Oxymorphone

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Oxymorphone
Oxymorphone2DCSD.svg
Oxymorphone3DanJ.gif
Clinical data
Trade names Numorphan, Numorphone, Opana, others
Synonyms 14-Hydroxydihydromorphinone
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a610022
Pregnancy
category
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Dependence
liability
High
Routes of
administration
By mouth, intravenous, intramusucular, subcutaneous, rectal, intranasal
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability by mouth: 10%
Intranasal: 43%[3]
IV, IM: 100%[2]
Protein binding 10%[2]
Metabolism Liver (CYP3A4, glucuronidation)[2]
Elimination half-life 7–9 hours[2]
Excretion Urine, feces[2]
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.873 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C17H19NO4
Molar mass 301.337 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
  (verify)

Oxymorphone, sold under the brand names Numorphan among others, is a powerful semi-synthetic opioid analgesic (painkiller) developed in Germany in 1914. Pain relief after injection begins after about 5–10 minutes and 15–30 minutes after rectal administration, and lasts about 3–4 hours for immediate-release tablets and 12 hours for extended-release tablets.[2]

It is highly addictive and in June 2017 the FDA asked the manufacturer to remove its product from the US market.[4] This was in part due to the opioid epidemic in the US, and the fact that the 2012 reformulation led to a shift in the route of abuse from nasal to injection. It was the first time in the history of the agency, that the FDA had made a request for removal regarding a product currently on the market. In response, by July 2017, Endo International voluntarily removed Opana ER from the market.[5] Generic versions of extended release oxymorphone are still available for prescription use in the US.

Medical uses[edit]

Oxymorphone is indicated for the relief of moderate to severe pain, such as treatment of acute post surgical pain. [6] For any chronic treatment of pain, clinicians should only consider long term use if there is significant clinical benefits to the patient's therapy that outweigh the risks. The first line treatment choices for chronic pain are non-pharmacological and non-opioid agents. [7]

Oxymorphone extended-release tablets are indicated for the management of chronic pain and only for people already on a regular schedule of strong opioids for a prolonged period. Immediate-release oxymorphone tablets are recommended for breakthrough pain for people on the extended-release version. Compared to other opioids, oxymorphone has similar pain relieving efficacy. [8]

In the United States it is a Schedule II controlled substance with an ACSCN of 9652.[9]

Dosage Form Indication(s) [10]
Pareneteral
IM/SubQ Labor Analgesia, General Analgesia
IV General Analgesia
Oral
Immediate Release Acute Pain
Extended Release Chronic Pain

Availability[edit]

Brands and Forms[edit]

Oxymorphone is marketed by a single brand name manufacturer, Endo Pharmaceuticals, under the brand name(s) Opana and Opana ER. Recently, Opana ER was withdrawn by the manufacturer in 2017 ([11]) and is no longer available. However both IR (immediate release) and ER (extended release) options are available under the generic name Oxymorphone and Oxymorphone ER, provided by a multitude of different brands.

Oxymorphone is also available as an injectable for inpatient use, available for IV (intravenous), IM (intramuscular), and SubQ (subcutaneous) injection.

Oxymorphone Oral Dosage Forms[edit]

Oxymorphone comes in a variety of doses. As of 2017, brand name is currently only available in the IR form due to a request from the FDA to remove the brand name ER from the market to mitigate abuse (see Society and Culture).

IR Tablet ER 12 Hour Tablet [12]
5mg 5mg
10mg 7.5mg
10mg
15mg
20mg
30mg
40mg

Special Populations[edit]

Patients already suffering from debilitation are at a much higher risk of respiratory depression in these patients. Nonopioid analgesics should be considered in this population.

Elderly patients are much more sensitive to adverse effects, such as falls, cognitive impairment and constipation, and should be monitored for such. Decreased renal function associated with aging leads to decreased clearance of the drug, resulting in narrow therapeutic windows and increasing the danger of overdose. If oxymorphone is absolutely indicated, smaller initial doses should be started for this population.

There is a risk of neonatal withdrawal symptom in the newborn if pregnant women take oxymorphone for a prolonged period. Oxymorphone crosses the placenta and holds risk of birth defects, poor fetal growth, stillbirth, and preterm delivery. Mothers who are physically dependent on oxymorphone during pregnancy may give birth to infants that are also dependent. Due to these severe risks, oxymorphone is highly discouraged among this population. The amount of transfer of oxymorphone into the breast milk is not known and women are cautioned to weigh the risks and benefits before breastfeeding while on this medication.[13]

Side effects[edit]

The principal adverse effects of oxymorphone are similar to other opioids with constipation, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, dry mouth and drowsiness being the most common adverse effects. This drug is highly addictive as with other opioids and can lead to chemical dependence and withdrawal.[14]

Overdose[edit]

In common with other opioids, oxymorphone overdosage is characterized by respiratory depression, sleepiness progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle weakness, cold and clammy skin, and sometimes slow heart rate and low blood pressure. In a severe case of overdose, apnea, circulatory collapse, cardiac arrest and death can occur.[14]

Pharmacology[edit]

Pharmacodynamics[edit]

Oxymorphone elicits its effects by binding to and activating the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and, to a much lesser extent, the δ-opioid receptor (DOR) and κ-opioid receptor (KOR).[2] Its activity at the DOR may augment its action at the MOR.[2] Oxymorphone is 10 times more potent than morphine.[15]

Oxymorphone at opioid receptors[16]
Affinities (Ki) Ratio
MOR DOR KOR MOR:DOR:KOR
0.78 nM 50 nM 137 nM 1:64:176
Equianalgesic doses[17][18][19]
Compound Route Dose
Codeine PO 200 mg
Hydrocodone PO 20–30 mg
Hydromorphone PO 7.5 mg
Hydromorphone IV 1.5 mg
Morphine PO 30 mg
Morphine IV 10 mg
Oxycodone PO 20 mg
Oxycodone IV 10 mg
Oxymorphone PO 10 mg
Oxymorphone IV 1 mg

Pharmacokinetics[edit]

Chemistry[edit]

Oxymorphone is commercially produced from thebaine, which is a minor constituent of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) but thebaine is found in greater abundance (3%) in the roots of the oriental poppy (Papaver orientale).[2][20] German patents from the mid-1930s indicate that oxymorphone as well as hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and acetylmorphone can be prepared—without the need for hydrogen gas—from solutions of codeine, morphine, and dionine by refluxing an acidic aqueous solution, or the precursor drug dissolved in ethanol, in the presence of Column 7 metals[further explanation needed], namely palladium and platinum in fine powder or colloidal form or platinum black. It is unclear if aluminium or nickel can be used as a catalyst in these reactions.[21]

Oxymorphone hydrochloride occurs as odourless white crystals or white to off-white powder. It darkens in colour with prolonged exposure to light. One gram of oxymorphone hydrochloride is soluble in 4 ml of water and it is sparingly soluble in alcohol and ether. It degrades upon contact with light.[14]

Oxymorphone can be acetylated like morphine, hydromorphone, and some other opioids. Mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra- esters of oxymorphone were developed in the 1930s but are not used in medicine at this time. Presumably other esters such as nicotinyl, benzoyl, formyl, cinnimoyl &c.can be produced.[citation needed]

The 2013 US DEA annual manufacturing quotas were 18 375 kilogrammes for conversion (a number of drugs can be made from oxymorphone, both painkillers and opioid antagonists like naloxone) and 6875 kg for direct manufacture of end-products.[22] Oxymorphone is also a minor metabolite of oxycodone, which is formed by CYP2D6-mediated O-demethylation.[2]

History[edit]

Oxymorphone was first developed in Germany in 1914,[23] and patented in the USA by Endo Pharmaceuticals in 1955.[24] It was introduced in the United States in January 1959 and other countries around the same time.[2]

Society and culture[edit]

Brand names[edit]

  • Numorphan (suppository and injectable solution)
  • Opana ER (extended-release tablet): June 2017 FDA removal request due to rates of IV abuse.[25]
  • Opana IR (immediate-release tablet)
  • O-Morphon in Bangladesh by Ziska pharmaceutical ltd.

The brand name Numorphan is derived by analogy to the Nucodan name for an oxycodone product (or vice versa) as well as Paramorphan/Paramorfan for dihydromorphine and Paracodin (dihydrocodeine). The only commercially available salt of oxymorphone in most of the world at this time is the hydrochloride, which has a free base conversion ratio of 0.891, and oxymorphone hydrochloride monohydrate has a factor of 0.85.[14]

Generic pill markings are ATV10/APO; HK10 (10 mgs) oblong white and ATV20/APO; HK20 (20mgs) oblong white.[citation needed]

Abuse[edit]

In 1924, the United States Congress had banned the sale, importation, or manufacture of heroin, another opioid pain medication in the Anti-Heroin Act of 1924.

In the past 30 years, opioid drug abuse has been a prevalent public health issue.  In more recent years, this issue has developed into a full-fledged epidemic and is leading to several other public health issues, including the spread of diseases like hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). [26][27]

In the United States, as of 2013 more than 12 million people abused opioid drugs at least once a year.[28] In 2010, 16,652 deaths were related to opiate overdose, in 2015 this number increased to 33,091.[29][30] In September 2013, new FDA labeling guidelines for long-acting and extended-release opioids required manufacturers to remove moderate pain as use indication, reserving the drug for "pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment"[31] however it did not restrict physicians from prescribing opioids for moderate, "as needed" usage.[28]

In January 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported an illness associated with intravenous (IV) abuse of oral Opana ER (oxymorphone) in Tennessee. The syndrome resembled that of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP).[32] Initial therapy included therapeutic plasma exchange, as for TTP. Unlike TTP, no deficient ADAMTS13 activity nor anti-ADAMTS13 antibody was found indicating a thrombotic microangiopathy of different underlying cause. If IV Opana abuse is acknowledged, supportive care, instead of therapeutic plasma exchange could be considered.[33]

In late March 2015, reports indicated Austin, Indiana, was the center of an outbreak of HIV caused by oxymorphone use as an injectable recreational drug. The outbreak required emergency action by state officials.[34][35][36] The NPR podcast "embedded" episode of March 31, 2016 was an in-depth account of a visit to oxymorphone abusers in Austin, Indiana. The current street price of oxymorphone was reported to be $140.[37]

In January 2015, the first HIV outbreak linked to abuse of prescription opioid drugs was identified by the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH), in the small, rural community of Scott County in southeastern Indiana.[38]  ISDH launched an investigation into this HIV outbreak when 11 individuals were confirmed positive for HIV with ties tracing back to the same community. Three months into this investigation, ISDH diagnosed a total of 135 people with HIV, with the numbers still increasing. The cause of this outbreak has been linked to the sharing of needles between opioid abusers, which in some cases, involves sharing needles with up to nine different partners.[27]

The common opioid of abuse in this outbreak has been identified as Opana ER, a time-released oxymorphone pain killer formulated to be resistant to crushing, manufactured by Endo Pharmaceuticals. This harder to crush formulation was put into production in 2012 in an effort to reduce the risk of abuse from snorting the crushed up pill. However, opioid abusers circumvented this issue by finding a way to dissolve and inject the drug.[38]

The extent of this outbreak has garnered the attention of both the CDC and FDA. The CDC opened a larger investigation into all disease outbreaks involving Opana ER, focusing on the incidence of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)-like illness in the 2012 Tennessee outbreak, as well as the 2015 HIV outbreak in Indiana. The FDA launched a post-marketing safety study regarding the reformulation of Opana ER in 2012[39] and the Indiana state government helped fund another study exploring the link between HIV infection and injection use of oxymorphone in Indiana from 2014 to 2015.[40]

The results of these studies found that the reformulation of Opana to a hard to crush tablet unintentionally increased the risk of transmission of acquired blood borne infections because opioid abusers switched from using the drug through the nasal route to injection. The the case of Indiana's HIV outbreak in 2015, the risk of acquiring a blood borne infection with the use of injectable opioids was greater than the risk when using injectable heroin or cocaine.[26][39][40]

In June 2017, faced with the public health crisis, the opioid epidemic, the FDA asked Endo Pharmaceuticals to "remove its opioid pain medication, reformulated Opana ER (oxymorphone hydrochloride), from the market". In their June 8, 2017 press release they also noted that, this was the first time the FDA had taken steps to "remove a currently marketed opioid pain medication from sale due to public health consequences of abuse."[25] By July 6, 2017, Endo International voluntarily complied with the FDA removal request.[41]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products". www.accessdata.fda.gov. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Davis, MP; Glare, PA; Hardy, J (2009) [2005]. Opioids in Cancer Pain (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-157532-7.
  3. ^ Hussain MA, Aungst BJ (August 1997). "Intranasal absorption of oxymorphone". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 86 (8): 975–6. doi:10.1021/js960513x. PMID 9269879.
  4. ^ Chem. Eng. News 95(25), 8, 2017
  5. ^ Commissioner, Office of the. "Press Announcements - FDA requests removal of Opana ER for risks related to abuse". www.fda.gov.
  6. ^ Sloan, Paul. "Review of oral oxymorphone in the management of pain". NCBI. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  7. ^ "Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain" (PDF). CDC. CDC. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
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  11. ^ Endo to Pull Opana From the Market Following FDA Request. Pharmacy Times. Barrett, Jennifer. Online. Available at: https://www.pharmacytimes.com/product-news/endo-to-pull-opana-from-the-market-following-fda-request. Accessed November 1, 2018.
  12. ^ Oxymorphone. Lexi-Drugs. Lexicomp. Wolthers Kluwer Health, Inc. Riverwoods, IL. Available at: httw://online.lexi.com. Accessed November 1, 2018.
  13. ^ "Login". www.crlonline.com. Retrieved 2018-11-01.
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  22. ^ "2013 - Proposed Adjustments to the Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled Substances and Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and Phenylpropanolamine for 2013". www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov.
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  25. ^ a b "FDA requests removal of Opana ER for risks related to abuse" (Press release). Silver Spring, Maryland. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. June 8, 2017. Retrieved October 26, 2017. Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requested that Endo Pharmaceuticals remove its opioid pain medication, reformulated Opana ER (oxymorphone hydrochloride), from the market... This is the first time the agency has taken steps to remove a currently marketed opioid pain medication from sale due to the public health consequences of abuse...[FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D.]: "We are facing an opioid epidemic – a public health crisis, and we must take all necessary steps to reduce the scope of opioid misuse and abuse.
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  33. ^ Miller PJ, Farland AM, Knovich MA, Batt KM, Owen J (July 2014). "Successful treatment of intravenously abused oral Opana ER-induced thrombotic microangiopathy without plasma exchange". American Journal of Hematology. 89 (7): 695–7. doi:10.1002/ajh.23720. PMID 24668845.
  34. ^ Paquette, Danielle (30 March 2015). "How an HIV outbreak hit rural Indiana — and why we should be paying attention". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  35. ^ Conrad C, Bradley HM, Broz D, Buddha S, Chapman EL, Galang RR, Hillman D, Hon J, Hoover KW, Patel MR, Perez A, Peters PJ, Pontones P, Roseberry JC, Sandoval M, Shields J, Walthall J, Waterhouse D, Weidle PJ, Wu H, Duwve JM (May 2015). "Community Outbreak of HIV Infection Linked to Injection Drug Use of Oxymorphone--Indiana, 2015". MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 64 (16): 443–4. PMID 25928470.
  36. ^ Strathdee SA, Beyrer C (July 2015). "Threading the Needle--How to Stop the HIV Outbreak in Rural Indiana". The New England Journal of Medicine. 373 (5): 397–9. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1507252. PMID 26106947.
  37. ^ McEvers, Kelly (2016-03-31). "Embedded". NPR.org.
  38. ^ a b "Community Outbreak of HIV Infection Linked to Injection Drug Use of Oxymorphone — Indiana, 2015". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2018-11-02.
  39. ^ a b Staffa, J. (2017, March 13). Joint Meeting of the Drug Safety and Risk Management (DSaRM) Advisory Committee and the Anesthetic and Analgesic Drug Products Advisory Committee (AADPAC) Meeting: Postmarketing Safety Issues Related to Reformulated Opana ER®(United States, US Food and Drug Administration, Surveillance and Epidemiology).
  40. ^ a b Peters, Philip J.; Pontones, Pamela; Hoover, Karen W.; Patel, Monita R.; Galang, Romeo R.; Shields, Jessica; Blosser, Sara J.; Spiller, Michael W.; Combs, Brittany (2016-07-21). "HIV Infection Linked to Injection Use of Oxymorphone in Indiana, 2014–2015". New England Journal of Medicine. 375 (3): 229–239. doi:10.1056/nejmoa1515195. ISSN 0028-4793.
  41. ^ Palmer, Eric (July 6, 2017). "Endo caves to FDA pressure, will pull Opana ER from the market". Fierce Pharma. Retrieved October 26, 2017.