Spycatcher: The Candid Autobiography of a Senior Intelligence Officer is a book written by Peter Wright, former MI5 officer and Assistant Director, co-author Paul Greengrass. It was published first in Australia, its allegations proved scandalous on publication, but more so because the British Government attempted to ban it, ensuring its profit and notoriety. In Spycatcher, Wright states that he was assigned to unmask a Soviet mole in MI5, claims that the mole was Roger Hollis – a former MI5 Director General. Moreover, Spycatcher tells of the MI6 plot to assassinate President Nasser during the Suez Crisis. Wright examines the techniques of intelligence services, exposes their ethics, notably their "eleventh commandment", "Thou shalt not get caught", explains many MI5 electronic technologies, for instance allowing clever spying into rooms, identifying the frequency to which a superhet receiver is tuned. In the afterword, he states that writing Spycatcher was motivated principally to recuperate significant pension income lost when the British government ruled his pension un-transferable for earlier work in GCHQ.
Wright wrote Spycatcher in Tasmania, after his retirement from MI5. He first attempted publication in 1985; the British government obtained a court order banning publication in the UK but the order applied only in England and the book continued to be available elsewhere. In September 1987, the UK government applied for similar orders to prevent publication in Australia but Malcolm Turnbull to be Prime Minister of Australia, representing the publisher resisted the application, again on appeal in June 1988. English newspapers attempting proper reportage of Spycatcher's principal allegations were served gag orders. Throughout all this, the book continued to be sold in Scotland. Quantities of the book reached English purchasers from Scotland, while other copies were smuggled into England from Australia and elsewhere. A notable television report at the time featured a reporter flying to Australia flying back into England with ten copies of the book which he declared to Heathrow airport's customs officers.
After some discussion, he was allowed to continue his carriage of the books into England, as they had been given no specific instructions to confiscate them. In mid-1987, a High Court judge lifted the ban on English newspaper reportage on the book, but in late July, the Law Lords again barred reportage of Wright's allegations; the Daily Mirror published upside-down photographs of the three Law Lords, with the caption'YOU FOOLS'. British editions of The Economist ran a blank page with a boxed explanation thatIn all but one country, our readers have on this page a review of'Spycatcher,' a book by an ex-M. I.5-man, Peter Wright. The exception is Britain, where the book, comment on it, have been banned. For our 420,000 readers there, this page is blank – and the law is an ass. In 1988, the book was cleared for legitimate sale when the Law Lords acknowledged that overseas publication meant it contained no secrets. However, Wright was barred from receiving royalties from the sale of the book in the United Kingdom.
In November 1991, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the British government had breached the European Convention of Human Rights in gagging its own newspapers. The book has sold more than two million copies. In 1995, Wright died a millionaire from proceeds of his book. Cambridge Five Julia Pirie Burnet, David. "Spycatcher: The Commodification of Truth". Journal of Law and Society. Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 210–224 ECtHR judgments in cases Sunday Times v. UK and Observer and Guardian v. UK
Spark New Zealand
Spark New Zealand Limited is a New Zealand telecommunications company providing fixed line telephone services, a mobile network, an internet service provider, a major ICT provider to NZ businesses. It has operated as a publicly traded company since 1990. Spark is one of the largest companies by value on the New Zealand Exchange; as of 2007, it was the 39th largest telecommunications company in the OECD. The company is part of New Zealand Telecommunications Forum. Telecom New Zealand was formed in 1987 from a division of the New Zealand Post Office, privatised in 1990. In 2008, Telecom was operationally separated into three divisions under local loop unbundling initiatives by central government – Telecom Retail; this separation ended any remnants of monopoly that Telecom Retail once had in the market. In 2011 the demerger process was complete, with Telecom and Chorus becoming separate listed companies. On 8 August 2014, the company changed its name to Spark New Zealand; the Postal Services Act 1987 split the New Zealand Post Office into New Zealand Post Limited, Telecom New Zealand Limited and Post Office Bank Limited and all three industries progressively deregulated.
The selling price of Telecom was considered by some to be low, given that Telecom had a monopoly of all phone lines in New Zealand at the time. There has been debate as to whether privatisation was in the best interests of the country's telecommunications infrastructure, although others consider that the capital requirements to modernise the network were better provided by private enterprise than the government. In 1990, Telecom was sold to two United States-based telecommunications companies, Bell Atlantic and Ameritech, for NZ$4.25 billion. Around the same time, the Kiwi Share agreement was drawn up, which included a provision that the company retained free local calling for residential customers. In 1990, Clear Communications entered the New Zealand telecommunications market and so was the first network to compete with Telecom. In 1991, Telecom listed on the New Zealand and New York stock exchanges; the following year Telecom implemented a NZ$200 million fibre-optic cable connection between Australia and New Zealand.
In this year, Roderick Deane was appointed CEO of the company. In 1993 Ameritech and Bell Atlantic reduced their share in Telecom to a combined 49.6% and BellSouth New Zealand Limited, subsequently acquired by Vodafone, set up the first mobile network to compete with Telecom. Clear Communications reached an agreement with Telecom in 1995 on local service interconnection. In 1995 Telecom created First Media Ltd to develop a cable television network across Auckland and Wellington, called First TV. In 1996 Telecom established a telephone exchange in the United States for international traffic, launched Xtra, New Zealand's largest internet service provider today.1997 saw Telecom buy back NZ$1 Billion of its shares. The following year, Ameritech sold down its 24.8% shareholding in an international public offering, Bell Atlantic issued exchangeable notes that were convertible into the Telecom shares that it owned. In 1998, Southern Cross Cables Limited announced plans to build a fibre-optic cable linking New Zealand with Australia and North America, Vodafone New Zealand bought BellSouth and started a campaign to attract Telecom customers to its network.
In December 1997 Patricia Reddy was appointed to the Telecom board. She remained on it until 2008. In March 2016 as Dame Patsy Reddy she was appointed Governor General designate of New Zealand. In 1999, Telecom established a presence in Australia, buying 78% of AAPT, Australia's third-largest telecommunications company. Telecom upgraded its nationwide payphone network to smart card technology. Telecom's broadband Internet service based on ADSL technology, called JetStream, was launched and rolled-out progressively in local exchanges. At this time, Telecom began charging customers who connected to the Internet using a local dial up number, forcing all ISPs in New Zealand to change to an 0867 dial up number; this resulted in complaints that this was in breach of Telecom's Kiwishare Agreement where residential customers are allowed free local calling. The decade was rounded off with Theresa Gattung being appointed new CEO of Telecom, with Rod Deane moving to the position of chairman. In 2000, Xtra signed up its 300,000th customer.
Telecom raised its shareholding in AAPT to 100%. Evidence emerged in early 2002 of Telecom having exploited an ill-considered, or fraudulently made to order, accounting standard to inflate its year 2001 reported profit by some $263m; this standard required holding companies to incorporate profits and losses of associate companies into their group accounts by way of "equity accounting" except when the associate is insolvent. Being insolvent has been wrongly taken as substantial evidence that the holding company will no longer share in the associates profits and losses; the associate company Southern Cross Cables paid Telecom $263m in dividends as per Telecom’s 2001 annual accounts, $US200m as per Southern Cross’s annual accounts. Southern Cross opened for business in November 2000 and its income from operations to 30 June 2001 was only $US13m. Southern Cross were insolvent to the extent of $US24m as at 30 June 2000 and this increased to $US280m as at June 2001 as a result of the dividends and other expenses.
The dividends were treated as income in Telecom’s accounts there being nothi
Xtra Limited is New Zealand's largest Internet service provider. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Spark New Zealand. Xtra has provided dial-up Internet access throughout New Zealand since its inception in May 1996. In 1999 it created New Zealand's first ADSL service; the name Xtra was used with the separate entity Yahoo! Xtra, a joint venture web portal between Telecom and Yahoo!7 from 2007 to 2011. The venture was formed in December 2006 replacing the XtraMSN web portal and included additional features for Xtra broadband customers. In 2008 Telecom dropped the Xtra brand name from services, using Telecom instead. In 1999 Telecom created New Zealand's only ADSL service. Telecom allowed other ISPs to access its ADSL networks, although some claimed that Telecom provided unfair and monopolistic terms of trade regarding its wholesale ADSL services; as a subsidiary of Telecom New Zealand, Xtra retained some of the monopoly that its parent company had. To many people, this monopoly was regarded as an unfair advantage over other ISPs.
Many lobbyists, including Slingshot's CEO Annette Presley, persuaded New Zealand's Communications Ministry to force the unbundling of Telecom's local loop, so as to make fairer trading terms and lessen Xtra's ISP monopoly. The company has breached the Fair Trading Act 1986 at least eight times between 2003 and 2010. During 2001 Xtra and Actrix won a High Court injunction to force Alan Brown, the maintainer of the Open Relay Behavior-modification System anti-spam blacklist, to remove them from the list. ORBS was a blacklist of IP addresses relating to open mail relays like those run by Xtra, which enable spammers to send unsolicited bulk e-mail. Hundreds of organisations subscribed to the list, including Bigfoot.com and at least one other large free mail provider. They rejected e-mail from any IP address listed in ORBS; the court action led to the end of one of the oldest DNSBL services. Xtra's "Go Large" plan was introduced as New Zealand's first unlimited ADSL service in November 2006. There was much public criticism and disappointment at the instability and general slowness of the newly introduced plan.
The plan was advertised with unlimited data maximum speed. However, it was not stated on advertisements that there was a fair use policy and traffic management that restricted users to a download limit between 4pm and 12am. If one were to continually exceed this limit, they would be placed in a "download pool", or contacted with offers to switch to another plan; this triggered a lot of an investigation was launched. By 22 February 2007, Telecom decided to refund all of its Go Large customers with amounts of at least $130 per customer; this had been caused in part by the overwhelming complaints and criticisms Telecom Xtra had received due to under-delivering on the promises of the Go Large plan. It is speculated that the refund may have cost Telecom Xtra between NZ$8.5 million. The plan was grandfathered, in mid-2009 was succeeded by the Big Time plan, where Xtra informed users about traffic management; as of 30 October 2009, Telecom cancelled the Go Large broadband plan for all existing customers, offering alternative plan options such as the Big Time plan.
On 20 May 2010 Telecom cancelled Big Time, customers were moved back to capped plans. Xtra's original web portal opened in 1996 and offered two different experiences - XWorld and Text World. XVille was introduced. You could choose. XWorld was a virtual world. Text World was a simpler interface using just text for slower modems; this all changed in 1999 when a single, more streamlined interface was created and the current Xtra logo was first unveiled. XtraMSN was one of Xtra's trading names and was used as the branding for its default home page for customers; the name came from a deal between Xtra and MSN, a merger of Xtra's homepage xtra.co.nz with Microsoft New Zealand's msn.co.nz. Several other MSN services were cobranded with Xtra in the XtraMSN brand. Several versions of capitalising XtraMSN were used by Telecom and Microsoft New Zealand in their promotional literature. In 2007 Xtra changed to Yahoo! in Microsoft's place. Their main portal was Yahoo! Xtra. During the change from MSN to Yahoo, Telecom experienced much backlash over a change in email set up.
Part of the agreement between Yahoo and Xtra provided that Xtra's email addresses be moved over to Yahoo servers in Australia. To access their Yahoo! Xtra Bubble email accounts, customers had to change advanced settings such as port numbers and authentication, in addition to basic settings such as mail server; the move to Yahoo! Xtra Bubble caused trouble for many small business owners and website hosting companies in New Zealand. Yahoo's aggressive antispam policies caused business owners to lose bookings and caused major delays for some customers in receiving emails; the Dominion Post brought the problem to the fore on 26 November 2007 and showed that responsibility for the trouble was shunned by Xtra. Xtra pushed the blame back to the hosting companies: "Telecom spokesman Nick Brown denies there are technical problems with the service, blames web-hosting companies for forwarding mail without filtering it first for spam."The problem with their denial was that Xtra/Yahoo's email system forwarded spam in the same manner.
Second Turnbull Ministry
The Second Turnbull Ministry was the 71st ministry of the Government of Australia, led by Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull. It succeeded the First Turnbull Ministry following the Australian federal election, 2016 on 2 July 2016. On 13 January 2017, Sussan Ley resigned from her portfolios after an expenses scandal. In the following rearrangement, the roles of Greg Hunt and Arthur Sinodinos were changed, while Ken Wyatt became the first Indigenous Australian to serve as a federal minister. On 25 July 2017, Matt Canavan resigned from Cabinet over doubts as to his eligibility to be a member of the parliament, after discovering that he was considered by the Italian authorities to be a citizen of Italy. Dual citizens are ineligible to be elected or sit as a member of parliament under section 44 of the Australian Constitution. Barnaby Joyce took on Canavan's portfolio. On 27 October 2017, Joyce and Fiona Nash were disqualified from parliament by the High Court due to holding dual citizenship, while Canavan was ruled eligible.
The ministry ended with Malcolm Turnbull's replacement by Scott Morrison following the Liberal Party of Australia leadership spills, 2018. Following Deputy Prime Minister Barnaby Joyce's resignation from cabinet, the fifth rearrangement of the Second Turnbull Ministry was sworn in on 26 February 2018 by the Governor of Victoria, Linda Dessau, in her capacity as Administrator of the Commonwealth while Governor-General Sir Peter Cosgrove was overseas. Michael McCormack took on Joyce's roles after being elected National Party leader that morning. Rearrangement of other portfolios took effect from 5 March 2018 when the Governor-General Sir Peter Cosgrove swore in the newly appointed Ministers and Parliamentary Secretaries: Darren Chester as Minister for Veterans’ Affairs and Minister for Defence Personnel. Damian Drum and Luke Hartsuyker were demoted from the ministry; the first arrangement of the Second Turnbull Ministry was sworn in on 19 July 2016 and continued unaltered until the resignation of Sussan Ley on 13 January 2017, following an investigation into her travel expenses.
Arthur Sinodinos acted in Ley's portfolios until the new ministry was sworn in on 24 January 2017. The second arrangement of the Second Turnbull Ministry was sworn in by the Governor-General, Sir Peter Cosgrove, on 24 January 2017 following the resignation of Sussan Ley. Newly appointed ministers included Ken Wyatt, as the first Indigenous Australian to serve as a minister for an Australian Government department, appointed to the role of Minister for Indigenous Health and as Minister for Aged Care. Greg Hunt was appointed to Ley's former portfolios in Sport. Scott Ryan was given additional responsibilities as the Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for Cabinet. David Gillespie Assistant Minister for Rural Health was promoted as Assistant Minister for Health and Michael Sukkar was appointed as the Assistant Minister to the Treasurer; the position of Cabinet Secretary was abolished. On 25 July 2017, during the 2017 Australian parliamentary eligibility crisis, Matt Canavan resigned from Cabinet over doubts as to his eligibility to be a member of the parliament, after discovering that he was considered by the Italian authorities to be a citizen of Italy.
Dual citizens are ineligible to be elected or sit as a member of parliament under section 44 of the Australian Constitution. The third arrangement of the Second Turnbull Ministry was sworn in by the Governor-General, Sir Peter Cosgrove, on 27 October 2017 following the High Court ruling that Barnaby Joyce and Fiona Nash were invalidly elected due to holding dual citizenship; the same ruling found that Canavan was eligible, allowing him to return to the role of Minister for Resources and Northern Australia, held by Joyce in his absence. Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull took on Joyce's portfolio of Agriculture and Water Resources, Nigel Scullion took over as the parliamentary leader of the National Party, while the position of Deputy Prime Minister remained vacant with Julie Bishop serving as acting Prime Minister when necessary. Nash's roles were split between Mitch Fifield as acting ministers; the fourth arrangement of the Second Turnbull Ministry was sworn in by the Governor-General, Sir Peter Cosgrove, on 20 December 2017 following a period of ministerial resignations due to the 2017 Australian parliamentary eligibility crisis including the appointment of Scott Ryan as the President of the Senate, the retirement of George Brandis to take up Australian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, the recovery of Arthur Sinodinos from cancer, the changes to administrative arrangements with the creation of the Department of Home Affairs.
From February 2018, following resignation of Barnaby Joyce as Deputy Prime Minister. Following the unsuccessful leadership bid by Peter Dutton on 21 August 2018, Michael Sukkar, James McGrath, Concetta Fierravanti-Wells, Angus Taylor, Zed Seselja, Michael Keenan and Steve Ciobo all offered their resignations, though Turnbull refused to accept some. Turnbull Government First Turnbull Ministry
The Abbott Government was the federal executive government of Australia led by the 28th Prime Minister Tony Abbott. The government was made up of members of the Liberal–National Coalition; the Leader of The Nationals, Warren Truss, served as Deputy Prime Minister. Following the 2013 Australian federal election held on 7 September, the Coalition defeated the second Rudd Government, ending six years of Labor Government; the Abbott Government was sworn into office on 18 September 2013. Less than two years on 14 September 2015, Malcolm Turnbull defeated Abbott in a leadership ballot, 54 votes to 44 and the Turnbull Government became the executive government of Australia. In economic policy, the Abbott Government aimed to rein in a budget deficit that reached A$48.5 billion by June 2014. It concluded free trade agreements with China and South Korea, it removed the Rudd-Gillard era carbon pricing. It established the National Commission of Audit to advise on restoring the Budget to surplus. Treasurer Joe Hockey delivered two Budgets, the first focused on expenditure reduction measures, but faced a hostile reception in the Senate and media.
Partial deregulation of universities, a $7 contribution to doctor visits were proposed, but blocked by the Senate. The second Budget emphasised stimulus for the small business sector. Abbott campaigned in opposition and in office to halt the people smuggling trade, unauthorised maritime arrivals ceased during his term of office under Operation Sovereign Borders. In foreign policy, Australia continued its military engagement in the Mid-East, amid the worsening Syrian conflict. In 2015, The Abbott Government agreed to resettle an additional 12,000 refugees from the region. Abbott and Foreign Minister Julie Bishop challenged Russia at the United Nations over the shooting down of Malaysian Flight MH17 in Ukraine; the Government launched the New Colombo Plan to encourage educational exchange with the Indo-Pacific region. Domestically, Abbott campaigned for recognition of Indigenous Australians in the Australian Constitution, flagging a referendum for 2017, promised a plebiscite on the issue of same-sex marriage.
Air and road infrastructure was prioritised. Abbott had to negotiate a hostile Senate; the Palmer United Party fractured soon after. The Liberal Party faced Cabinet leaks and early leadership instability, after a poorly received first Budget and amid media criticism. Abbott became the shortest-serving Australian Prime Minister since William McMahon, when his government was succeeded by the Turnbull Government. Turnbull cited Newspoll results and "economic leadership" as reasons for mounting his challenge against Abbott; the Liberal–National coalition, led by Abbott, won the 2013 Australian federal election, returning their Coalition to power after six years in opposition. Abbott, a Rhodes Scholar, former trainee Catholic priest and political advisor, had entered Parliament in 1994 as the Member for Warringah and served as a senior minister in the Howard Government, which lost office at the 2007 election to the Australian Labor Party, led by Kevin Rudd. Abbott served as Shadow Minister for Indigenous Affairs under Liberal leaders Brendan Nelson and Malcolm Turnbull and became Leader of the Opposition following a 2009 leadership spill in which he defeated the incumbent leader, Turnbull, by one vote.
Rudd did not complete his first term in office, having been replaced by Julia Gillard following an internal Labor party leadership vote in June 2010. Abbott led the Coalition to the 2010 federal election, which saw the Gillard Government narrowly retain office by forming a minority government with the support of four crossbench MPs after the election produced a hung parliament. Leadership instability in the Labor Party continued, Gillard was replaced by Rudd following a Labor ballot conducted shortly before the 2013 election; as Opposition Leader, Abbott opposed the Rudd–Gillard government's introduction of a mining profits tax, emissions trading scheme and carbon tax, criticised the handling of asylum seeker policy. He offered support to the Gillard government's National Disability Insurance Scheme, matched the government on its first four years funding for the Gonski restructuring of education funding, he took a proposal for an expanded paid parental leave scheme, part funded by a levy on big business, to the 2010 and 2013 elections.
If elected, he promised to instigate a referendum to give recognition to Indigenous Australians in the Australian Constitution, to prioritise indigenous affairs by placing it within the department of prime minister and cabinet, saying: "There will be, in effect, a prime minister for Aboriginal affairs". In his 2013 election campaign, Abbott told the media that the Coalition wanted to "build a stronger economy so that everyone can get ahead. We'll scrap the carbon tax, end the waste, stop the boats and build the infrastructure and the roads of the 21st century." The Liberal Party under Abbott, together with the National Party, led by Warren Truss, achieved a 3.65-point two-party-preferred swing at the 2013 election, winning 90 of the Australian House of Representatives seats compared with the Labor Party's 55. The Greens retained their one seat in the chamber, with Bob Katter of Katter's Australian Party returned. Two independents won seats in the House, the seat of Fairfax fell from the Nationals to Clive Palmer, leader of the newly formed Palmer United Party.
The emergence of the fledgling Palmer United Party was a notable feature of the election. The new party secured a House of
Economy of Australia
The economy of Australia is a large mixed-market economy, with a GDP of A$1.69 trillion as of 2017. In 2018 Australia became the country with the largest median wealth per adult. Australia's total wealth was AUD$8.9 trillion as of June 2016. In 2016, Australia was the 14th-largest national economy by nominal GDP, 20th-largest by PPP-adjusted GDP, was the 25th-largest goods exporter and 20th-largest goods importer. Australia took the record for the longest run of uninterrupted GDP growth in the developed world with the March 2017 financial quarter, the 103rd quarter and marked 26 years since the country had a technical recession; the Australian economy is dominated by its service sector, comprising 61.1% of the GDP and employing 79.2% of the labour force in 2016. East Asia is a top export destination, accounting for about 64% of exports in 2016. Australia has the eighth-highest total estimated value of natural resources, valued at US$19.9 trillion in 2016. At the height of the mining boom in 2009–10, the total value-added of the mining industry was 8.4% of GDP.
Despite the recent decline in the mining sector, the Australian economy has remained resilient and stable and has not experienced a recession since July 1991. The Australian Securities Exchange in Sydney is the 16th-largest stock exchange in the world in terms of domestic market capitalisation and has the largest interest rate derivatives market in Asia; some of Australia's large companies include but are not limited to: Wesfarmers, Rio Tinto Group, BHP Billiton, Commonwealth Bank, National Australia Bank, Westpac, ANZ, Macquarie Group and Caltex Australia. The currency of Australia and its territories is the Australian dollar which it shares with several Pacific nation states. Australia is a member of the APEC, G20, OECD and WTO; the country has entered into free trade agreements with ASEAN, Chile, South Korea, New Zealand, Japan, Singapore and the United States. The ANZCERTA agreement with New Zealand has increased integration with the economy of New Zealand and in 2011 there was a plan to form an Australasian Single Economic Market by 2015.
Australia's average GDP growth rate for the period 1901–2000 was 3.4% annually. As opposed to many neighbouring Southeast Asian countries, the process towards independence was peaceful and thus did not have significant negative impact on the economy and standard of living. Growth peaked followed by the 1950s and the 1980s. By contrast, the late 1910s/early 1920s, the 1930s, the 1970s and early 1990s were marked by financial crises. From the early 1980s onwards, the Australian economy has undergone intermittent economic liberalisation. In 1983, under prime minister Bob Hawke, but driven by treasurer Paul Keating, the Australian dollar was floated and financial deregulation was undertaken; the early 1990s recession came swiftly after the Black Monday of October 1987, as a result of a stock collapse of unprecedented size which caused the Dow Jones Industrial Average to fall by 22.6%. This collapse, larger than the stock market crash of 1929, was handled by the global economy and the stock market began to recover.
But in North America, the lumbering savings and loans industry was facing decline, which led to a savings and loan crisis which compromised the well-being of millions of US people. The following recession thus impacted the many countries linked to the USs, including Australia. Paul Keating, prime minister at the time, famously referred to it as "the recession that Australia had to have." During the recession, GDP fell by 1.7%, employment by 3.4% and the unemployment rate rose to 10.8%. However, the recession did assist in reducing long-term inflation rate expectations and Australia has maintained a low inflation environment since the 1990s to the present day. Mining has contributed to Australia's high level of economic growth, from the gold rush in the 1840s to the present day; the opportunities for large profits in pastoralism and mining attracted considerable amounts of British capital, while expansion was supported by enormous government outlays for transport and urban infrastructures, which depended on British finance.
As the economy expanded, large-scale immigration satisfied the growing demand for workers after the end of convict transportation to the eastern mainland in 1840. Australia's mining operations secured continued economic growth and Western Australia itself benefited from mining iron ore and gold from the 1960s and 1970s which fueled the rise of suburbanisation and consumerism in Perth, the capital and most populous city of Western Australia, as well as other regional centres; the Australian government stimulus package helped to prevent a recession. The World Bank expected Australia's GDP growth rate to be 3.2% in 2011 and 3.8% in 2012. The economy expanded by 0.4% in the fourth quarter of 2011, expanded by 1.3% in the first quarter of 2012. The growth rate was reported to be 4.3% year-on-year. The International Monetary Fund in April 2012 predicted that Australia would be the best-performing major advanced economy in the world over the next two years, and JP Morgan in May 2012 cut its growth forecast to 2.7% in calendar 2012 from a previous forecast of 3.0% its forecast for growth in 2013 to 3.0% from 3.3%.
Deutsche Bank in August 2012, Société Générale in October 2012, warned that there is risk of recession in Australia in 2013. While Austra
The Howard Government refers to the federal executive government of Australia led by Prime Minister John Howard between 11 March 1996 and 3 December 2007. It was made up of members of the Liberal–National Coalition, which won a majority of seats in the House of Representatives at four successive elections; the Howard Government commenced following victory over the Keating Government at the 1996 federal election. It concluded with its defeat at the 2007 federal election by the Australian Labor Party, whose leader Kevin Rudd formed the First Rudd Government, it was the second-longest government under a single Prime Minister, with the longest having been the second Menzies Government. Two senior ministers served in single roles for the duration of the Government; the leader of the National Party served as Deputy Prime Minister. Three men served in this capacity during the Howard government: Tim Fischer until July 1999, followed by John Anderson until July 2005 and Mark Vaile. Decisions of the Executive were made either by the appropriate Minister.
For the first three terms of government, part of the fourth term, the Howard Government did not have control of the Senate. Legislation needed the support of the Opposition or minor parties for that legislation to be passed and become law. In the 2004 election, the Coalition won control of the Senate for all but the first nine months of its fourth term, was able to pass legislation without the support of minor parties; the government faced internal problems and tension, with the loss of numerous ministers during its first term due to the introduction of a ministerial code of conduct and ongoing leadership rivalry between John Howard and Peter Costello. Significant issues for the Howard government included implementation of substantial spending cuts in its first term of office and paying off government debt. John Howard became Leader of the Opposition on 30 January 1995, replacing Alexander Downer, who resigned in his favour. Downer took the position of Shadow Minister for Foreign Affairs, Peter Costello retained his position as Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party and Shadow Treasurer.
Howard had had a long Parliamentary career, having entered Parliament in 1974 and served as Treasurer in the Fraser Government from 1977 to 1983. He replaced Andrew Peacock as leader of the Opposition and in 1985 and challenged the Hawke Government at the 1987 Election, which saw Labor returned. Peacock challenged and replaced Howard prior to the 1990 Election, which again returned Labor; the Liberals turned to two further leaders before restoring Howard to the office to lead the Coalition against the Keating Labor Government. Long-serving Labor Treasurer Paul Keating had challenged Bob Hawke for the leadership of the Labor Party and the prime ministership in 1991. Despite Australia suffering a deep recession in the early 1990s, Labor had increased its lead over the Coalition at the 1993 Election, which had seen the Liberals under Hewson offer an ambitious program of economic reform called Fightback!, which proposed a Goods and Services Tax as its centrepiece. As opposition leader, Howard delivered a series of "headland speeches", which dealt broadly with the philosophy of government.
In contrast to Keating, he used these addresses to speak in favour of traditional Australian institutions and symbols like the Australian flag and ANZAC legacy. By the time of the 1996 Election, unemployment was high, but at a lower rate than at the previous 1993 Election, interest rates were lower than they had been in 1990, but foreign debt had been growing; the Keating Government was projecting a small budget surplus. Following the election, an $8 billion deficit was confirmed. In his 18 February 1996 Policy Launch Speech delivered at the Ryde Civic Centre in Sydney, Howard emphasised that Labor had been in office a long time, cited high inflation, a poor current account deficit and high national debt as evidence of bad economic management, he called for industrial relations reform to increase flexibility and improve productivity and offered tax relief for families. He proposed increased spending on environmental challenges, to be in part funded by the partial sale of telstra, he promised to restore the prime minister's attendance at question time in parliament.
The 1996 Election brought to an end 13 years of the Hawke-Keating Labor Government. The Liberal-National Coalition won the federal election on 2 March 1996 against the incumbent Keating Labor government; the coalition had a 45-seat majority in the House of Representatives. Howard announced his proposed ministry team on 8 March 1996, with the Governor-General swearing them into office on 11 March; the size of the Coalition victory gave John Howard great power within the Liberal party and he said he came to the office "with clear views on where I wanted to take the country". In the first week of the new government, Howard sacked six department heads and chose new department heads himself and changes were made across the public service. On 28 April 1996, eight weeks into the new governme