Setagaya is a special ward in Tokyo, Japan. It is the name of a neighborhood and administrative district within the ward; the ward calls itself Setagaya City in English. Its official bird is the azure-winged magpie, its flower the fringed orchid, its tree the Zelkova serrata. Setagaya has second largest area of Tokyo's special wards; as of March 1, 2018, the ward has an estimated population of 900,095, a population density of 15,497.50 persons per km2 with the total area of 58.08 km2. Setagaya is located at the southwestern corner of the Tokyo's special wards and Tama River separates the boundary between Tokyo Metropolis and Kanagawa Prefecture. Residential population is among the highest in Tokyo as there are many residential neighbourhoods within Setagaya. Setagaya is served by various rail services providing frequent 2 to 3 minutes headway rush hour services to the busiest train terminals of Shinjuku and Shibuya as well as through service trains which continue travelling on to the Tokyo Metro lines providing direct access to the central commercial and business districts.
Most rail lines run parallel from east to west and there are no north to south rail services within Setagaya, except for Setagaya Line light rail. The ward is divided into five districts; these are Setagaya, Tamagawa and Karasuyama. The main ward office and municipal assembly is located in Setagaya District, but other districts have its own branch ward offices as a part of the administrative structure; each branch offices provide identical services as the main office, but does not provide the services related to municipal assembly. Most of the land is in the Musashino Tableland; the parts along the Tama River to the south are comparatively low-lying. The special ward of Setagaya was founded on March 15, 1947. During the Edo period, 42 villages occupied the area. With the abolition of the han system in 1871, the central and eastern portions became part of Tokyo Prefecture while the rest became part of Kanagawa Prefecture. With the establishment of Setagaya Ward in the old Tokyo City in 1932, further consolidation in 1936, Setagaya took its present boundaries.
During the 1964 Summer Olympics, the district of Karasuyama-machi in Setagaya was part of the athletics marathon and 50 km walk event. Carrot Tower Gōtoku-ji, a temple with the grave of Ii Naosuke, assassinated outside the Sakurada Gate of Edo Castle Hanegi Park Hasegawa Machiko Art Museum Kinuta Park Komazawa Olympic Park NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories Oya Soichi Bunko St. Mary's International School Sakura-shinmachi Seikadō Bunko Art Museum Seisen International School Setagaya Art Museum Setagaya Business Square Setagaya Castle ruins Setagaya Literary Museum Tamagawadai Park Zenyōmitsu-ji Setagaya Sangenjaya Setagaya Matsubara Higashi-Matsubara Kitazawa Shimokitazawa Meidaimae Tamagawa Futako-Tamagawa: Major commercial and residential district located by the Tama River. Yōga Kamata Todoroki Kinuta Seijō Kinuta Soshigaya Karasuyama Karasuyama Keio Corporation Keiō Line: Daitabashi, Meidai-mae, Shimo Takaido, Sakura Josui, Kami Kitazawa, Hachiman Yama, Roka Koen, Chitose-Karasuyama Stations Keio Inokashira Line: Ikenoue, Shimo-Kitazawa, Higashi-Matsubara, Meidaimae Stations Odakyu Electric Railway Odawara Line: Higashi-Kitazawa, Shimo-Kitazawa, Setagaya-Daita, Umegaoka, Gōtokuji, Kyōdō, Chitose-Funabashi, Soshigaya-Ōkura, Seijōgakuen-Mae, Kitami Stations Tokyu Corporation Den-en-toshi Line: Ikejiri Ohashi, Sangen-Jaya, Komazawa Daigaku, Sakura Shinmachi, Yōga, Futako-Tamagawa Stations Meguro Line: Okusawa Station Oimachi Line: Midorigaoka, Kuhon-butsu, Todoroki, Futako-Tamagawa Stations Setagaya Line: Sangen-Jaya, Nishi Taishido, Shoin Jinja-mae, Kami Machi, Yamashita, Shimo Takaido Stations Toyoko Line: Chūō Expressway Daisan Keihin Road Shuto Expressway No. 3 Shibuya Route No. 4 Shinjuku Route Tomei Expressway National Route 20 National Route 246 National Route 466 On April 25, 2011, amid national concern over the safety of nuclear power triggered by the March 11 earthquake and Fukushima I nuclear accidents, former Social Democratic Party Upper House House of Councillors legislator Nobuto Hosaka was elected mayor on an anti-nuclear platform.
Prior to becoming mayor, Hosaka was well-known for his staunch opposition of the death penalty and his defense of Japan's Otaku culture. Cookie Jar Entertainment had its Japan offices in Setagaya. Game Freak has its Japan offices in Setagaya. Ivan Ramen restaurant: a ramen shop owned by an American chef. OLM, Inc. has its studios in Setagaya. Toho has studio facilities in Setagaya. Universities and colleges with campuses in Setagaya include: Showa Women's University Komazawa University Nihon University Nippon Sport Science University Kokushikan University Sanno Institute of Management Tokyo City University Tokyo University of Agriculture Central Theological College, TokyoSetagaya operates public elementary and junior high schools; the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education operates public high schools. The following schools are nationally or operated; the following schools are operated by Setagaya. The following schools are nationally or operated; the following schools are operated. Former international schools: Tokyo No. 8 Korean Elementary School - North Korean school Setagaya has sister-city relationships with Winnipeg, Manitoba in Canada.
Setagaya City Official Website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
Sōichi Ōya was a Japanese journalist noted for his research and commentaries on popular culture. Born in what is now part of Takatsuki, Japan where his father was a soy sauce brewer, Ōya showed an early interest in social issues, after dropping out of the University of Tokyo, he became involved in the Japan Fabian Society, he was active as a literary essayist and founded the Mass Communication Juku. His legacy includes the Oya Soichi Nonfiction Award, which recognizes the contributions of young journalists, the Ōya Sōichi Library, a library, the major archive in Japan collecting popular publications that most institutions ignore. Most of his literary works are included in the Ōya Sōichi Zenshū published by Sōyōsha, he was praised "as an iconoclast and hailed for the'heckling spirit' he had cultivated throughout his career," but he has been criticized for his critical attitude towards new religions. Ōya Sōichi Library
Books Kinokuniya is a Japanese bookstore chain operated by Kinokuniya Company Ltd. founded in 1927, with its first store located in Shinjuku, Japan. It means "Bookstore of Kii Province"; the company has its headquarters in Tokyo. Kinokuniya was a lumber and charcoal dealer in Yotsuya. On the second floor was an art gallery; the building burnt down in May 1945 during an air raid, but reopened in December 1945. Over the next few years, more Kinokuniya shops opened around Japan. In 1964, headquarters was established in Shinjuku; the bookstore had two underground floors. In 2016, a document revealed discriminatory hiring practices by the company in the 1980s surfaced when it was published by trade unions. Kinokuniya is the largest bookstore chain in Japan, with 56 shops around the country, in cities such as Osaka and Sapporo. Overall, it has more than 80 stores in Japan and overseas, its first overseas store opened in San Francisco in 1969. Several other bookstores have since opened in the United States, in cities including Los Angeles and New York.
It ventured into the Asia-Pacific market, opening its first store in Singapore in 1983. Shops in Taiwan, Indonesia and Thailand followed suit. In 1996, Kinokuniya launched the first outlet in Australia, located in Sydney's Neutral Bay, it moved to its present location in George Street in the Central Business District. Since 2000, Kinokuniya in the US has capitalised on the growing popularity of Japanese TV / anime by stocking both English- and Japanese-language books and manga, as well as other Japanese TV / anime-related paraphernalia; the New York City branch in Rockefeller Center was the best-known, lengthwise, an entire city block. A new store has opened on Avenue of the Americas, near Bryant Park, replacing the old store, which closed at the end of 2007. Books Kinokuniya is known for the immense size of its bookshops. For more than 10 years in its store in Ngee Ann City, was the largest bookshop in South East Asia, until the opening of the new Gramedia flagship store in Jakarta in 2007. Fellow international bookstore chain Page One began as the magazine agent for Kinokuniya but became independent.
On September 22, 2017, Kinokuniya opened its first branch in Vietnam via Hanoi. In March 2019, Kinokuniya's Singaporean branch announced that the Liang Court store will be closed on April 21, 2019. Overseas, there are 26 stores in total, they are located in: United States Arlington Heights, Illinois New York City, New York Little Tokyo, Los Angeles, California Japantown, San Francisco, California San Jose, California Santa Monica, California Seattle, Washington Beaverton, Oregon Edgewater, New Jersey Carrollton, Texas Plano, Texas Austin, Texas Katy, Texas Cambodia AEON Mall Sen Sok, Phnom Penh Indonesia Sogo Plaza Senayan, Jakarta Seibu Grand Indonesia, Jakarta Malaysia Suria KLCC, Kuala Lumpur Thailand CentralWorld, Bangkok Siam Paragon, Bangkok EmQuartier, Bangkok Australia The Galeries Victoria, New South Wales Taiwan Breeze Center, Taipei Tianmu, Shilin District Store, Taipei Kuang San Sogo, Taichung Arena Hanshin Department Store, Kaohsiung United Arab Emirates Dubai, Dubai Mall- It is advertised under the title'Book World by Kinokuniya'.
Singapore Ngee Ann City, Orchard Road Bugis Junction, Bugis Liang Court, Clarke Quay JEM, Jurong East Official website— language website. Official website— language website
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t