Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
The Seven Network is a major Australian commercial free-to-air television network. It is owned by Seven West Media Limited, is one of five main free-to-air television networks in Australia. Channel Seven head. Since 2007, the Seven Network has been the highest rated television network and primary channel in Australia; the Seven Network is the broadcaster of popular franchises and programs, including the AFL, the Cricket, the Olympics, Sunrise, My Kitchen Rules, The Chase Australia, Australia's Got Talent, House Rules and Away, Better Homes & Gardens and Seven News. In 2011 the Seven Network won all 40 out of 40 weeks of the ratings season for total viewers. Seven is the first to achieve this since the introduction of the OzTAM ratings system in 2001; as of 2014, it is the second largest network in the country in terms of population reach. Seven's administration headquarters are in Eveleigh, completed in 2003. National news and current affairs programming are based between flagship station ATN-7 in Sydney and HSV-7 in Melbourne.
In 2009, Seven moved its Sydney-based production operations from Epping to a purpose-built high-definition television production facility at the Australian Technology Park in Eveleigh. The present Seven Network began as a group of independent stations in Sydney, Brisbane and Perth. HSV-7 Melbourne, licensed to The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, was launched on 4 November 1956, the first station in the country to use the VHF7 frequency. ATN-7 Sydney, licensed to Amalgamated Television Services, a subsidiary of Fairfax, was launched on 2 December 1956; the two stations did not share resources, instead formed content-sharing partnerships with their VHF9 counterparts by 1957: ATN-7 partnered with Melbourne's GTV-9, while HSV-7 paired up with Sydney's TCN-9. TVW-7 Perth, licensed to TVW Limited, a subsidiary of West Australian Newspapers, publisher of The West Australian, began broadcasting two years on 16 October 1959, as the city's first commercial station. BTQ-7 Brisbane followed on 1 November, signing on as Brisbane's second commercial television station.
ADS-7 Adelaide was launched on 24 October 1959 as the final capital city VHF7 station. The station swapped frequencies with SAS-10, with the latter becoming SAS-7HSV-7 began its relationship with the Victorian Football League in April 1957, when the station broadcast the first live Australian rules football match. Throughout this time, the stations operated independently of each other, with schedules made up of various simple, inexpensive, such as Pick a Box and spinoffs of popular radio shows. In the early 1960s, coaxial cable links, formed between Sydney and Melbourne, allowed the sharing of programmes and simultaneous broadcasts of live shows. In 1960, Frank Packer, the owner of Sydney's TCN-9, bought a controlling share of Melbourne's GTV-9, in the process creating the country's first television network and dissolving the ATN-7/GTV-9 and HSV-7/TCN-9 partnerships. Left without their original partners, ATN-7 and HSV-7 joined to form the Australian Television Network in 1963; the new grouping was soon joined by other capital-city channel 7 stations, ADS-7 Adelaide and BTQ-7 Brisbane.
The new network began to produce and screen higher-budget programs to attract viewers, most notably Homicide, a series which would continue for another 12 years to become the nation's longest running drama series. However, it was not until 1970 that a national network logo was adopted, albeit still with independently owned and operated stations with local advertising campaigns. Colour television was introduced across the network in 1975. Rupert Murdoch made an unsuccessful bid for the Herald and Weekly Times, owners of HSV-7, in 1979 going on to gain control of rival ATV-10. Fairfax, however bought a 14.9% share of the company in the same year. The 1980s saw the introduction of stereo sound, as well as a number of successful shows, most notably A Country Practice in 1981, Sons and Daughters, which began in 1982. Wheel of Fortune began its 25-year run in July 1981, produced from ADS-7's studios in Adelaide; the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow were shown live on the network the year before. Neighbours began on Seven in 1985, but low ratings in Sydney led to the cancellation of the new series at the end of the year, which moved to Network Ten and went on to achieve international success.
Perth based businessman Robert Holmes à Court, through his business the Bell Group, bought TVW-7 from its original owners, West Australian Newspapers in 1982. The Herald and Weekly Times, owner of HSV-7 and ADS-7, was sold to Rupert Murdoch in December 1986 for an estimated A$1.8 billion. Murdoch's company, News Limited, sold off HSV-7 to Fairfax soon afterwards, for $320 million. Fairfax went on to axe a number of locally produced shows in favour of networked content from its Sydney counterpart, ATN-7. Cross-media ownership laws introduced in 1987 forced Fairfax to choose between its print and television operations – it chose the former, sold off its stations to Qintex Ltd. owned by businessman Christopher Skase. Qintex had bought, subsequently sold off, stations in Brisbane and regional Queensland before taking control of the network; the next year, another new logo was introduced along with evening soap Home and Away and a relaunched Seven Nightly News, now known as Seven News. The network became national in 1988 when Skase bought TVW-7 for $130 million.
In 1989, the network cha
Racing Victoria Limited, as the governing principal racing authority, has responsibilities to develop, encourage and manage the conduct of Thoroughbred horseracing in the State of Victoria, Australia. It assumed this responsibility, from the Victoria Racing Club, on 19 December 2001, it was established with the support of Country Racing Victoria, Melbourne Racing Club, Moonee Valley Racing Club, Victoria Racing Club, other racing industry bodies, the Victorian State Government. Racing Victoria represents the Victorian Thoroughbred industry in dealings with bodies such as the Australian Racing Board, is responsible for the marketing of Victorian Thoroughbred racing; the constitutional objectives of Racing Victoria include: Ensuring that race meetings are managed and conducted to the highest integrity. Management of revenues, costs and liabilities to optimise economic benefits for Victoria. Meeting its social obligations by encouraging responsible wagering and gaming. Exercising its powers to ensure public confidence and independence from any improper external influence.
RVL website CRV website
Men's Health (Australian magazine)
Men's Health is an Australian monthly men's magazine published by Pacific Magazines. Aimed at men aged 25 to 44, it is Australia's highest selling magazine aimed at men, it features stories on physical fitness, health news, nutrition and sexual health. Its editor is Scott Henderson, it more than triples sales of its most direct competitor Australian Men's Fitness. Men's Health was launched in Australia in 1997; the magazine is the Australian version of the American magazine of the same name, its format and graphics are similar to that of the original U. S. version. Like all international variants of Men's Health, the Australian edition lifts stories and images from that of the American or other foreign versions. In turn, international editions are able to lift content from the Australian version; the magazine hosts an annual competition, Men's Health Man, which aims to find a man who embodies the physical and emotional attributes the magazine embraces. Since 2012, a Celebrity Men's Health Man has been named.
Men's Health Australia
Better Homes and Gardens (magazine)
Better Homes and Gardens is the fourth best selling magazine in the United States. The editor in chief is Stephen Orr. Better Homes and Gardens focuses on interests regarding homes, gardening, healthy living and entertaining; the magazine is published 12 times per year by the Meredith Corporation. It was founded in 1922 by Edwin Meredith, the United States Secretary of Agriculture under Woodrow Wilson; the original name was Fruit and Home from 1922 to 1924. The name was changed in 1925 to Better Homes and Gardens. Better Homes and Gardens is one of a group of women's service magazines; the Meredith Corporation publishes a number of books on home economics and gardening under the BH&G brand, the best known of, the Better Homes and Gardens New Cook Book, colloquially known as the "Red Plaid" book. Now in its 15th edition, the Red Plaid was published in 1930. Meredith publishes the New Junior Cookbook for children learning to cook; the magazine's title was used by Meredith's real estate arm, sold and called GMAC Real Estate.
In October 2007, Meredith entered a 50-year licensing agreement with Realogy Corporation to license the Better Homes and Gardens name to Better Homes and Gardens Real Estate. The company is based in Parsippany, New Jersey, has offices across the country. Meredith's broadcasting division began producing the television program Better in the fall of 2007, a lifestyle show which has a mix of content from Meredith's various magazine titles, consumer advice and celebrity interviews; the program airs on stations owned by Meredith, Fisher and LIN TV groups. Some Meredith-owned stations produce their own local edition of Better; the brand offers a line of home decor products through a partnership with Home Interiors and Gifts, a company based on direct selling. An Australian edition is published, under licence, by Pacific Magazines and there is a television show which airs on the Seven Network; the Australian edition is the 6th best selling consumer magazine in Australia. The Australian edition has been publishing since July 1978.
Mad Magazine published a satire in 1958 titled "Bitter Homes and Gardens," including articles titled "They Built Their House on a Lot 22 Inches Wide". The magazine was spoofed in the 1970s as "Bitter Homes and Garbage", in a set of "Crazy Magazine Covers" produced by Fleer. In an episode of I Love Lucy, Lucy jokes about the magazine as, "Better Homes and Garbage" when she and Ethel redecorate Lucy's apartment. An episode of The Simpsons showed a brief shot of a magazine entitled Better Homes Than Yours. Better Homes and Gardens is mentioned in the song "I Save Cigarette Butts" by the American band P, consisting of Gibby Haynes of the Butthole Surfers, Johnny Depp, Sal Jenco, Bill Carter. In Little Shop of Horrors Audrey sings in "Somewhere That's Green" about how her dream house is a "picture out of Better Homes and Gardens magazine." In country recording artist Miranda Lambert's 2010 hit single titled "The House That Built Me", there is a verse that says, "Mama cut out pictures of houses for years from Better Homes and Gardens magazine".
The music video of the song Sliver by American grunge band Nirvana shows a short take of the magazine at second 00:42. Brandon Flowers mentions the magazine in the song "The Clock Was Tickin" from his 2010 album Flamingo. Chesla Sherlock Elmer T. Peterson Frank W. McDonough J. E. Ratner Hugh Curtis Bert Dieter James A. Riggs James Autry Gordon Greer David Jordan Jean LemMon Karol DeWulf Nickell Gayle Butler Stephen Orr Better Homes and Gardens Real Estate Official site Official site
Girlfriend magazine is an Australian teen girls magazine established in December 1988 by Futura Publications. It is now distributed by Sydney based Pacific Magazines; the Girlfriend Model Search is a modelling competition. In past years, the model search has been sponsored by CoverGirl and Rimmel London. With selected 2007 national finalists being appointed as the faces of "Schwarzkopf LIVE Colour" semi-permanent hair colorant products. Finalists Girlfriend Fiction is a collaboration with Unwin. There are 19 novels in the series with another to be released in October 2010; the novels are written by a variety of authors. My Life and Other Catastrophes – Rowena Mohr ISBN 978-1-74175-286-1 The Indigo Girls – Penni Russon ISBN 978-1-74175-292-2 She's With the Band – Georgia Clark ISBN 978-1-74175-287-8 Always Mackenzie – Kate Constable ISBN 978-1-74175-293-9 The Perfect Boyfriend – Lili Wilkinson ISBN 978-1-74175-346-2 Step Up and Dance – Thalia Kalkipsakis ISBN 978-1-74175-555-8 Sweet Life – Rebecca Lim ISBN 978-1-74175-531-2 Cassie – Barry Jonsberg ISBN 978-1-74175-347-9 Bookmark Days – Scot Gardner ISBN 978-1-74175-578-7 Winter of Grace – Kate Constable ISBN 978-1-74175-620-3 Something More – Mo Johnson ISBN 978-1-74175-528-2 Big Sky – Melaina Faranda ISBN 978-1-74175-711-8 Little Bird – Penni Russon ISBN 978-1-74175-864-1 What Supergirl Did Next – Thalia Kalkipsakis ISBN 978-1-74175-867-2 Fifteen Love – R. M. Corbet ISBN 978-1-74237-015-6 A Letter from Luisa – Rowena Mohr ISBN 978-1-74175-874-0 Dear Swoosie – Kate Constable and Penni Russon ISBN 978-1-74237-198-6 Thirteen Pearls – Melaina Faranda ISBN 978-1-74237-202-0 The Boy/Friend – R. M. Corbet ISBN 978-1-74237-286-0 Three Things About Daisy Blue – Kate Gordon ISBN 9781742372129 Girlfriend website
Network 10 is an Australian commercial television network. One of five national free-to-air networks, 10's owned-and-operated stations can be found in the state capital cities of Sydney, Brisbane and Perth, while affiliates extend the network to regional areas of the country; the network is owned by a subsidiary of CBS Studios International. From the introduction of TV in 1956 until 1965 there were only two commercial television networks in Australia, the National Television Network and the Australian Television Network, as well as the public Australian Broadcasting Commission. In the early 1960s, the Australian Government began canvassing the idea of licensing a third commercial television station in each capital city; this decision was seen by some as a way for the government to defuse growing public dissatisfaction with the dominance of imported overseas programming and the paucity of local content. The first of these "third" licences was granted to United Telecasters Sydney was granted on 4 April 1963.
Structurally, the Australian television industry was modelled on the two-tiered system, in place in Australian radio since the late 1930s. One tier consisted of a network of publicly funded television stations run by the ABC, funded by government budget allocation and by fees from television viewer licences; the second tier consisted of the commercial networks and independent stations owned by private operators, whose income came from selling advertising time. The network was launched as ATV-0 in Melbourne opened on 1 August 1964 and was owned by the Ansett transport and media group, which at the time owned one of Australia's two domestic airlines. TEN-10 in Sydney, which opened on 5 April 1965, was owned by United Telecasters Sydney Ltd, which in July that year opened TVQ-0 in Brisbane, Queensland. Opened that month was SAS-10, serving the city of Adelaide in South Australia; the new television network was dubbed the "Independent Television System" or ITS, but in 1970 adopted the title "The 0/10 Network", which reflected the names of the first two stations launched in the group, ATV and TEN.
Melbourne's ATV was the first station of the network to stage colour broadcasts in 1967, the broadcast was that of the Pakenham races, seen by network and RCA executives and invited members of the media and press. This would the first of many test colour telecasts for the station, in tribute to this event, the 0-10 Network adopted the First in Colour slogan in 1974, within months before 1 March 1975 transition to colour broadcasting. For its first five years, the 0/10 Network led a hand-to-mouth existence. By the beginning of the 1970s the network was in a precarious financial position and there were predictions that it would fail. In 1971, the 0/10 Network first aired Young Talent Time, a huge ratings success, ran for 17 years. However, the network's true financial reprise came about due to the controversial adult soap opera serial Number 96, which premiered in March 1972 on the night that "Australian TV lost its virginity"; the series broke new ground for Australian television and captured the imagination of viewers like few programs before or since.
For the next three years it was Australia's top-rating television program and, not its huge popularity attracted advertisers to Ten en masse, with the result that its revenue increased from A$1 million in 1971 to more than A$10 million in 1972. However, the pattern of ratings dominance was set, for most of the next five decades from the mid-1960s there was little deviation from the prevalent rankings, with the Nine Network in first place, the Seven Network second, 0/10 third and ABC fourth; the gradual evolution of Network Ten into its current form has its origins in the ongoing attempts by media mogul Rupert Murdoch to acquire a prized commercial television licence in Australia's largest capital city market, Sydney. This began when Murdoch's News Limited purchased the Wollongong station WIN Television in the early 1960s, around the same time he bought Festival Records. In 1977, frustrated by regulatory blocks that prevented him from expanding into the Sydney market, Murdoch sold WIN and purchased a 46% share in Ten Sydney.
In 1979, Murdoch made an unsuccessful takeover bid for the Melbourne-based The Herald and Weekly Times media group, which owned HSV-7. Although the bid failed, he gained a 50% stake in Ansett, which thus gave him control of channel 0 in Melbourne. In 1979, 0/10 first aired the soap opera Prisoner, a huge ratings success. On 20 January 1980, the 0/10 Network became known as Network Ten to reflect ATV moving from channel 0 to channel 10 – although the Brisbane station continued to broadcast as TVQ-0 until 10 September 1988 when the station changed to TVQ-10. In 1987 Adelaide's Network Ten affiliate and Seven Network affiliate negotiated to exchange affiliation rights and channel frequencies due to ownership problems. On 27 December 1987, the exchange came into effect and ADS-7, owned by the same owners as the main Network Ten stations, became ADS-10 with SAS-10 converting to SAS-7, operated by TVW-7 in Perth; when Murdoch became an American citizen in 1985 so that he could expand his media empire in the United States, Australia's media ownership laws obliged him to dispose of the flagship television stations, which were sold to The Northern Star, an offshoot of the Westfield Group conglomerate controlled by property tycoon Frank Lowy.
However, Westfield was badly hit by the stock market crash of 1987, in 1989 sold Network Ten to a consortium led by Charles Curran and form