The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Ocean County, New Jersey
Ocean County is a county located along the Jersey Shore in the central portion of the U. S. state of New Jersey. Its county seat is Toms River. Since 1990, Ocean County has been one of New Jersey's fastest-growing counties; as of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 597,943, a 3.7% increase from the 576,567 enumerated in the 2010 United States Census, making Ocean the state's sixth-most populous county. The 2010 population figure represented an increase of 65,651 from the 2000 Census population of 510,916, as Ocean surpassed Union County to become the sixth-most populous county in the state. Ocean County was the fastest growing county in New Jersey between 2000 and 2010 in terms of increase in the number of residents and second-highest in percentage growth. Ocean County was established on February 15, 1850, from portions of Monmouth County, with the addition of Little Egg Harbor Township, annexed from Burlington County on March 30, 1891; the most populous place was Lakewood Township, with 92,843 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Jackson Township, covered 100.62 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality in the county.
Ocean County is located 50 miles east of Philadelphia, 70 miles south of New York City, 25 miles north of Atlantic City, making it a prime destination for residents of these cities during the summer. As with the entire Jersey Shore, summer traffic clogs local roadways throughout the season. Ocean County is part of the New York metropolitan area but is home to many tourist attractions visited by Delaware Valley residents the beachfront communities of Seaside Heights, Long Beach Island, Point Pleasant Beach, as well as Six Flags Great Adventure, the home of the world's tallest and second-fastest roller coaster, Kingda Ka. Ocean County is a gateway to New Jersey's Pine Barrens, one of the largest protected pieces of land on the East Coast. Ocean County is part of Philadelphia's media markets. According to the United States Census Bureau, the county had as of the 2010 Census a total area of 915.40 square miles, making it the largest county in New Jersey in terms of total area, total 819.84 sq mi of which 628.78 square miles of land and 286.62 square miles of water.
Much of the county is coastal, with many beaches. The highest point is one of three unnamed hills; the lowest elevation in the county is sea level. It is home to many beaches on the Jersey Shore, such as Beach Haven, Ship Bottom, Surf City, Harvey Cedars and Barnegat Light. Monmouth County, New Jersey – north Atlantic County, New Jersey – south Burlington County, New Jersey – west Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge covers 47,000 acres of coastal habitat in Atlantic and Ocean counties. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Toms River have ranged from a low of 22 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −19 °F was recorded in January 1982 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in July 1999. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 3.30 inches in February to 4.79 inches in March. Areas closer to the coast experience more mild winters and cooler summers due to the Atlantic Ocean's influence; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 576,567 people, 221,111 households, 149,249.925 families residing in the county.
The population density was 917 per square mile. There were 278,052 housing units at an average density of 442.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 90.98% White, 3.15% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 1.75% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.46% from other races, 1.47% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.29% of the population. There were 221,111 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families. 27.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.16. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 22.2% from 25 to 44, 25.9% from 45 to 64, 21% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.6 years. For every 100 females there were 92 males.
For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 88.3 males. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 510,916 people, 200,402 households, 137,876 families residing in the county; the population density was 803 people per square mile. There were 248,711 housing units at an average density of 151/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 93.05% White, 2.99% Black or African American, 0.14% Native American, 1.28% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.24% from other races, 1.29% from two or more races. 5.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among those who listed their ancestry, 25.3% were of Italian, 23.6% Irish, 18.7% German, 8.8% Polish and 8.5% English ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 200,402 households out of which 28.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.40% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.20% were non-f
Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station
Oyster Creek nuclear power station is a single unit 636 MWe boiling water reactor power plant in the United States. The plant is located on an 800-acre site adjacent to Oyster Creek in the Forked River section of Lacey Township in Ocean County, New Jersey; the facility is owned and operated by Exelon Corporation and, along with unit 1 at Nine Mile Point Nuclear Generating Station, is the oldest operating commercial nuclear power plant in the United States. The plant first came online on December 1, 1969, is licensed to operate until April 9, 2029, but Oyster Creek is scheduled to be permanently shut down by October 2018; the closure occurred on September 17. The plant gets its cooling water from Barnegat Bay, a brackish estuary that empties into the Atlantic Ocean through the Barnegat Inlet. Oyster Creek is one of four licensed nuclear power reactors in New Jersey; the others are the two units at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant, the one unit at Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station. As of January 1, 2005, New Jersey ranked 9th among the 31 States with nuclear capacity for total MWe generated.
In 2003, nuclear power generated over one half of the electricity in the state. In 1999, GPU agreed to sell the Oyster Creek Nuclear Plant to AmerGen Energy for $10 million. AmerGen was purchased by Exelon in 2003. Exelon integrated AmerGen's former assets, including Oyster Creek, in early 2009; the reactor was shut down on September 17, 2018. The plant will close operationally in October 2018. Oyster Creek was a single unit 636 MWe boiling water reactor power plant which first came online on December 1, 1969; the plant was located 75 miles south of New York City. Cooling water for the plant was drawn from Barnegat Bay, a brackish estuary that empties into the Atlantic Ocean through the Barnegat Inlet. Rankine cycle condenser cooling, coolant flow rate: 1.4 billion US gal per day, 1,400 MGD. The average temperature increase was 10.4 °F. Oyster Creek was licensed for 40 years, but in April 2009 its license was extended for another 20 years by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. "Based on the Atomic Energy Act, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues licenses for commercial power reactors to operate for up to 40 years and allows these licenses to be renewed for up to another 20 years.
This original 40-year term for reactor licenses was based on economic and antitrust considerations -- not on limitations of nuclear technology. Due to this selected period, some structures and components may have been engineered on the basis of an expected 40-year service life. " In July 2005, Exelon submitted an application to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a 20-year extension of the existing 40-year license for Oyster Creek, due to expire in 2009. According to a 2006 survey commissioned by the operators, relicensing of the power plant was supported by the majority of citizens living in areas surrounding the plant, by local elected officials. However, some local opposition to re-licensing was evident at public hearings on the issue. On May 31, 2007, several Ocean County residents attended the Atomic Safety Licensing Board hearing in the county administration building. At that meeting, several of the local residents were opposed to re-licensing of the nuclear power plant.
The ASLB's decision on May 31, 2007 hearing led to a full public hearing on the issue of the monitoring of corrosion in the plant's drywell liner. The hearing was scheduled for September 2007 in the county seat Toms River. In 2008, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board twice rejected citizens' contentions concerning Oyster Creek; the majority of the three-judge panel ruled in favor of the plant, deciding "that the group's motion did not follow the proper guidelines for late-filed contentions and failed to link an alleged inadequacy to a significant safety issue."In May 2007, the state Attorney General's Office, on behalf of the state Department of Environmental Protection, petitioned the federal Third Circuit Court of Appeals to compel the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to consider the potential for a terrorist attack as part of the criteria for Oyster Creek's licensing renewal process. In July 2007, the NJDEP faulted both Exelon and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for relying on environmental studies that were up to 30 years old at the time of Exelon's relicensing application.
The NJDEP refused to make a "positive consistency determination" for Oyster Creek, as required by the federal Coastal Zone Management Act. The positive determination is required for all applicants seeking to relicense an existing facility. On April 8, 2009 the plant was granted a license extension to operate until April 9, 2029; this came a week after the Nuclear Regulatory Commission voted 3-1 against an appeal by anti-nuclear groups. There was some opposition from anti-nuclear groups. According to Harvey Wasserman: "The re-licensing process did not require a test of metals in the core, which can become dangerously embrittled after decades of exposure to super-hot water and intense radiation."As of June 2009, five environmental and citizen groups were appealing the decision in the federal court. Richard Webster, attorney for the groups, claims the NRC did not have sufficient information to determine whether the plant can operate safely for the next 20 years.“This has been the most extensive license renewal review to date, including the first adjudicatory hearing of a license renewal application,” said Eric Leeds, NRC’s director of Nuclear Reactor Regulation.
“The staff’s licensing and inspection scrutiny, along with the independent contributions
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
Barnegat Bay is a small brackish arm of the Atlantic Ocean 42 miles long, along the coast of Ocean County, New Jersey in the United States. It is separated from the Atlantic by the long Barnegat Peninsula, as well as by the north end of Long Beach Island, popular segments of the Jersey Shore; the bay is fed by several small rivers, including the Toms River and Metedeconk River, which empty into the bay through small estuaries along its inner shore. The communities of Toms River and Forked River sit along the river estuaries on the bay; the bay connects with the ocean through the Barnegat Inlet, along which sits the Barnegat Lighthouse. The bay is part of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, entered on its north end by the Point Pleasant Canal and connecting on the south end with Little Egg Harbor via the small Manahawkin Bay. In a broader sense, Barnegat Bay is sometimes considered to stretch to the south end of Long Beach Island and to include Little Egg Harbor. Three bridges span the bay from the mainland to the peninsula: the Mantoloking Bridge from Brick Township to Mantoloking, the Thomas A. Mathis and J. Stanley Tunney Bridges from Toms River to Ortley Beach.
The Barnegat Division of Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge comprises wetlands along the inner southern part of the bay. Along the outside of the bay, on the peninsula, is the Island Beach State Park. Various islands within the bay are a part of the National Wildlife Refuge or the Sedge Islands State Wildlife Management Area; the northern tip of Long Beach Island includes the Barnegat Lighthouse State Park. The area surrounding Barnegat Bay and Barnegat Inlet was described by Henry Hudson, in 1609, as "... a great lake of water, as we could judge it to be... The mouth of the lake hath many shoals, the sea breaketh on them as it is cast out of the mouth of it." The bay was named in 1614 "Barendegat," or "Inlet of the Breakers," by Dutch explorers of the coastline, referring to the waterway's turbulent channel. During the American Revolutionary War, the bay was used as refuge by American privateers; the bay has been a longtime center for commercial fishing. The village of Toms River was a significant whaling port in the 19th century.
While still popular for fishing, Barnegat Bay has become a popular destination for recreational boating. The water quality of the bay has been degraded by pollution in the creeks that feed it; the preservation of the bay's water quality has been an ongoing effort of several public and private organizations. The bay was immortalized by the famous writer E. B. White, who used it as a setting for his short story "The Family That Dwelt Apart"; the story appears in his collection Preposterous Parables. It was adapted into the animated short The Family That Dwelt Apart, narrated by White, by the National Film Board of Canada; the song "My Eyes Adored You" by New Jersey native Frankie Valli contains a reference to "walking home everyday over Barnegat Bridge and Bay". On March 22, 1975, the song became one of the Hot 100 number-one hits of 1975; the Trust for Public Land, a national land conservation group, has done extensive work in the Barnegat Bay area for over two decades, protecting over 1,100 acres of land.
The Trust began the new River to Bay Greenway, the primary goal of, to create a 70-mile multi-use recreational route across southern New Jersey from the Delaware River to Barnegat Bay. In the 2000s and 2010s, scientists and residents have drawn attention to fish kills, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen levels, loss of habitat, diminishing clam populations, the rise in stinging Chrysaora quinquecirrha populations in the bay due to high levels of nitrogen from fertilizer runoff; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency monitors the health of the bay by testing at four locations as as once a week in the summer months, when surface water can reach 82 °F. Community members have expressed concern over the impact of stored radioactive material and thermal pollution at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station in Lacey Township; the 1969 plant is the oldest operating nuclear power plant in the United States and is scheduled to be retired by 2019. A 2008 baseline sediment pollution study of 15 locations within Barnegat Bay - Little Egg Harbor area including sites at Mill Creek, Cedar Run, Parker Run measured total petroleum hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls.
The joint US/UK team of scientists reported that TPH content was low and that mercury content ranged from <0.02 to 2.61 mg/kg dry wt. PAH content ranged from as low as 37 ug/kg to 1696 ug/kg with the highest concentrations at Tuckerton Creek these concentrations are not considered harmful to humans or biota; the distribution pattern of PAHs throughout the study area was consistent with the burning from grass and coal sources. Concentrations of PCB were below reported. Middle Sedge Island in Barnegat Bay is a 25-acre island, 14 acres of which are developed with a single house. Other islands include: Northwest Point Island and Marsh Elder Island; some are owned and some are owned by the state of New Jersey. State of New Jersey: Barnegat Bay Estuary Program Save Barnegat Bay – environmental advocacy site Rutgers University: Barnegat Bay Resources Jersey City Anglers Association: Future of Barnegat Bay ReClam the Bay – environmental organization that grows and plants millions of clams and oysters to reclaim Barnegat Bay Nitrogen Pollution Action Project – guide to eutrophication of Barnegat Bay and solutions
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –