Calydon or Kalydon was a Greek city in ancient Aetolia, situated on the west bank of the river Evenus, 7.5 Roman miles from the sea. Its name is most famous today for the Calydonian Boar that had to be overcome by heroes of the Olympian age. According to Greek mythology, Calydon was founded by Aetolus in the land of the Curetes, was called Calydon, after the name of his son, Calydon. Calydon and the neighbouring town of Pleuron are said by Strabo to have been once the "ornament" of Greece, but by his time had sunk into insignificance, it is mentioned in the Iliad by Homer, who celebrates the fertility of the plain of "lovely" Calydon. In the earliest times the inhabitants of Calydon appear to have been engaged in incessant hostilities with the Curetes, who continued to reside in their ancient capital Pleuron, who endeavoured to expel the invaders from their country. A vivid account of one of the battles between the Curetes and Calydonians is given in an episode of the Iliad; the heroes of Calydon are among the most celebrated of the heroic age.
It was the residence of Oeneus, father of Tydeus and Meleager, grandfather of Diomedes. In the time of Oeneus Artemis sent a monstrous boar to lay waste the fields of Calydon, hunted by Meleager and numerous other heroes; the Calydonians took part in the Trojan War under the son of Oeneus. Calydon is not mentioned in the historical period. In 391 BC we find it in the possession of the Achaeans, but we are not told how it came into their hands. In the above-mentioned year the Achaeans at Calydon, were so hard pressed by the Acarnanians that they applied to the Lacedaemonians for help. Calydon remained in the hands of the Achaeans till the overthrow of the Spartan supremacy by the Battle of Leuctra, when Epaminondas restored the town to the Aetolians. In the civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey it still appears as a considerable place, it continues however to be mentioned by the geographers. Calydon was the headquarters of the worship of Artemis Laphria, when the inhabitants of the town were removed to Nicopolis, Augustus gave to Patrae in Achaea the statue of this goddess which had belonged to Calydon.
There was a statue of Dionysus at Patrae, removed from Calydon. Near Calydon there was a temple of Apollo Laphrius, its site is located north of the modern Evinochori. One of the four tunnels Motorway 5 consists of crosses near the ruins of Calydon and is named the Calydon Tunnel after it. Previous and more recent excavations have revealed many buildings including: the Hellenistic theatre of an unusual square plan the Hellenistic Heroon with a rich tomb underneath the Heroon the Artemis Laphria sanctuary with the temple of Artemis, smaller temple of Apollo, remains of other buildings spanning the Geometric to the Hellenistic period the Lower Acropolis where excavations were carried out uncovering a house from the 2nd cent BC the Lower Town where a peristyle house and kilns were found Many finds from the site including ancient terracottas from the temple of Artemis are exhibited in the Archaeological Museum of Agrinion and in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Calydonian Boar Oeneus Meleagros This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed..
"Calydon". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray
Aetolia is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, forming the eastern part of the modern regional unit of Aetolia-Acarnania. The Achelous River separates Aetolia from Acarnania to the west. In classical times Aetolia comprised two parts: Old Aetolia in the west, from the Achelous to the Evenus and Calydon; the country has a level and fruitful coastal region, but an unproductive and mountainous interior. The mountains contained many wild beasts, acquired fame in Greek mythology as the scene of the hunt for the Calydonian Boar. Tribes known as Curetes – named after the nearby mountain Kourion, or just to stand out from the Acarnanians, who were called so because they were unshorn – and Leleges inhabited the country, but at an early period Greeks from Elis, led by the mythical eponym Aetolus, set up colonies. Dionysius of Halicarnassus mentions that Curetes was the old name of the Aetolians and Leleges the old name of the Locrians; the Aetolians took part under their king Thoas.
The mountain tribes of Aetolia were the Ophioneis, the Apodotoi, the Agraeis, the Aperantoi and the Eurytanians. The primitive lifestyle of those tribes made an impression on ancient historians. Polybius doubted their Greek heritage, while Livy reports that they spoke a language similar to the Macedonians. On the other hand, Thucydides claims that Eurytanians spoke a difficult language and ate their food raw, they were semi-barbaric and predatory. They worshiped Apollo as god of Artemis as goddess of wilderness, they worshiped Athena, not as goddess of wisdom, but emphasizing the element of war – i.e. a goddess, a counterbalance to the god Ares. They called Artemis "Laphrios gods," i.e. patrons of the spoils and loot of war. In addition, they worshiped the river Achelous and Bacchus. In Thermos, an area north of Trichonis lake, there was after the 7th century a shrine of Apollo “Thermios,” which became a significant religious center during the time of the Aetolian League; the Aetolians refused to participate in the Persian Wars.
In 426 BC, led by Aegitios, they defeated the Athenians and their allies, who had turned against Apodotia and Ophioneia under the general command of Demosthenes. However, they failed to regain Naupaktos, which had meanwhile been conquered by the Corinthians with the aid of the Athenians. At the end of the Peloponnesian War, the Aetolians took part as mercenaries of the Athenians in the expedition against Syracuse; the Achaeans occupied Calydon, but the Aetolians recovered it in 361 BC. In 338 BC, Naupaktos was again taken by the Aetolians, with the help of Philip II. During the Lamian War, the Aetolians helped the Athenian general Leosthenes defeat Antipater; as a result, they came into conflict with Antipater and Craterus, taking great risks, but were saved by the disagreement between the two Macedonian generals and Perdiccas. The Acarnanians attempted to invade their land, but the Aetolians were able to force them to flee; the Aetolians set up the Aetolian League, in early times. It soon became a powerful confederation and by c. 340 BC it became one of the leading military powers in ancient Greece.
It had been organized during the reign of Philip II by the cities of Aetolia for their mutual benefit and protection and became a formidable rival to the Macedonian monarchs and the Achaean League. The great courage shown by the Aetolians during the fighting against the Macedonians increased their glamour and fame after winning the last Amphictyonic war and more after repulsing the Gallic invasion under Brennus and rescuing the sanctuary of Delphi. Subsequently, the Sotiria Games were established in honour of Zeus the Saviour; the Aetolians’ power magnified with the occupation of the lands of Ozoloi and Phocians, as well as Boeotia. They united under the power of their League in the areas of Tegea, Orchomenus and Phigaleia. Between 220 -- 217 BC, the Social War broke out between the Aetolian Leagues; the war was first started by the Aetolians with the help of the Eleans. Allies of the Achaeans were the Macedonians, the Boeotians, the Phocians, the Epirotes, the Acarnanians and the Messenians.
The Aetolians allied with the Romans, while Philip destroyed the temple of Apollo Thermios and allied with the Carthaginians. The Aetolians continued to fight on the side of the Romans in the Battle of Cynoscephalae, ignoring the great dangers looming for Greece as a result of this alliance; the Aetolians took the side of Antiochus III against the Roman Republic, on the defeat of that monarch in 189 BC, they became the subjects of Rome. Following the conquest of the Achaeans by Lucius Mummius Achaicus in 146 BC, Aetolia became part of the Roman province of Achaea; when the Roman garrisons were withdrawn because of the civil wars in Rome, the Aetolians, began to fight each other. Following Octavius’ victory at the Battle of Actium, the Aetolians who had sided with Antony disbanded completely. Octavius handed Calydon over to the Achaeans, who devastated it and moved the statue of Artemis Laphria to Patras. There were subsequent invasions by Goths and Vandals several centuries at the end of the Roman Empire.
Aetolia's reputation has suffered from a rather hostile treatment in the sources. Polybius is considered now to have a h
Ares is the Greek god of war. He is one of the son of Zeus and Hera. In Greek literature, he represents the physical or violent and untamed aspect of war, in contrast to his sister, the armored Athena, whose functions as a goddess of intelligence include military strategy and generalship; the Greeks were ambivalent toward Ares: although he embodied the physical valor necessary for success in war, he was a dangerous force, "overwhelming, insatiable in battle and man-slaughtering." His sons Phobos and Deimos and his lover, or sister, Enyo accompanied him on his war chariot. In the Iliad, his father Zeus tells him. An association with Ares endows objects with a savage, dangerous, or militarized quality, his value as a war god is placed in doubt: during the Trojan War, Ares was on the losing side, while Athena depicted in Greek art as holding Nike in her hand, favoured the triumphant Greeks. Ares plays a limited role in Greek mythology as represented in literary narratives, though his numerous love affairs and abundant offspring are alluded to.
When Ares does appear in myths, he faces humiliation. He is well known as the lover of Aphrodite, the goddess of love, married to Hephaestus, god of craftsmanship; the most famous story related to Ares and Aphrodite shows them exposed to ridicule through the wronged husband's device. The counterpart of Ares among the Roman gods is Mars, who as a father of the Roman people was given a more important and dignified place in ancient Roman religion as a guardian deity. During the Hellenization of Latin literature, the myths of Ares were reinterpreted by Roman writers under the name of Mars. Greek writers under Roman rule recorded cult practices and beliefs pertaining to Mars under the name of Ares, thus in the classical tradition of Western art and literature, the mythology of the two figures became indistinguishable. The etymology of the name Ares is traditionally connected with the Greek word ἀρή, the Ionic form of the Doric ἀρά, "bane, curse, imprecation". There may be a connection with the Roman god of war, via hypothetical Proto-Indo-European *M̥rēs.
Walter Burkert notes that "Ares is an ancient abstract noun meaning throng of battle, war." R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin of the name; the earliest attested form of the name is the Mycenaean Greek, a-re, written in the Linear B syllabic script. The adjectival epithet, was appended to the names of other gods when they took on a warrior aspect or became involved in warfare: Zeus Areios, Athena Areia Aphrodite Areia. In the Iliad, the word ares is used as a common noun synonymous with "battle."Inscriptions as early as Mycenaean times, continuing into the Classical period, attest to Enyalios as another name for the god of war. Ares was one of the Twelve Olympians in the archaic tradition represented by the Odyssey. Zeus expresses a recurring Greek revulsion toward the god when Ares returns wounded and complaining from the battlefield at Troy: Then looking at him darkly Zeus who gathers the clouds spoke to him:"Do not sit beside me and whine, you double-faced liar. To me you are the most hateful of all gods.
Forever quarrelling is dear to your heart and battles.... And yet I will not long endure to see you in pain, sinceyou are my child, it was to me that your mother bore you, but were you born of some other god and proved so ruinouslong since you would have been dropped beneath the gods of the bright sky." This ambivalence is expressed in the Greeks' association of Ares with the Thracians, whom they regarded as a barbarous and warlike people. Thrace was Ares's birthplace, his true home, his refuge after the affair with Aphrodite was exposed to the general mockery of the other gods. A late-6th-century BC funerary inscription from Attica emphasizes the consequences of coming under Ares's sway:Stay and mourn at the tomb of dead KroisosWhom raging Ares destroyed one day, fighting in the foremost ranks. In Sparta, Ares was viewed as a model soldier: his resilience, physical strength, military intelligence were unrivaled. An ancient statue, representing the god in chains, suggests that the martial spirit and victory were to be kept in the city of Sparta.
That the Spartans admired him is indicative of the cultural divisions that existed between themselves and other Greeks the Athenians. Ares was worshipped by the inhabitants of Tylos, it is not known if he was worshipped in the form of an Arabian god or if he was worshipped in his Greek form. According to Herodotus' Histories, the Scythians worshipped a god. While ranking beneath Tabiti and Papaios in the divine hierarchy, this god was worshipped differently from other Scythian gods, with statues and complex altars devoted to him; this type of worship is noted to be present among the Alans. Noting how Greek mythological Amazons are devotees of Ares and most based on Scythian warriors, some researchers have considered the possibility that a Scythian warrior women cult of this deity existed. Others have posited that the "Sword of Mars" alludes to the Huns having adopted this deity; the birds of Ares were a flock of feather-dart-dropping birds that guarded the Amazons' shrine of the god on a coastal island in the Black Sea.
Although Ares received occasional sacrifice from armies going to war, the god had a formal temple and cult
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
The Deipnosophistae is an early 3rd-century AD Greek work by the Greco-Egyptian author Athenaeus of Naucratis. It is a long work of literary and antiquarian references set in Rome at a series of banquets held by the protagonist Publius Livius Larensis for an assembly of grammarians, jurists and hangers-on, it is sometimes called the oldest surviving cookbook. The Greek title Deipnosophistaí derives from the combination of deipno- and sophistḗs, it and its English derivative deipnosophists thus describe people who are skilled at dining the refined conversation expected to accompany Greek symposia. However, the term is shaded by the harsh treatment accorded to professional teachers in Plato's Socratic dialogues, which made the English term sophist into a pejorative. In English, Athenaeus's work known by its Latin form Deipnosophistae but is variously translated as The Deipnosophists, Sophists at Dinner, The Learned Banqueters, The Banquet of the Learned, Philosophers at Dinner, or The Gastronomers.
The Deipnosophistae professes to be an account given by the author to his friend Timocrates of a series of banquets held at the house of Larensius, a scholar and wealthy patron of the arts. It is thus a dialogue within a dialogue, after the manner of Plato, although each conversation is so long that, realistically, it would occupy several days. Among the numerous guests, Zoilus, Galen and Plutarch are named, but most are to be taken as fictitious personages, the majority take little or no part in the conversation. If Ulpian is identical with the famous jurist, the Deipnosophistae must have been written after his death in 223. Prosopographical investigation, has shown the possibility of identifying several guests with real persons from other sources; the work is invaluable for providing fictionalized information about the Hellenistic literary world of the leisured class during the Roman Empire. To the majority of modern readers more useful is the wealth of information provided in the Deipnosophistae about earlier Greek literature.
In the course of discussing classic authors, the participants make quotations and short, from the works of about 700 earlier Greek authors and 2,500 separate writings, many of them otherwise unrecorded. Food and wine, music, sexual mores, literary gossip and philology are among the major topics of discussion, the stories behind many artworks such as the Venus Kallipygos are transmitted in its pages; the Deipnosophistae is an important source of recipes in classical Greek. It quotes the original text of one recipe from the lost cookbook by Mithaecus, the oldest in Greek and the oldest recipe by a named author in any language. Other authors quoted for their recipes include Glaucus of Locri, Epaenetus, Hegesippus of Tarentum, Diocles of Carystus, Timachidas of Rhodes, Philistion of Locri, Euthydemus of Athens, Chrysippus of Tyana and Harpocration of Mende, it describes in detail the meal and festivities at the wedding feast of Caranos. In addition to its main focuses, the text offers an unusually clear portrait of homosexuality in late Hellenism.
Books XII-XIII holds a wealth of information for studies of homosexuality in Roman Greece. It is subject to a big discussion that includes Alcibiades, Autolycus and Sophocles. Furthermore, numerous books and now lost plays on the subject are mentioned, including the dramatists Diphilus, Cratinus and Sophocles and the philosopher Heraclides of Pontus; the Deipnosophistae was in fifteen books. The work survives in one manuscript from which the whole of books 1 and 2, some other pages too, disappeared long ago. An Epitome or abridgment was made in medieval times, survives complete: from this it is possible to read the missing sections, though in a disjointed form; the English polymath Sir Thomas Browne noted in his encyclopaedia Pseudodoxia Epidemica- Athenæus, a delectable Author various, justly stiled by Casaubon, Græcorum Plinius. There is extant of his, a famous Piece, under the name of Deipnosophista, or Coena Sapientum, containing the Discourse of many learned men, at a Feast provided by Laurentius.
It is a laborious Collection out of many Authors, some whereof are mentioned no where else. It containeth strange and singular relations, not without some spice or sprinkling of all Learning; the Author was a better Grammarian Philosopher, dealing but hardly with Aristotle and Plato, betrayeth himself much in his Chapter De Curiositate Aristotelis. In brief, he is an Author of excellent use, may with discretion be read unto great advantage: and hath therefore well deserved the Comments of Casaubon and Dalecampius. Browne's interest in Athenaeus reflects a revived interest in the Banquet of the Learned amongst scholars following the publication of the Deipnosophistae in 1612 by the Classical scholar Isaac Casaubon. Browne was the author of a Latin essay on Athenaeus. By the nineteenth century however, the poet James Russell Lowell in 1867 characterized the Deipnosophistae and its author thus: the somewhat greasy heap of a literary rag-and-bone-picker like Athenaeus is turned to gold by time. Modern readers question whether the Deipnosophistae genuinely evokes a literary symposium of learned disquisitions on a range of subjects suitable for such an occasion
In Greek mythology, was king of Pisa in the Peloponnesus. His father, was the founder of the House of Atreus through Pelops's son of that name, he was venerated at Olympia, where his cult developed into the founding myth of the Olympic Games, the most important expression of unity, not only for the Peloponnesus, "island of Pelops", but for all Hellenes. At the sanctuary at Olympia, chthonic night-time libations were offered each time to "dark-faced" Pelops in his sacrificial pit before they were offered in the following daylight to the sky-god Zeus. Pelops was a son of Tantalus and either Euryanassa or Eurythemista. In some accounts, he was called a bastard son of Tantalus while others named his parents as Atlas and the nymph Linos. Of Phrygian or Lydian birth, he departed his homeland for Greece, won the crown of Pisa or Olympia from King Oenomaus in a chariot race married Oenomaus's daughter, Hippodameia. Pelops and Hippodameia had at least sixteen children, their sons include Pittheus, Alcathous, Pleisthenes, Thyestes, Hippalcimus, Sciron and Letreus.
Four of their daughters married into the House of Perseus: Astydameia, Nicippe and Eurydice. By the nymph Axioche or Danais or Astyoche, Pelops was father of Chrysippus. Pelops' father was king at Mount Sipylus in Anatolia. Wanting to make an offering to the Olympians, Tantalus cut Pelops into pieces and made his flesh into a stew served it to the gods. Demeter, deep in grief after the abduction of her daughter Persephone by Hades, absentmindedly accepted the offering and ate the left shoulder; the other gods sensed the plot and held off from eating of the boy's body. While Tantalus was banished to Tartarus, Pelops was ritually reassembled and brought back to life, his shoulder replaced with one of ivory made for him by Hephaestus. Pindar mentioned this tradition in his First Olympian Ode, only to reject it as a malicious invention: his patron claimed descent from Tantalus. After Pelops' resurrection, Poseidon took him to Olympus, made him the youth apprentice, teaching him to drive the divine chariot.
Zeus found out about the gods' stolen food and their now revealed secrets, threw Pelops out of Olympus, angry at his father, Tantalus. Having grown to manhood, Pelops wanted to marry Hippodamia, her father, King Oenomaus, fearful of a prophecy that claimed he would be killed by his son-in-law, had killed eighteen suitors of Hippodamia after defeating them in a chariot race and affixed their heads to the wooden columns of his palace. Pausanias was shown what was the last standing column in the late second century CE. Worried about losing, Pelops went to his former lover. Reminding Poseidon of their love, he asked Poseidon for help. Smiling, Poseidon caused a chariot drawn by untamed winged horses to appear. Two episodes involving charioteers were added into the plain account of the heroic chariot race. In the first related by Theopompus, having received the horses, Pelops hastens to Pisa to defeat Oenomaus. On the way, his charioteer Cillus dies and stands in a dream over Pelops, distressed about him, to make requests for a funeral.
Pelops complies by burying his ashes magnificently, raises a mound to erect a temple dedicated to Apollo which he names Apollo Cillaeus and he founds a city besides the mound and the temple which he names Cilla after his charioteer and friend. Both the temple and the city are mentioned in the first book of Homer's Iliad and suggestions regarding their exact location have been made. Furthermore, Cillus after his death, appears to have helped Pelops' cause in order for him to win the race. In the second, still unsure of himself and of the winged horses and chariot of divine providence he had secured, convinced Oenomaus' charioteer, Myrtilus, a son of Hermes, to help him win. Pelops or Hippodamia herself convinced Myrtilus by promising him half of Oenomaus' kingdom and the first night in bed with Hippodamia; the night before the race, while Myrtilus was putting together Oenomaus' chariot, he replaced the bronze linchpins attaching the wheels to the chariot axle with fake ones made of beeswax. The race started, went on for a long time.
But just as Oenomaus was catching up to Pelops and readying to kill him, the wheels flew off and the chariot broke apart. Myrtilus survived. Pelops killed Myrtilus after the latter attempted to rape Hippodamia. After his victory, Pelops organized chariot races as thanksgiving to the gods and as funeral games in honor of King Oinomaos, in order to be purified of his death, it was from this funeral race held at Olympia. Pelops became a great king, a local hero, gave his name to the Peloponnese. Walter Burkert notes that though the story of Hippodamia's abduction figures in the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women and on the chest of Cypselus, conserved at Olympia, though preparations for the chariot-race figured in the east pediment of the great temple of Zeus at Olympia, the myth of the chariot race only became important at Olympia with the introduction of chariot racing in the twenty-fifth Olympiad. G. Devereux connected the abduction of Hippodamia with animal husbandry taboos of Elis, the
In Greek mythology, Temenus was a son of Aristomachus and brother of Cresphontes and Aristodemus. Temenus was a great-great-grandson of Heracles and helped lead the fifth and final attack on Mycenae in the Peloponnese, he became King of Argos. He was the father of Ceisus, Káranos, Phalces and Hyrnetho. Káranos was the first king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia and founder of the royal Macedonian dynasty–the Temenid or Argead dynasty–which culminated in the sons of Alexander the Great five centuries later. Temenus and his brothers complained to the oracle that its instructions had proved fatal to those who had followed them, they received the answer that by the "third fruit" the "third generation" was meant, that the "narrow passage" was not the isthmus of Corinth, but the straits of Patras. They accordingly built a fleet at Naupactus, but before they set sail, Aristodemus was struck by lightning and the fleet destroyed, because one of the Heracleidae had slain an Acarnanian soothsayer.
The oracle, being again consulted by Temenus, bade him offer an expiatory sacrifice and banish the murderer for ten years, look out for a man with three eyes to act as guide. On his way back to Naupactus, Temenus fell in with Oxylus, an Aetolian, who had lost one eye, riding on a horse and pressed him into his service; the Heracleidae repaired their ships, sailed from Naupactus to Antirrhium, thence to Rhium in Peloponnesus. A decisive battle was fought with Tisamenus, son of Orestes, the chief ruler in the peninsula, defeated and slain; the Heracleidae, who thus became masters of the Peloponnese, proceeded to distribute its territory among themselves by lot. Argos fell to Lacedaemon to Procles and Eurysthenes, the twin sons of Aristodemus; the fertile district of Elis had been reserved by agreement for Oxylus. The Heracleidae ruled in Lacedaemon until 221 BC, but disappeared much earlier in the other countries; this conquest of Peloponnesus by the Dorians called the "Return of the Heracleidae", is represented as the recovery by the descendants of Heracles of the rightful inheritance of their hero ancestor and his sons.
The Dorians followed the custom of other Greek tribes in claiming as ancestor for their ruling families one of the legendary heroes, but the traditions must not on that account be regarded as mythical. They represent a joint invasion of Peloponnesus by Aetolians and Dorians, the latter having been driven southward from their original northern home under pressure from the Thessalians, it is noticeable that there is no dominate mention of these Heracleidae or their invasion in Homer or Hesiod. Herodotus speaks of poets who had celebrated their deeds, but these were limited to events succeeding the death of Heracles; the story was first amplified by the Greek tragedians, who drew their inspiration from local legends, which glorified the services rendered by Athens to the rulers of the Peloponnese. When Temenus, in the division of the Peloponnese, had obtained Argos as his share, he bestowed all his affections upon daughter Hyrnetho and her husband Deiphontes, for which he was murdered by his sons, who thought themselves neglected.
According to Apollodorus, after the death of Temenus the army declared Deiphontes and Hyrnetho his rightful successors. Pausanias, reports a different story. According to him, after Temenus's death it was not Deiphontes that Ceisus. Deiphontes on the other hand is said to have lived at Epidaurus, whither he went with the army, attached to him, whence he expelled the Ionian king, Pityreus, his brothers-in-law, who begrudged him the possession of their sister Hyrnetho, went to Epidaurus and tried to persuade her to leave her husband. Deiphontes pursued them, after having killed one of them, Cerynes, he wrestled with the other, who held his sister in his arms. In this struggle, Hyrnetho was killed by her own brother, who escaped. Deiphontes carried her body back to Epidaurus, there erected a sanctuary to her. Temenus had a son named Archelaus. Bibliotheca ii. 8. Diodorus Siculus, iv. 57, 58. Pausanias, i. 32, 41, ii. 13, 18, iii. I, iv. 3, v. 3. Euripides, Heracleidae. Pindar, Pythia, ix. 137. Herodotus, ix. 27.
Karl Otfried Müller. Dorians, Part I, Chapter 3. Thirlwall. History of Greece, Chapter VII. Grote. History of Greece, Part I, Chapter XVIII. Georg Busolt. Griechische Geschichte, Part I, Chapter 11, Section 7, where a list of authorities is given