Garry Wills is an American author and historian, specializing in American history and religion the history of the Catholic Church. He won a Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction in 1993. Wills has written nearly forty books and, since 1973, has been a frequent reviewer for The New York Review of Books, he became a faculty member of the history department at Northwestern University in 1980, where he is an Emeritus Professor of History. Wills was born on May 1934, in Atlanta, Georgia, his father, Jack Wills, was from a Protestant background, his mother was from an Irish Catholic family. He was reared as Catholic and grew up in Michigan and Wisconsin, graduating in 1951 from Campion High School, a Jesuit institution in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, he entered and left the Society of Jesus. Wills earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from Saint Louis University in 1957 and a Master of Arts degree from Xavier University in 1958, both in philosophy. William F. Buckley Jr. hired him as a drama critic for National Review magazine at the age of 23.
He received a Doctor of Philosophy degree in classics from Yale University in 1961. He taught history at Johns Hopkins University from 1962 to 1980. Wills has been married to Natalie Cavallo since 1959, they have three children: John and Lydia. A trained classicist, Wills is Latin, his home in Evanston, Illinois, is "filled with books", with a converted bedroom dedicated to English literature, another containing Latin literature and books on American political thought, one hallway full of books on economics and religion, "including four shelves on St. Augustine", another with shelves of Greek literature and philosophy. Wills describes himself as a Roman Catholic and, with the exception of a period of doubt during his seminary years, has been a Roman Catholic all his life, he continues to attend Mass at the Sheil Catholic Center in Northwestern University. He prays the rosary every day, wrote a book about the devotion in 2005. Wills has been a critic of many aspects of church history and church teaching since at least the early 1960s.
He has been critical of the doctrine of papal infallibility. In 1961, in a phone conversation with William F. Buckley Jr. Wills coined the famous macaronic phrase Mater si, magistra no; the phrase, a response to the papal encyclical Mater et magistra and a reference to the then-current anti-Castro slogan "Cuba sí, Castro no", signifies a devotion to the faith and tradition of the church combined with a skeptical attitude towards ecclesiastical authority. Wills published a full-length analysis of the contemporary Catholic Church, Bare Ruined Choirs, in 1972 and a full-scale criticism of the historical and contemporary church, Papal Sin: Structures of Deceit, in 2000, he followed up the latter with a sequel, Why I Am a Catholic, as well as with the books What Jesus Meant, What Paul Meant, What the Gospels Meant. Wills began his career as an early protégé of William F. Buckley Jr. and was associated with conservatism. When he first became involved with National Review he did not know if he was a conservative, calling himself a distributist.
On, he was self-admittedly conservative, being regarded for a time as the "token conservative" for the National Catholic Reporter and writing a book entitled Confessions of a Conservative. However, during the 1960s and 1970s, driven by his coverage of both civil rights and the anti-Vietnam War movements, Wills became liberal, his biography of president Richard M. Nixon, Nixon Agonistes landed him on the master list of Nixon political opponents, he supported Barack Obama in the 2008 presidential election, but declared two years that Obama's presidency had been a "terrible disappointment". In 1995, Wills wrote an article about the Second Amendment for The New York Review of Books, it was entitled "Why We Have No Right to Bear Arms", but, not Wills's conclusion. He neither approved it prior to the article's publication. Instead, Wills argued that the Second Amendment refers to the right to keep and bear arms in a military context only, rather than justifying private ownership and use of guns. Furthermore, he said the military context did not entail the right of individuals to overthrow the government of the United States: The Standard Model finds, squirrelled away in the Second Amendment, not only a private right to own guns for any purpose but a public right to oppose with arms the government of the United States.
It grounds this claim in the right of insurrection, which does exist whenever tyranny exists. Yet the right to overthrow the government is not given by government, it arises. One cannot say one rebels by right of that nonexistent authority. Modern militias say the government itself instructs them to overthrow government – and wacky scholars endorse this view, they think the Constitution is so deranged a document that it brands as the greatest crime a war upon itself and instructs its citizens to take this up. According to this doctrine, a well-regulated group is meant to overthrow its own regulator, a soldier swearing to obey orders is disqualified from true militia virtue; the New York Times literary critic John Leonard said in 1970 that Wills "reads like a com
A fortepiano is an early piano. In principle, the word "fortepiano" can designate any piano dating from the invention of the instrument by Bartolomeo Cristofori around 1700 up to the early 19th century. Most however, it is used to refer to the late-18th to early-19th century instruments for which Haydn and the younger Beethoven wrote their piano music. Starting in Beethoven's time, the fortepiano began a period of steady evolution, culminating in the late 19th century with the modern grand; the earlier fortepiano was absent from the musical scene for many decades. In the 20th century the fortepiano was revived, following the rise of interest in informed performance. Fortepianos are built for this purpose today in specialist workshops; the fortepiano has thin, harpsichord-like strings. It has a much lighter case construction than the modern piano and, except for examples of the early nineteenth century, it has no metal frame or bracing; the action and hammers are lighter, giving rise to a much lighter touch, which in well-constructed fortepianos is very responsive.
The range of the fortepiano was about four octaves at the time of its invention and increased. Mozart wrote his piano music for instruments of about five octaves; the piano works of Beethoven reflect a expanding range. Fortepianos from the start had devices similar to the pedals of modern pianos, but these were not always pedals. Like the modern piano, the fortepiano can vary the sound volume of each note, depending on the player's touch; the tone of the fortepiano is quite different from that of the modern piano, being softer with less sustain. Sforzando accents tend to stand out more than on the modern piano, as they differ from softer notes in timbre as well as volume, decay rapidly. Fortepianos tend to have quite different tone quality in their different registers – buzzing in the bass, "tinkling" in the high treble, more rounded in the mid range. In comparison, modern pianos are rather more uniform in sound through their range; the piano was invented by harpsichord maker Bartolomeo Cristofori in Florence around the turn of the 18th century.
The first reliable record of a piano appears in the inventory of the Medici family, dated 1700. Cristofori continued to develop the instrument until the 1720s, the time from which the surviving three Cristofori instruments date. Cristofori is best admired today for his ingenious piano action, which in some ways was more subtle and effective than that of many instruments. However, other innovations were needed to make the piano possible. Attaching the Cristofori action to a harpsichord would have produced a weak tone. Cristofori's instruments instead used thicker, tenser strings, mounted on a frame more robust than that of contemporary harpsichords; as with all pianos, in Cristofori's instruments the hammers struck more than one string at a time. Cristofori was the first to incorporate a form of soft pedal into a piano, it is not clear whether the modern soft pedal descends directly from Cristofori's work or arose independently. Cristofori's invention soon attracted public attention as the result of a journal article written by Scipione Maffei and published 1711 in Giornale de'letterati d'Italia of Venice.
The article included a diagram of the core of Cristofori's invention. This article was republished 1719 in a volume of Maffei's work, in a German translation in Johann Mattheson's Critica Musica; the latter publication was the triggering event in the spread of the fortepiano to German-speaking countries. Cristofori's instrument spread at first quite probably because, being more elaborate and harder to build than a harpsichord, it was expensive. For a time, the piano was the instrument of royalty, with Cristofori-built or -styled instruments played in the courts of Portugal and Spain. Several were owned by Queen Maria Barbara of Spain, the pupil of the composer Domenico Scarlatti. One of the first private individuals to own a piano was the castrato Farinelli, who inherited one from Maria Barbara on her death; the first music written for piano dates from this period, the Sonate da cimbalo di piano by Lodovico Giustini. This publication was an isolated phenomenon. There could have been no commercial market for fortepiano music while the instrument continued to be an exotic specimen.
It appears that the fortepiano did not achieve full popularity until the 1760s, from which time the first records of public performances on the instrument are dated, when music described as being for the fortepiano was first published. It was Gottfried Silbermann who brought the construction of fortepianos to the German-speaking nations. Silbermann, who worked in Freiberg in Germany, began to make pianos based on Cristofori's design around 1730. Like Cristofori, Silbermann had royal support, in his case from Frederick the Great of
Microsoft Works was a productivity software suite developed by Microsoft, sold from 1987 to 2009. Its core functionality included a spreadsheet and a database management system. Versions had a calendar application and a dictionary while older releases included a terminal emulator. Works was available as a standalone program, as part of a namesake home productivity suite; because of its low cost, companies pre-installed Works on their low-cost machines. Works was smaller, less expensive, had fewer features than Microsoft Office and other major office suites available at the time. Microsoft Works originated as MouseWorks, an integrated spreadsheet, word processor and database program, designed for the Macintosh by ex-Apple employee Don Williams and Rupert Lissner. Williams was planning to emulate the success of AppleWorks, a similar product for Apple II computers. However, Bill Gates and his Head of Acquisitions, Alan M. Boyd, convinced Williams to license the product to Microsoft instead, it was to be a scaled-down version of Office for the small laptops such as the Radio Shack TRS-80 Model 100 which Microsoft was developing.
As laptops grew in power, Microsoft Works, as it was to be called, evolved as a popular product in its own right. On September 14, 1987, Microsoft unveiled Works for DOS; the initial version 1.x of Works ran on any PC with at least 256k of memory. Works 2.x, introduced in 1990, required 3.x, introduced in 1992, required 640k. In 1991, Microsoft issued the first Windows version of Works, titled MS Works for Windows 2.0. System requirements consisted of Windows 3.0, a 286 CPU, 1MB of memory. Works 3.x in 1993 moved to requiring Windows 3.1, a 386 CPU, 4MB of memory. Subsequent releases were for Windows 95 and up and the final version was Works 9.x in 2007, requiring Windows XP or Vista, 256MB of memory, a Pentium 4 CPU. In addition, Microsoft released Macintosh versions of Works starting with Works 2.0 in 1988. The version numbering followed that of Windows releases. Through version 4.5a, Works used a monolithic program architecture whereby its word processor and database documents ran in windows of the same program interface.
This resulted in a small memory and disk footprint, which enabled it to run on slower computers with requirements as low as 6 MB of RAM and 12 MB free disk space. In addition, it provided a mini version of Excel for DOS systems as a DOS version of that program was not available. Works 2000 switched to a modular architecture which opens each document as a separate instance and uses the print engine from Internet Explorer. Version 9.0, the final version, was available in two editions: an advertisement-free version, available in retail and for OEMs, an ad-supported free version, available only to OEMs for preinstallation on new computers. In late 2009, Microsoft announced it was discontinuing Works and replacing it with Office 2010 Starter Edition. Microsoft Works has built-in compatibility for the Microsoft Office document formats, but not limited to, the ability of the Works Word Processor to open Microsoft Word documents and the ability of the Works Spreadsheet to open Microsoft Excel workbooks.
Newer versions include task panes but do not include updated features. In the final version, the Windows 95-era icons and toolbars were not updated to make them consistent with application software. While its utility for larger organizations is limited by its use of proprietary native. WKS. WDB, and. WPS file formats, the simplicity and ease of integrating database/spreadsheet data into word processor documents allow it to remain an option for some small and home-based business owners. Version 4.5a is noted in this respect. The database management system, while a "flat file" allows the novice user to perform complex transformations through formulas and user-defined reports which can be copied as text to the clipboard. A'Works Portfolio' utility offers Microsoft Binder-like functionality. By installing the 2007 Office System Compatibility Pack, the Works Word Processor and Spreadsheet can import and export Office Open XML document formats, although they are converted rather than being operated upon natively.
The Works Calendar can store appointments, integrates with the Windows Address Book, as well as Address Book's successor, Windows Contacts, can remind users of birthdays and anniversaries. It supports exporting iCalendar files, it does not, support subscribing to iCalendar files or publishing them online via WebDAV. Up to version 8, using the Works Task Launcher, the calendar and contacts from Windows Address Book could be synchronized with portable devices. In Works 9.0, the sync capability has been removed. Microsoft makes file format conversion filters for Microsoft Word for opening and saving to Works Word Processor format. Microsoft Office Excel can import newer Works Spreadsheets because the newer Works Spreadsheet uses the Excel format but with a different extension. There is an import filter for older Works 2.0 spreadsheet format. As far as Works Spreadsheet 3.x/4.x/2000 and Works database files are concerned, Microsoft does not provide an import filter for Excel or Access. There are third party converters available for converting these filetypes to Excel spreadsheets: For database files there is a donateware utility.
The Quarterly Review was a literary and political periodical founded in March 1809 by the well known London publishing house John Murray. It ceased publication in 1967; the Quarterly was set up to counter the influence on public opinion of the Edinburgh Review. Its first editor, William Gifford, was appointed by George Canning, at the time Foreign Secretary Prime Minister. Early contributors included the Secretaries of the Admiralty John Wilson Croker and Sir John Barrow, the Poet Laureate Robert Southey, the poet-novelist Sir Walter Scott, the Italian exile Ugo Foscolo, the Gothic novelist Charles Robert Maturin, the essayist Charles Lamb. Under Gifford, the journal took the Canningite liberal-conservative position on matters of domestic and foreign policy, if only inconsistently, it opposed major political reforms, but it supported the gradual abolition of slavery, moderate law reform, humanitarian treatment of criminals and the insane, the liberalizing of trade. In a series of brilliant articles in its pages, Southey advocated a progressive philosophy of social reform.
Because two of his key writers and Southey, were opposed to Catholic emancipation, Gifford did not permit the journal to take a clear position on that issue. Reflecting divisions in the Tory party itself, under its third editor, John Gibson Lockhart, the Quarterly became less consistent in its political philosophy. While Croker continued to represent the Canningites and Peelites, the party's liberal wing, it found a place for the more conservative views of Lords Eldon and Wellington. During its early years, reviews of new works were sometimes remarkably long; that of Henry Koster's Travels in Brazil ran to forty-three pages. Typical of early nineteenth-century journals, reviewing in the Quarterly was politicized and on occasion excessively dismissive. Writers and publishers known for their Unitarian or radical views were among the early journal's main targets. Prominent victims of scathing reviews included the Irish novelist Lady Morgan, the English poet and essayist Walter Savage Landor, the English novelist Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley and her husband the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley.
In an 1817 article, John Wilson Croker attacked John Keats in a review of Endymion for his association with Leigh Hunt and the so-called Cockney School of poetry. Shelley blamed Croker's article for bringing about the death of the ill poet,'snuffed out', in Byron's ironic phrase,'by an article'. In 1816, Sir Walter Scott reviewed his own, but anonymously published, Tales of My Landlord to deflect suspicion that he was the author. Scott was the author of a favourable review of Jane Austen's Emma. William Gifford John Taylor Coleridge John Gibson Lockhart Whitwell Elwin William Macpherson William Smith John Murray IV Rowland Edmund Prothero George Walter Prothero Jonathan Cutmore and the Quarterly Review: A Critical Analysis Jonathan Cutmore, Contributors to the Quarterly Review 1809-25: A History John O. Hayden, The Romantic Reviewers, 1802-1824 Joanne Shattock and Reviewers: The Edinburgh and the Quarterly in the Early Victorian Age Hill Shine and Helen Chadwick Shine, The Quarterly Review Under Gifford: Identification of Contributors 1809-1824 The main repository of manuscript papers relating to the Quarterly Review is the archive of John Murray.
In 2007, the archive was purchased by the National Library of Edinburgh. The Quarterly Review Archive This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed.. "Quarterly Review". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne
Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American journalist, short-story writer, noted sportsman. His economical and understated style—which he termed the iceberg theory—had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his adventurous lifestyle and his public image brought him admiration from generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954, he published seven novels, six short-story collections, two non-fiction works. Three of his novels, four short-story collections, three non-fiction works were published posthumously. Many of his works are considered classics of American literature. Hemingway was raised in Illinois. After high school, he reported for a few months for The Kansas City Star before leaving for the Italian Front to enlist as an ambulance driver in World War I. In 1918, he was wounded and returned home, his wartime experiences formed the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms. In 1921, he married Hadley Richardson.
The couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a foreign correspondent and fell under the influence of the modernist writers and artists of the 1920s "Lost Generation" expatriate community. His debut novel, The Sun Also Rises, was published in 1926. After his 1927 divorce from Richardson, Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer, he based For Whom the Bell Tolls on his experience there. Martha Gellhorn became his third wife in 1940, he was present at the liberation of Paris. Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea, Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was killed in two successive plane crashes that left him in pain or ill-health for much of the rest of his life. Hemingway maintained permanent residences in Key West and Cuba. In 1959, he bought a house in Ketchum, where, in mid-1961, he ended his own life. Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, his father, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, was a physician, his mother, Grace Hall Hemingway, was a musician.
Both were well-educated and well-respected in Oak Park, a conservative community about which resident Frank Lloyd Wright said, "So many churches for so many good people to go to." For a short period after their marriage and Grace Hemingway lived with Grace's father, Ernest Hall, their first son's namesake. Ernest Hemingway would say that he disliked his name, which he "associated with the naive foolish hero of Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest"; the family moved into a seven-bedroom home in a respectable neighborhood with a music studio for Grace and a medical office for Clarence. Hemingway's mother performed in concerts around the village; as an adult, Hemingway professed to hate his mother, although biographer Michael S. Reynolds points out that Hemingway mirrored her energy and enthusiasm, her insistence that he learn to play the cello became a "source of conflict", but he admitted the music lessons were useful to his writing, as is evident in the "contrapuntal structure" of For Whom the Bell Tolls.
The family spent summers at Windemere near Petoskey, Michigan. Hemingway's father taught him to hunt and camp in the woods and lakes of Northern Michigan as a young boy; these early experiences in nature instilled a passion for outdoor adventure and living in remote or isolated areas. From 1913 until 1917, Hemingway attended River Forest High School, he took part in a number of sports such as boxing and field, water polo, football. He excelled in English classes, with his sister Marcelline, performed in the school orchestra for two years. During his junior year he had a journalism class, structured "as though the classroom were a newspaper office," with better writers submitting pieces to the school newspaper, The Trapeze. Hemingway and Marcelline both submitted pieces, he edited the Trapeze and the Tabula, imitating the language of sportswriters, taking the pen name Ring Lardner, Jr.—a nod to Ring Lardner of the Chicago Tribune whose byline was "Line O'Type."Like Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, Theodore Dreiser, Sinclair Lewis, Hemingway was a journalist before becoming a novelist.
After leaving high school he went to work for The Kansas City Star as a cub reporter. Although he stayed there for only six months, he relied on the Star's style guide as a foundation for his writing: "Use short sentences. Use short first paragraphs. Use vigorous English. Be positive, not negative." Early in 1918, after applying to serve with, being turned down by, the US Army and Marines because of poor eyesight, Hemingway responded to a Red Cross recruitment effort in Kansas City and signed on to become an ambulance driver in Italy. He left New York in May and arrived in Paris as the city was under bombardment from German artillery. By June, he was at the Italian Front, it was around this time that he first met John Dos Passos, with whom he had a rocky relationship for decades. On his first day in Milan, he was sent to the scene of a munitions factory explosion, where rescuers retrieved the shredded remains of female workers, he described the incident in his non-fiction book Death in the Afternoon: "I remember that after we searched quite for the complete dead we collected fragments."
A few days he was stationed a
John Donne was an English poet and cleric in the Church of England. He is considered the pre-eminent representative of the metaphysical poets, his works are noted for their strong, sensual style and include sonnets, love poems, religious poems, Latin translations, elegies, songs and sermons. His poetry is noted for its vibrancy of language and inventiveness of metaphor compared to that of his contemporaries. Donne's style is characterised by abrupt openings and various paradoxes and dislocations; these features, along with his frequent dramatic or everyday speech rhythms, his tense syntax and his tough eloquence, were both a reaction against the smoothness of conventional Elizabethan poetry and an adaptation into English of European baroque and mannerist techniques. His early career was marked by poetry that bore immense knowledge of English society and he met that knowledge with sharp criticism. Another important theme in Donne's poetry is the idea of true religion, something that he spent much time considering and about which he theorized.
He wrote secular poems as well as love poems. He is famous for his mastery of metaphysical conceits. Despite his great education and poetic talents, Donne lived in poverty for several years, relying on wealthy friends, he spent much of the money he inherited during and after his education on womanising, literature and travel. In 1601, Donne secretly married Anne More, with. In 1615 he was ordained deacon and Anglican priest, although he did not want to take Holy Orders and only did so because the king ordered it. In 1621, he was appointed the Dean of St Paul's Cathedral in London, he served as a member of Parliament in 1601 and in 1614. Donne was born in London, into a recusant Roman Catholic family when practice of that religion was illegal in England. Donne was the third of six children, his father named John Donne, was of Welsh descent and a warden of the Ironmongers Company in the City of London. However, he avoided unwelcome government attention out of fear of persecution, his father died in 1576, when Donne was four years old, leaving his mother, Elizabeth Heywood, with the responsibility of raising the children alone.
Heywood was from a recusant Roman Catholic family, the daughter of John Heywood, the playwright, sister of the Reverend Jasper Heywood, a Jesuit priest and translator. She was a great-niece of the Roman Catholic martyr Thomas More. A few months after her husband died, Donne's mother married Dr. John Syminges, a wealthy widower with three children of his own. Donne thus acquired a stepfather. Donne was educated privately. In 1583, at the age of 11, he began studies at Hart Hall, now Hertford College, Oxford. After three years of studies there, Donne was admitted to the University of Cambridge, where he studied for another three years. However, Donne could not obtain a degree from either institution because of his Catholicism, since he refused to take the Oath of Supremacy required to graduate. In 1591 he was accepted as a student at the Thavies Inn legal school, one of the Inns of Chancery in London. On 6 May 1592 he was admitted to one of the Inns of Court. In 1593, five years after the defeat of the Spanish Armada and during the intermittent Anglo-Spanish War, Queen Elizabeth issued the first English statute against sectarian dissent from the Church of England, titled "An Act for restraining Popish recusants".
It defined "Popish recusants" as those "convicted for not repairing to some Church, Chapel, or usual place of Common Prayer to hear Divine Service there, but forbearing the same contrary to the tenor of the laws and statutes heretofore made and provided in that behalf". Donne's brother Henry was a university student prior to his arrest in 1593 for harbouring a Catholic priest, William Harrington, died in Newgate Prison of bubonic plague, leading Donne to begin questioning his Catholic faith. During and after his education, Donne spent much of his considerable inheritance on women, literature and travel. Although no record details where Donne travelled, he did cross Europe and fought with the Earl of Essex and Sir Walter Raleigh against the Spanish at Cadiz and the Azores, witnessed the loss of the Spanish flagship, the San Felipe. According to his earliest biographer... he returned not back into England till he had stayed some years, first in Italy, in Spain, where he made many useful observations of those countries, their laws and manner of government, returned perfect in their languages.
By the age of 25 he was well prepared for the diplomatic career he appeared to be seeking. He was appointed chief secretary to the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, Sir Thomas Egerton, was established at Egerton's London home, York House, Strand close to the Palace of Whitehall the most influential social centre in England. During the next four years Donne fell in love with Egerton's niece Anne More, they were secretly married just before Christmas in 1601, against the wishes of both Egerton and George More, Lieutenant of the Tower and Anne's father. Upon discovery, this wedding ruined Donne's career, getting him dismissed and put in Fleet Prison, along with the Church of England priest Samuel Brooke, who married them, the man who acted as a witness to the wedding. Donne was released shortly thereafter when the marriage was proven valid, he soon secured the release of the other two. Walton tells us that when Donne wrote to his wife to tell her about losing his post, he wrote after his name: John Donne, Anne Donne, Un-done.
It was not until 160
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson was a British poet. He was the Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets. In 1829, Tennyson was awarded the Chancellor's Gold Medal at Cambridge for one of his first pieces, "Timbuktu", he published his first solo collection of poems, Poems Chiefly Lyrical in 1830. "Claribel" and "Mariana", which remain some of Tennyson's most celebrated poems, were included in this volume. Although decried by some critics as overly sentimental, his verse soon proved popular and brought Tennyson to the attention of well-known writers of the day, including Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Tennyson's early poetry, with its medievalism and powerful visual imagery, was a major influence on the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Tennyson excelled at penning short lyrics, such as "Break, Break", "The Charge of the Light Brigade", "Tears, Idle Tears", "Crossing the Bar". Much of his verse was based on classical mythological themes, such as "Ulysses", although "In Memoriam A.
H. H." was written to commemorate his friend Arthur Hallam, a fellow poet and student at Trinity College, after he died of a stroke at the age of 22. Tennyson wrote some notable blank verse including Idylls of the King, "Ulysses", "Tithonus". During his career, Tennyson attempted drama. A number of phrases from Tennyson's work have become commonplaces of the English language, including "Nature, red in tooth and claw", "'Tis better to have loved and lost / Than never to have loved at all", "Theirs not to reason why, / Theirs but to do and die", "My strength is as the strength of ten, / Because my heart is pure", "To strive, to seek, to find, not to yield", "Knowledge comes, but Wisdom lingers", "The old order changeth, yielding place to new", he is the ninth most quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. Tennyson was born on 6 August 1809 in Somersby, England, he was born into a middle-class family distantly descended from John Savage, 2nd Earl Rivers. His father, George Clayton Tennyson, was rector of Somersby rector of Benniworth and Bag Enderby, vicar of Grimsby.
Rev. George Clayton Tennyson raised a large family and "was a man of superior abilities and varied attainments, who tried his hand with fair success in architecture, painting and poetry, he was comfortably well off for a country clergyman and his shrewd money management enabled the family to spend summers at Mablethorpe and Skegness on the eastern coast of England". Alfred Tennyson's mother, Elizabeth Fytche, was the daughter of Stephen Fytche, vicar of St. James Church and rector of Withcall, a small village between Horncastle and Louth. Tennyson's father "carefully attended to the education and training of his children". Tennyson and two of his elder brothers were writing poetry in their teens and a collection of poems by all three was published locally when Alfred was only 17. One of those brothers, Charles Tennyson Turner married Louisa Sellwood, the younger sister of Alfred's future wife. Another of Tennyson's brothers, Edward Tennyson, was institutionalised at a private asylum. Tennyson was a student of King Edward VI Grammar School, Louth from 1816 to 1820.
He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1827, where he joined a secret society called the Cambridge Apostles. A portrait of Tennyson by George Frederic Watts is in Trinity's collection. At Cambridge, Tennyson met Arthur Hallam and William Henry Brookfield, who became his closest friends, his first publication was a collection of "his boyish rhymes and those of his elder brother Charles" entitled Poems by Two Brothers, published in 1827. In 1829, Tennyson was awarded the Chancellor's Gold Medal at Cambridge for one of his first pieces, "Timbuktu". "it was thought to be no slight honour for a young man of twenty to win the chancellor's gold medal". He published his first solo collection of poems, Poems Chiefly Lyrical in 1830. "Claribel" and "Mariana", which took their place among Tennyson's most celebrated poems, were included in this volume. Although decried by some critics as overly sentimental, his verse soon proved popular and brought Tennyson to the attention of well-known writers of the day, including Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
In the spring of 1831, Tennyson's father died, requiring him to leave Cambridge before taking his degree. He returned to the rectory, where he was permitted to live for another six years and shared responsibility for his widowed mother and the family. Arthur Hallam came to stay with his family during the summer and became engaged to Tennyson's sister, Emilia Tennyson. In 1833 Tennyson published his second book of poetry, which notably included the first version of The Lady of Shalott; the volume met heavy criticism, which so discouraged Tennyson that he did not publish again for ten years, although he did continue to write. That same year, Hallam died and unexpectedly after suffering a cerebral haemorrhage while on a holiday in Vienna. Hallam's death had a profound effect on Tennyson and inspired several poems, including "In the Valley of Cauteretz" and In Memoriam A. H. H. A long poem detailing the "Way of the Soul". Tennyson and his family were allowed to stay in the rectory for some time, but moved to Beech Hill Park, High Beach, deep within Epping Forest, about 1837.
Tennyson’s son recalled: “there was a pond in the park on which in winter my father might be seen skating, sailing about on the ice in his long blue cloak. He liked the nearness of London, whither he resorted to see his friends, but he could not stay in town for a