The main use of calcium ca
The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol n or n0, with no net electric charge and a mass larger than that of a proton. Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms. Since protons and neutrons behave within the nucleus, each has a mass of one atomic mass unit, they are both referred to as nucleons, their properties and interactions are described by nuclear physics. The chemical and nuclear properties of the nucleus are determined by the number of protons, called the atomic number, the number of neutrons, called the neutron number; the atomic mass number is the total number of nucleons. For example, carbon has atomic number 6, its abundant carbon-12 isotope has 6 neutrons, whereas its rare carbon-13 isotope has 7 neutrons; some elements occur in nature with only one stable isotope, such as fluorine. Other elements occur with many stable isotopes, such as tin with ten stable isotopes. Within the nucleus and neutrons are bound together through the nuclear force. Neutrons are required for the stability of nuclei, with the exception of the single-proton hydrogen atom.
Neutrons are produced copiously in nuclear fusion. They are a primary contributor to the nucleosynthesis of chemical elements within stars through fission and neutron capture processes; the neutron is essential to the production of nuclear power. In the decade after the neutron was discovered by James Chadwick in 1932, neutrons were used to induce many different types of nuclear transmutations. With the discovery of nuclear fission in 1938, it was realized that, if a fission event produced neutrons, each of these neutrons might cause further fission events, etc. in a cascade known as a nuclear chain reaction. These events and findings led to the first self-sustaining nuclear reactor and the first nuclear weapon. Free neutrons, while not directly ionizing atoms, cause ionizing radiation; as such they can be a biological hazard, depending upon dose. A small natural "neutron background" flux of free neutrons exists on Earth, caused by cosmic ray showers, by the natural radioactivity of spontaneously fissionable elements in the Earth's crust.
Dedicated neutron sources like neutron generators, research reactors and spallation sources produce free neutrons for use in irradiation and in neutron scattering experiments. An atomic nucleus is formed by a number of protons, Z, a number of neutrons, N, bound together by the nuclear force; the atomic number defines the chemical properties of the atom, the neutron number determines the isotope or nuclide. The terms isotope and nuclide are used synonymously, but they refer to chemical and nuclear properties, respectively. Speaking, isotopes are two or more nuclides with the same number of protons; the atomic mass number, symbol A, equals Z+N. Nuclides with the same atomic mass number are called isobars; the nucleus of the most common isotope of the hydrogen atom is a lone proton. The nuclei of the heavy hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium contain one proton bound to one and two neutrons, respectively. All other types of atomic nuclei are composed of two or more protons and various numbers of neutrons.
The most common nuclide of the common chemical element lead, 208Pb, has 82 protons and 126 neutrons, for example. The table of nuclides comprises all the known nuclides. Though it is not a chemical element, the neutron is included in this table; the free neutron has 1.674927471 × 10 − 27 kg, or 1.00866491588 u. The neutron has a mean square radius of about 0.8×10−15 m, or 0.8 fm, it is a spin-½ fermion. The neutron has no measurable electric charge. With its positive electric charge, the proton is directly influenced by electric fields, whereas the neutron is unaffected by electric fields; the neutron has a magnetic moment, however. The neutron's magnetic moment has a negative value, because its orientation is opposite to the neutron's spin. A free neutron is unstable, decaying to a proton and antineutrino with a mean lifetime of just under 15 minutes; this radioactive decay, known as beta decay, is possible because the mass of the neutron is greater than the proton. The free proton is stable. Neutrons or protons bound in a nucleus can be stable or unstable, depending on the nuclide.
Beta decay, in which neutrons decay to protons, or vice versa, is governed by the weak force, it requires the emission or absorption of electrons and neutrinos, or their antiparticles. Protons and neutrons behave identically under the influence of the nuclear force within the nucleus; the concept of isospin, in which the proton and neutron are viewed as two quantum states of the same particle, is used to model the interactions of nucleons by the nuclear or weak forces. Because of the strength of the nuclear force at short distances, the binding energy of nucleons is more than seven orders of magnitude larger than the electromagnetic energy binding electrons in atoms. Nuclear reactions therefore have an energy density, more than ten million times that of chemical reactions; because of the mass–energy equivalence, nuclear binding energies reduce the mass of nuclei. The ability of the nuclear force to store energy arising from the electromagnetic repulsion of nuclear components is the basis for most of the energy that makes nuclear reactors or bombs possible.
In nuclear fission, the absorption of a neutron by a heavy nuclide causes the nuclide to become unstable and break into light nuclides and additional neu
Isotope fractionation describes processes that affect the relative abundance of isotopes used in isotope geochemistry. The focus is on stable isotopes of the same element. Isotopic fractionation in the natural environment can be measured by isotope analysis, using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, to separate different element isotopes on the basis of their mass-to-charge ratio, an important tool to understand natural systems. For example, in biochemistry processes cause a fluctuation in the amount of isotopes of carbon ratios incorporated into a biological being; the difference between the true amount of carbon and the amount in the plant is known as isotope fractionation. Stable isotopes partitioning between two substances A and B can be expressed by the use of the isotopic fractionation factor: αA-B = RA/RB where R is the ratio of the heavy to light isotope. Values for alpha tend to be close to 1. There are four types of isotope fractionation, of which the first two are most important: Equilibrium fractionation Kinetic fractionation Mass-independent fractionation Transient kinetic isotope fractionation Isotope fractionation occurs during a phase transition, when the ratio of light to heavy isotopes in the involved molecules changes.
When water vapor condenses, the heavier water isotopes become enriched in the liquid phase while the lighter isotopes tend toward the vapor phase. Faure G. Mensing T. M. Isotopes: Principles and Applications. Hoefs J. 2004. Stable Isotope Geochemistry. Sharp Z. 2006. Principles of Stable Isotope Geochemistry
In geochemistry and paleoceanography δ18O or delta-O-18 is a measure of the ratio of stable isotopes oxygen-18 and oxygen-16. It is used as a measure of the temperature of precipitation, as a measure of groundwater/mineral interactions, as an indicator of processes that show isotopic fractionation, like methanogenesis. In paleosciences, 18O:16O data from corals and ice cores are used as a proxy for temperature; the definition is, in "per mil": δ O 18 = × 1000 ‰where the standard has a known isotopic composition, such as Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water. The fractionation can arise from equilibrium, or mass-independent fractionation. Foraminifera shells are composed of calcium carbonate and are found in many common geological environments; the ratio of 18O to 16O in the shell is used to indirectly determine the temperature of the surrounding water at the time the shell was formed. The ratio varies depending on the temperature of the surrounding water, as well as other factors such as the water's salinity, the volume of water locked up in ice sheets.
Δ18O reflects local evaporation and freshwater input, as rainwater is 16O-enriched—a result of the preferential evaporation of the lighter 16O from seawater. The surface ocean contains greater proportions of 18O around the subtropics and tropics where there is more evaporation, lesser proportions of 18O in the mid-latitudes where it rains more; when water vapor condenses, heavier water molecules holding 18O atoms tend to condense and precipitate first. The water vapor gradient heading from the tropics to the poles becomes more and more depleted of 18O. Snow falling in Canada has much less H218O than rain in Florida. Changes in climate that alter global patterns of evaporation and precipitation therefore change the background δ18O ratio. Based on the simplifying assumption that the signal can be attributed to temperature change alone, with the effects of salinity and ice volume change ignored, Epstein et al. estimated that a δ18O increase of 0.22‰ is equivalent to a cooling of 1 °C. More Epstein et al. give a quadratic extrapolation for the temperature, as T = 16.5 − 4.3 δ + 0.14 δ 2 where T is the temperature in °C.
Lisiecki and Raymo used measurements of δ18O in benthic foraminifera from 57 globally distributed deep sea sediment cores, taken as a proxy for the total global mass of glacial ice sheets, to reconstruct the climate for the past five million years. The stacked record of the 57 cores was orbitally tuned to an orbitally driven ice model, the Milankovitch cycles of 41 ky, 26 ky and 100 ky, which are all assumed to cause orbital forcing of global ice volume. Over the past million years, there have been a number of strong glacial maxima and minima, spaced by 100 ky; as the observed isotope variations are similar in shape to the temperature variations recorded for the past 420 ky at Vostok Station, the figure shown on the right aligns the values of δ18O with the reported temperature variations from the Vostok ice core, following Petit et al.. Δ13C δ15N δ34S Isotopic signature Isotope analysis Isotope geochemistry Clark, I. D. & Fritz, P. Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology. CRC Press. ISBN 1-56670-249-6.
Schmidt, G. A.. "Forward Modeling of Carbonate Proxy Data from Planktonic Foraminifera Using Oxygen Isotope Tracers in a Global Ocean Model". Paleoceanography. 14: 482–497. Bibcode:1999PalOc..14..482S. Doi:10.1029/1999PA900025
Foraminifera are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses. Tests of chitin are believed to be the most primitive type. Most foraminifera are marine, the majority of which live on or within the seafloor sediment, while a smaller variety float in the water column at various depths. Fewer are known from freshwater or brackish conditions, some few soil species have been identified through molecular analysis of small subunit ribosomal DNA. Foraminifera produce a test, or shell, which can have either one or multiple chambers, some becoming quite elaborate in structure; these shells are made of calcium carbonate or agglutinated sediment particles. Over 50,000 species are recognized, both fossil, they are less than 1 mm in size, but some are much larger, the largest species reaching up to 20 cm. In modern Scientific English, the term foraminifera is both singular and plural, is used to describe one or more specimens or taxa: its usage as singular or plural must be determined from context.
Foraminifera is used informally to describe the group, in these cases is lowercase. The taxonomic position of the Foraminifera has varied since their recognition as protozoa by Schultze in 1854, there referred to as an order, Foraminiferida. Loeblich and Tappan reranked Foraminifera as a class as it is now regarded; the Foraminifera have been included in the Protozoa, or in the similar Protoctista or Protist kingdom. Compelling evidence, based on molecular phylogenetics, exists for their belonging to a major group within the Protozoa known as the Rhizaria. Prior to the recognition of evolutionary relationships among the members of the Rhizaria, the Foraminifera were grouped with other amoeboids as phylum Rhizopodea in the class Granuloreticulosa; the Rhizaria are problematic, as they are called a "supergroup", rather than using an established taxonomic rank such as phylum. Cavalier-Smith defines the Rhizaria as an infra-kingdom within the kingdom Protozoa; some taxonomies put the Foraminifera in a phylum of their own, putting them on par with the amoeboid Sarcodina in which they had been placed.
Although as yet unsupported by morphological correlates, molecular data suggest the Foraminifera are related to the Cercozoa and Radiolaria, both of which include amoeboids with complex shells. However, the exact relationships of the forams to the other groups and to one another are still not clear. Foraminifera are related to testate amoebae; the most recent taxonomy by Mikhalevich 2013. Foraminifera d'Orbigny 1826 Order Reticulomyxida Class Schizocladea Cedhagen & Mattson 1992 Order Schizocladida Class Xenophyophorea Schultze 1904 Order Stannomida Tendal 1972 Order Psamminida Tendal 1972 Class Astrorhizata Saidova 1981 Subclass Lagynana Mikhalevich 1980 Order Ammoscalariida Mikhalevich 1980 Order Lagynida Mikhalevich 1980 Order Allogromiida Loeblich & Tappan 1961 Subclass Astrorhizana Saidova 1981 Order Astrorhizida Lankester 1885 Order Dendrophryida Mikhalevich 1995 Order Hippocrepinida Saidova 1981 Order †Parathuramminida Mikhalevich 1980 Order Psammosphaerida Haeckel 1894 Class Rotaliata Mikhalevich 1980 Subclass Globigerinana Mikhalevich 1980 Order Cassigerinellida Mikhalevich 2013 Order Globigerinida Carpenter, Parker & Jones 1862 Order Hantkeninida Mikhalevich 1980 Order Heterohelicida Fursenko 1958 Order Globorotaliida Mikhalevich 1980 Subclass Textulariana Mikhalevich 1980 Order Nautiloculinida Mikhalevich 2003 Order Spiroplectamminida Mikhalevich 1992 Order Textulariida Delage & Hérouard 1896 Order Trochamminida Saidova 1981 (Carterinida Loeblich & Tappan 1955] Order Verneuilinida Mikhalevich & Kaminski 2003 Subclass Rotaliana Mikhalevich 1980 Superorder Robertinoida Mikhalevich 1980 Order Robertinida Mikhalevich 1980 Superorder Nonionoida Saidova 1981 Order Elphidiida Saidova 1981 Order Nummulitida Carpenter, Parker & Jones 1862 Order †Orbitoidida Copeland 1956 Order Nonionida Saidova 1981 Superorder Buliminoida Saidova 1981 Order Cassidulinida d’Orbigny 1839 Order Buliminida Saidova 1981 Order Bolivinitida Saidova 1981 Superorder Discorboida Ehrenberg 1838 Order Chilostomellida Haeckel 1894 Order Discorbida Ehrenberg 1838 Order Glabratellida Mikhalevich 1994 Order Planorbulinida Mikhalevich 1992 Order Rotaliida Lankester 1885 Order Rosalinida Delage & Hérouard 1896 Class Nodosariata Mikhalevich 1992 Subclass Hormosinana Mikhalevich 1992 Order Ammomarginulinida Mikhalevich 2002 Order Nouriida Mikhalevich 1980 Order †Pseudopalmulida Mikhalevich 1992 Order Saccamminida Lankester 1885 Order Hormosinida Mikhalevich 1980 Subclass Nodosariana Mikhalevich 1992 Order †Biseriamminida Mikhalevich 1981 Order Delosinida Revets 1989 Order Lagenida Delage & Hérouard 1896 Order †Palaeotextulariida Hohenegger & Piller 1975 Order Polymorphinida Mikhalevich 1980 Order Vaginulinida Mikhalevich 1993 Order Nodosariida Calkins 1926 Class Spirillinata Mikhalevich 1992 Subclass Ammodiscana Mikhalevich 1980 Order †Plagioraphida Mikhalevich 2003 Order Ammodiscida Mikhalevich 1980 Order Ammovertellinida Mikhalevich 1999 Order Ataxophragmiida Fursenko 1958 Subclass Spirillinana Mikhalevich 1992 Superorder †Archaediscoida Pojarkov & Skvortsov 1979 Order †Archaediscida Pojarkov & Skvortsov 1979 Order †Lasiodiscida