Oxytetracycline was the second of the broad-spectrum tetracycline group of antibiotics to be discovered. Oxytetracycline works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to produce essential proteins. Without these proteins, the bacteria cannot grow and increase in numbers. Oxytetracycline therefore stops the spread of the infection and the remaining bacteria are killed by the immune system or die. Oxytetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, active against a wide variety of bacteria. However, some strains of bacteria have developed resistance to this antibiotic, which has reduced its effectiveness for treating some types of infections. Oxytetracycline is still used to treat infections caused by Chlamydia and infections caused by Mycoplasma organisms. Oxytetracycline is used to treat acne, due to its activity against the bacteria on the skin that influence the development of acne, it is used to treat flare-ups of chronic bronchitis, due to its activity against the bacteria responsible, Haemophilus influenzae.
Oxytetracycline may be used to treat other rarer infections, such as those caused by a group of micro-organisms called rickettsiae. To make sure the bacteria causing an infection are susceptible to it, a tissue sample is taken, for example a swab from the infected area, or a urine or blood sample. Oxytetracycline was patented in 1949 and came into commercial use in 1950. Oxytetracycline, like other tetracyclines, is used to treat many infections, both common and rare, its better absorption profile makes it preferable to tetracycline for moderately severe acne at a dosage of 250–500 mg four times a day for six to eight weeks at a time, but alternatives should be sought if no improvement occurs by three months. Avoid milk, zinc or indigestion remedies while taking oxytetracycline. Take before food or on an empty stomach. Always follow your doctors' instructions and instruction leaflet, it is sometimes used to treat spirochaetal infections, clostridial wound infection and anthrax in patients sensitive to penicillin.
Oxytetracycline is used to treat infections of the respiratory and urinary tracts, ear and gonorrhoea, although its use for such purposes has declined in recent years due to large increases in bacterial resistance to this class of drugs. The drug is useful when penicillins and/or macrolides cannot be used due to allergy, it may be used to treat Legionnaire's disease as a substitute for a quinolone. Oxytetracycline is valuable in treating nonspecific urethritis, Lyme disease, cholera, tularaemia. and infections caused by Chlamydia and Rickettsia. Doxycycline is now preferred to oxytetracycline for many of these indications because it has improved pharmacologic features; the standard dose is 250–500 mg six-hourly by mouth. In severe infections, this dose may be increased accordingly. Oxytetracycline is given by intramuscular injection or topically in the form of creams, ophthalmic ointments or eye drops. Side effects are gastrointestinal and photosensitive allergic reactions common to the tetracycline antibiotics group.
It can damage calcium-rich organs, such as teeth and bones, although this is rare. It sometimes causes nasal cavities to erode. Candidiasis is not uncommon following treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, it was first found near Pfizer laboratories in a soil sample yielding the soil actinomycete, Streptomyces rimosus by Finlay et al. In 1950, a celebrated American chemist, Robert B Woodward, worked out the chemical structure of oxytetracycline, enabling Pfizer to mass-produce the drug under the trade name, Terramycin; this discovery by Woodward was a major advancement in tetracycline research and paved the way for the discovery of an oxytetracycline derivative, one of the most popularly used antibiotics today. Oxytetracycline belongs to a structurally diverse class of aromatic polyketide antibiotics produced by Streptomyces via type II polyketide synthases which are known as bacterial aromatic polyketides. Other compounds produced via type II PKSs are important bioactive compounds which span from anticancer agents doxorubicin to antibiotics such as tetracycline.
The biosynthesis of oxytetracycline can be broken down into three general portions. The biosynthesis of oxytetracycline begins with the utilization of PKS enzymes ketosynthase, the chain length factor, the acyl carrier protein, an acyltransferase to catalyze the extension of the malonamyl-CoA starting unit with 8 malonyl-CoA extender units; the process of elongating the polypeptide skeleton occurs through a series of Claisen-like decarboxylation reactions until the linear tetracyclic skeleton is formed. Thus, minimal PKS's form a completed amidated polyketide backbone without any additional post-synthase tailoring enzymes. Following the formation of the linear tetracyclic skeleton, four successive cyclization reactions must occur in a regios
La Araucana is a 16th-century epic poem in Spanish about the Spanish Conquest of Chile by Alonso de Ercilla. It was considered the national epic of the Captaincy General of Chile and one of the most important works of the Spanish Golden Age. La Araucana consists of 37 cantos; the first part was published in 1569. The poem shows Ercilla to be a master of the octava real, the complicated stanza in which many other Renaissance epics in Castilian were written. A difficult eight-line unit of 11-syllable verses that are linked by a tight rhyme scheme abababcc, the octava real was a challenge few poets met, it had been adapted from Italian only in the 16th century, it produces resonant, serious-sounding verse, appropriate to epic themes. The work describes the initial phase of the Arauco War which evolved from the Spanish conquest attempt of southern Chile; the war would come to shape the economics and social life of Chile for centuries. Ercilla placed the lesser conquests of the Spanish in Chile at the core of his poem, because the author was a participant in the conquest and the story is based on his experiences there.
On scraps of paper in the lulls of fighting, Ercilla jotted down versified octaves about the events of the war and his own part in it. These stanzas he gathered together and augmented in number to form his epic. In the minds of the Chilean people La Araucana is a kind of Iliad that exalts the heroism and contempt of pain and death of the legendary Araucanian leaders and makes them national heroes today, thus we see Ercilla appealing to the concept of the "noble savage," which has its origins in classical authors and took on a new lease of life in the renaissance - c.f. Montaigne's essay "Des Canibales", was destined to have wide literary currency in European literature two centuries later, he had, in fact, created a historical poem of the war in Chile which inspired many imitations. La Araucana is deliberately literary and includes fantastical elements reminiscent of medieval stories of chivalry; the narrator is a participant in the story, at the time a new development for Spanish literature.
Influences include Orlando furioso by Ludovico Ariosto. Features extended description of the natural landscape. La Araucana’s successes—and weaknesses—as a poem stem from the uneasy coexistence of characters and situations drawn from Classical sources and Italian Renaissance poets with material derived from the actions of contemporary Spaniards and Araucanians; the mixture of Classical and Araucanian motifs in La Araucana strikes the modern reader as unusual, but Ercilla's turning native peoples into ancient Greeks, Romans, or Carthaginians was a common practice of his time. For Ercilla, the Araucanians were noble and brave—only lacking, as their Classical counterparts did, the Christian faith. Caupolicán, the Indian warrior and chieftain, the protagonist of Ercilla's poem, has a panoply of Classical heroes behind him, his valour and nobility give La Araucana grandeur, as does the poem's exaltation of the vanquished: the defeated Araucanians are the champions in this poem, written by one of the victors, a Spaniard.
Ercilla's depiction of Caupolicán elevates La Araucana above the poem's structural defects and prosaic moments, which occur toward the end when Ercilla follows Tasso too and the narrative strays from the author's lived experience. Ercilla, the poet-soldier emerges as the true hero of his own poem, he is the figure that gives the poem unity and strength; the story is considered to be the first or one of the first works of literature in the New World for its fantastical/religious elements, it is arguable whether, a "traveler's account" or actual literature. La Araucana’s more dramatic moments became a source of plays, but the Renaissance epic is not a genre that has, as a whole, endured well, today Ercilla is little known and La Araucana is read except by specialists and students of Spanish and Latin American literatures, of course in Chile, where it is subject of special attention in the elementary schools education both in language and history. La Araucana makes Chile the only American country, founded under the lights of an epic poem.
Alonso de Ercilla was born into a noble family in Spain. He occupied several positions in the household of Prince Philip, before requesting and receiving appointment to a military expedition to Chile to subdue the Araucanians of Chile, he joined the adventurers, he distinguished himself in the ensuing campaign. The sentence was commuted to imprisonment, but Ercilla was speedily released and fought at the Battle of Quipeo, he was exiled to Peru and returned to Spain in 1562. Ercilla embodied the Renaissance ideal of being at once a man of action and a man of letters as no other in his time was, he was adept at blending lived experience with literary tradition. He was acclaimed in Spain. There is an episode in Miguel de Cervantes’s 17th-century novel Don Quixote, when a priest and barber inspect Don Quixote's personal library, to burn the books r
The McLaren MP4/5 and its derived sister model the McLaren MP4/5B were Formula One racing cars designed by the McLaren Formula One team based in Woking and powered by Honda's aspirated RA109E and RA100E V10 engines respectively. The MP4/5 was loosely based on its 1988 predecessor, the all-conquering MP4/4. McLaren used the new car for half of the 1989 season using the Weismann Longitudinal Transmission from the MP4/4, the MP4/5B with the Weismann Transverse Transmission for the last half of the 1989 season and for 1990, earning back to back drivers' and constructors' world titles with the type; the car was designed by American engineer Steve Nichols who had designed both of its turbocharged predecessors, the MP4/3, an all-new design for McLaren by Nichols, as well as its successful MP4/4 the following year/season. Over the course of two seasons, the MP4/5 took 16 wins, 27 pole positions and 263 points before it was replaced by the MP4/6 for 1991. 1989 was the first year where aspirated engines were compulsory for all teams after the banning of the turbocharged units at the end of the previous season.
To this end, Honda built a 3.5 litre V10 engine, developed throughout most of the latter half of 1987 and through 1988. The MP4/5 was unveiled for pre-season testing and it was on the pace, as well as reliable. Developed by Neil Oatley, the MP4/5 looked like the car to beat in the new season. While the Ferrari that season was a fast all-around car in the hands of Nigel Mansell, it was chronically unreliable due to its new semi-electronic gearbox shift, giving further advantage to McLaren; the Honda-powered MP4/5 proved to have outright pace over the rest of the field, with 15 pole positions, 13 of them by Senna which equalled his 1988 record in the MP4/4. At the Mexican Grand Prix, Senna scored his 34th career pole in the MP4/5, breaking the previous record of 33 held by the late Jim Clark that had stood since 1968. McLaren took 10 victories during 6 for Ayrton Senna and 4 for Prost; this was at a time when the relationship between the two men was at its breaking point, so their rivalry pushed the development of the car far ahead of the other teams as they tried to out-do each other.
Although Senna won six races to Prost's four and finished ahead of the Frenchman in the races and car breakages meant that he had four fewer points-scoring finishes and finished 16 points behind his French rival in the championship. Senna and Prost's combined points total meant McLaren won their second straight Constructors' Championship. Like 1988, the Drivers' Championship was a two horse race between defending champion Senna and dual champion Prost; the championship was settled at the penultimate race in Japan. After dominating qualifying, the two McLarens were evenly matched in the race and drove away from the rest of the field until their fateful collision at the chicane on lap 46. Prost was out on the spot while Senna was able to restart and after pitting for a new nose section, re-took the lead from the Benetton-Ford of Alessandro Nannini and went on to win the race. However, he was disqualified post-race for receiving a push start and missing the chicane after restarting which gave Prost his 3rd World Championship.1989 was McLaren's 4th Constructors' Championship of the 1980s following on from 1984, 1985 and 1988, making the team the equal leading constructor of the decade with Williams who won in 1980, 1981, 1986 and 1987.
It was Honda's 4th consecutive Constructors' Championship as an engine manufacturer, McLaren's 5th Championship overall having won their first in 1974. Prost went on to move to Ferrari for the 1990 season, as announced during the midseason of the previous year, taking designer Steve Nichols with him; the Frenchman was unhappy because he believed that Honda were favouring Senna. As a result, Ferrari and McLaren swapped car numbers, giving Prost and teammate Nigel Mansell the numbers 1 and 2, giving Senna and Gerhard Berger, who had swapped with Prost at Ferrari, the numbers 27 and 28. McLaren responded the following year with a modified version of the MP4/5; the wings were redesigned and the rear bodywork reprofiled around larger radiators. The engine was tweaked and Senna did much development work to ensure he would have better reliability in the new season, he and Gerhard Berger took the fight to Prost and Ferrari in 1990, winning another six races and winning the Constructors' Championship.
The McLaren proved to have an outright speed advantage in qualifying and was notable for the number of times both cars were on the front row. The car appeared to struggle against the Ferrari 641s in the races themselves on heavy fuel loads with the Ferraris' race pace negating the McLarens' qualifying supremacy, it was in that year's race at the Japanese Grand Prix when Senna and Prost collided in the first corner of the first lap, giving Senna the championship due to Prost being unable to continue. Gordon Murray, the famed South African designer who had worked at Brabham since 1969, had designed championship winning cars for the team and joined McLaren in 1987, retired from Formula One after his work on this car, he went to work on McLaren's road car project. There was a test mule during the 1990 season created by McLaren called MP4/5C for Honda's new V12 engine, to be used by the Woking outfit for the following 2 seasons; this car, driven by the team's test driver Allan McNish, made its public on track debut at a 3-day test session held at Silverstone the week before the 1990 French Grand Prix.
Bill Rauch is an award-winning American theatre director. He was named the inaugural artistic director of the Ronald O. Perelman Performing Arts Center at the World Trade Center in 2016. In development, the Perelman is the final piece of the plan to revitalize the World Trade Center site and will create work which inspires hope. Rauch served as the fifth artistic director of the Oregon Shakespeare Festival, from June 2007 through August 2019, where he commissioned several critically acclaimed, diverse plays that transferred to Broadway including Lynn Nottage’s Pulitzer Prize-winning Sweat, Paula Vogel’s Indecent, Robert Schenkkan’s Tony Award-winning All The Way, the Go Go’s musical Head Over Heels, Robert Schenkkan’s All The Way sequel, The Great Society. Bill Rauch is the founder of the Cornerstone Theater Company, a traveling company that brought theater to rural communities across the United States before settling in Los Angeles to work with urban communities. Bill Rauch graduated from Harvard College in 1984, where he was a recipient of the Louis Sudler Prize for outstanding graduating artist.
Bill Rauch co-founded the community-based, touring Cornerstone Theater Company in 1986 with Alison Carey, where he directed more than 40 productions, most of them collaborations with diverse rural and urban communities across the United States, served as artistic director from 1986 to 2006. Bill Rauch has directed a number of world premieres, including Naomi Wallace’s Night is a Room at New York’s Signature Theatre, he directed the New York premiere of The Clean House at Lincoln Center Theater. Work elsewhere includes productions at South Coast Repertory, Guthrie Theater, Arena Stage, Long Wharf Theatre, Pasadena Playhouse, Great Lakes Theater and En Garde Arts, he has taught at University of California, Los Angeles, University of Southern California, California State University, Los Angeles and the University of California, Irvine as a Professor of Directing and Community Based Theater. Bill Rauch became the Oregon Shakespeare Festival's fifth artistic director in 2007, after five seasons at the Festival as a guest director.
As visiting director at OSF, Rauch directed Handler, Hedda Gabler, The Comedy of Errors, By the Waters of Babylon & The Two Gentlemen of Verona. During his 17 seasons at OSF, Rauch directed seven world premieres including, Mother Road, LA Comedia of Errors, Off the Rails, Fingersmith, The Great Society, All the Way, Equivocation and By the Waters of Babylon, he directed 19 other plays at the Festival including. Bill Rauch directed several OSF plays at other theatres, including Equivocation, All the Way and The Great Society at Seattle Rep. All the Way moved to the Neil Simon Theatre on Broadway in 2014, where it won the Tony Award for Best Play and earned Drama Desk and Outer Critics Circle Award nominations for directing; the Great Society moved to the Vivian Beaumont Theater on Broadway in 2019 and opened October 1, 2019. During his time at OSF, Rauch was known for his passionate dedication to diversifying the company and the audience. A risk-taker, Rauch put together programming that combined Shakespeare, other classics, contemporary work, plays commissioned for the company.
His vision for OSF included important plays outside the Western Canon. Among his initiatives at OSF, Rauch commissioned 37 new plays as part of American Revolutions: the U. S. History Cycle, to dramatize moments of change in American history, inspired by Shakespeare’s history plays and funded in part by grants from the Andrew W. Mellon, Collins Family, Paul G. Allen Family Foundations, he initiated the Black Swan Lab for New Work and a community-based format for the Green Show. On February 16, 2018, Rauch announced that his directorship would come to an end in August 2019. In 2014, Rauch directed the Broadway production of All the Way by Robert Schenkkan, after commissioning and directing the play at OSF in 2012; this limited-engagement production opened on March 6, 2014 at the Neil Simon Theatre and concluded on June 29, 2014. The production won two Tony Awards, the 2014 Tony Award for Best Play and the 2014 Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Play, which went to Bryan Cranston.
The play won the Drama Desk and Outer Critics Circle Award for Outstanding Play. Rauch was nominated for both a Drama Outer Critics Circle Award for his direction. In 2019, Rauch again worked with Schenkkan on The Great Society, the sequel to All the Way, which ran for a twelve week limited-engagement on Broadway at The Vivian Beaumont Theater, beginning September 6, 2019; the play starred Emmy-winner Brian Cox as President Lyndon B. Johnson. In February 2016, Rauch was named the inaugural artistic director of the Ronald O. Perelman Performing Arts Center, a new, flexible midsize performance space at The World Trade
Michael Gahan "Mike" Fahey, is an American businessman who served as the 49th mayor of Omaha, Nebraska. He first took office on June 11, 2001. Fahey won his second term as mayor in the May 2005 election, he is a member of the Democratic Party and is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition, a bi-partisan group with a stated goal of "making the public safer by getting illegal guns off the streets." The Coalition is co-chaired by New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg. After graduating from Creighton University in 1973, Fahey founded American Land Title Company, a small title insurance company, he sold the company in 1990, but continued serving as CEO until retiring in 1997. Fahey was appointed to the Omaha Planning Board by Mayor Mike Boyle. Fahey served on the Planning Board from 1981 to 1991, he has one daughter. In October 2006 the City of Omaha Safety Auditor Tristan Bonn submitted a report which detailed Omaha Police Department officers' alleged aggressive and unwarranted traffic stops, which unprecedentedly involved African Americans and other people of color.
Within a week Fahey fired her. The incident has caused ire within North Omaha particularly. While the discussion of whether or not to keep the auditor position continues, Fahey's office is investigating the issues that were lodged with the Public Safety Auditor. Fahey has been criticized for his decision to build a new baseball stadium in downtown Omaha as a means to securing a long-term contract with the NCAA to keep the College World Series in Omaha; as a result of this, a group of Omaha residents circulated a proposal to recall Fahey. This petition drive failed, with the Recall Fahey campaign collecting only 8,202 of the required 21,734 signatures. On July 29, 2008, Fahey announced he would not be seeking reelection for Mayor of Omaha in 2009. At the end of Mike Fahey's term in 2009, the City of Omaha named a section of Webster Street in downtown, between 10th and 17th streets, in his honor. Omaha Mayor's Office
Hubert Newcombe Alyea was an American professor of chemistry at Princeton University. His explosive chemistry demonstrations earned him the nickname "Dr. Boom." He was famous around the world for his "zany, eccentric" public lectures on science, which "were as much performance as professorship." Alyea served as inspiration for the title character in the 1961 film The Absent-Minded Professor. In 1984, Alyea received the Joseph Priestley award; the New York Times described his Princeton lectures as follows: “Dr. Alyea had a genius for bringing science to life in the classroom. With his'armchair chemistry', he endowed chemical principles with the drama and verve of a sound-and-light show, which now and burned his suits beyond repair, his hands flew above Bunsen burners. Amid explosions and swishing clouds of carbon dioxide he explained the mysteries of chemistry with contagious enthusiasm”. According to Time Magazine, he “lectured with an animated, dynamic style that drew enthusiastic audiences of all ages”.
“Grimacing with fiendish delight”, Life Magazine reported at the time, “he sets off explosions, shoots water pistols and sprays his audience with carbon dioxide in the course of 32 harrowing experiments dramatizing complicated theory”. A shortened version of the lecture was featured on a 1955 NBC TV series, “Princeton'55: An Exploration into Education through Television”, it won an Emmy. Alyea was well known for a lecture he gave about the nature of scientific discovery. After his retirement, Alyea continued to deliver lectures at Princeton reunions, his memoir, My Life as a Chemist, was published in 1991. Alyea died at his home in Hightstown, New Jersey, on October 22, 1996, at the age of 93. Alyea was presented with honorary degrees by various colleges and universities, including Beaver College, he won the New Jersey Science Teachers Award, the New Jersey Education Citation, the Chemical Manufacturers Association Award, an award from the New Jersey Chapter of the American Institute of Chemists, the Award in Chemical Education from the American Chemical Society, the James Flack Norris Award from the Northeast Section of the American Chemical Society, the Robert H. Carleton Award from the National Science Teachers Association.