Seto Inland Sea
The Seto Inland Sea known as Setouchi or shortened to Inland Sea, is the body of water separating Honshū, Kyūshū, three of the four main islands of Japan. The region that includes the Seto Inland Sea and the coastal areas of Honshū, Kyūshū is known as the Setouchi Region, it serves as a waterway. It connects to Osaka Bay and provides a sea transport link to industrial centers in the Kansai region, including Osaka and Kobe. Before the construction of the San'yō Main Line, it was the main transportation link between Kansai and Kyūshū. Yamaguchi, Okayama, Hyōgo, Wakayama, Ehime, Fukuoka, Ōita prefectures all have coastlines on the Seto Inland Sea; the Setouchi region is known for its moderate climate, with a stable year-round temperature and low rainfall levels. The sea is famous for its periodic red tides caused by dense groupings of certain phytoplankton that result in the death of large numbers of fish. Since the 1980s, the sea's northern and southern shores have been connected by the three routes of the Honshū–Shikoku Bridge Project, including the Great Seto Bridge, which serves both railroad and automobile traffic.
The International Hydrographic Organization's definition of the limits of the Seto Inland Sea is as follows: On the West. The Southeastern limit of the Japan Sea. On the East. A line running from Takura Saki in Honsyû to Oishi Hana in the island of Awazi, through this island to Sio Saki and on to Oiso Saki in Sikoku. On the South. A line joining Sada Misaki in Sikoku and Seki Saki in Kyûsyû; the Seto Inland Sea is 450 km long from east to west. The width from south to north varies from 15 to 55 km. In most places, the water is shallow; the average depth is 38 m. Hydrologically, Setouchi is not a true inland sea, being neither an epeiric body of water like Hudson Bay nor an isolated endorheic basin like the Caspian Sea. Rather, it is a marginal sea; the Naruto Strait connects the eastern part of the Seto Inland Sea to the Kii Channel, which in turn connects to the Pacific Ocean. The western part of the Seto Inland Sea connects to the Sea of Japan through the Kanmon Straits and to the Pacific through the Bungo Channel.
Each part of the Seto Inland Sea has a separate name in Japanese. For example, Iyo-nada refers to the strait between Ehime, Ōita prefectures in the western portion of the sea. There are many straits located between the major islands, as well as a number of smaller ones that pass between islands or connect the Seto Inland Sea to other seas or the Pacific. 3,000 islands are located in the Seto Inland Sea, including the larger islands Awaji-shima and Shōdo-shima. Many of the smaller islands are uninhabited. Eastern part: Awaji Island, Shōdo Island, Ieshima Islands, Naoshima Islands, Shiwaku Islands Central part: Ōmishima, Itsukushima, Hinase Islands, Kasaoka Islands Western part: Suō-Ōshima, Uwakai Islands, Hashira-jima Islands. Over 500 marine species are known to live in the Seto Inland Sea. Examples are the ayu, an amphidromous fish, the horseshoe crab, the finless porpoise, the great white shark, which has attacked people in the Seto Inland Sea. In the past whales entered the sea to feed or breed, however due to whaling and pollution, they have disappeared from the Seto Inland Sea, except for occasional lost individuals.
It is believed. After the ice age, sea water poured into a basin between the Chūgoku mountains and Shikoku mountains and formed the Seto Inland Sea as we know it today. From ancient times, the Seto Inland Sea served as a main transport line between its coastal areas, including what is today the Kansai region and Kyūshū, it was a main transport line between Japan and other countries, including Korea and China. After the creation of major highways such as the Nankaidō and San'yōdō, the Seto Inland Sea remained a major transport route. There are records that some foreign emissaries from Korea sailed on the Seto Inland Sea. Due to the importance of water traffic, regional powers had their own private navies. In many documents, these navies were called suigun, or pirates. Sometimes they were considered to be public enemies, but in most cases they were granted the right to self-governance as a result of their strength. In the 12th century, Taira no Kiyomori planned to move the capital from Kyoto to the coastal village of Fukuhara to promote trade between Japan and the Song dynasty of China.
This transfer was unsuccessful, soon after Kyoto became the capital again. The Battle of Yashima took place off the coast of present-day Takamatsu. During the feudal period, suigun seized power in most coastal areas; the Kono in Iyo Province and Kobayakawa in Aki Province clans
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Black tie is a semi-formal Western dress code for evening events, originating in British and American conventions for attire in the 19th century. In British English, the dress code is referred to synecdochically by its principal element for men, the dinner suit or dinner jacket. In American English, the equivalent term, tuxedo, is common; the dinner suit is a black, midnight blue or white two- or three-piece suit, distinguished by satin or grosgrain jacket lapels and similar stripes along the outseam of the trousers. It is worn with a white dress shirt with standing or turndown collar and link cuffs, a black bow tie an evening waist coat or a cummerbund, black patent leather dress shoes or court pumps. Accessories may include bowler, or boater hat. For women, an evening gown or other fashionable evening attire may be worn; the dinner jacket evolved in late 19th century out of the smoking jacket – 19th century informal evening wear without tails designated for more comfortable tobacco smoking – following the first documented example in 1865 of the Prince of Wales King Edward VII.
Thus in many non-English languages, it is known as a "smoking". In American English, its synonym "tuxedo" was derived from the town of Tuxedo Park in New York State, where it was first introduced in 1886 following the example of Europeans. Traditionally worn only for events after 6 p.m. black tie is less formal than white tie but more formal than informal or business dress. As semi-formal, black tie are worn for dinner parties and sometimes to balls and weddings, although etiquette experts discourage wearing of black tie for weddings. Traditional semi-formal day wear. Supplementary semi-formal alternatives may be accepted for black tie: military uniform, religious clothing, folk costumes, etc. Dinner jacket in the context of menswear first appeared in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland around 1887 and in the United States of America around 1889. In the 1960s it became associated in the United States with colored jackets specifically. Tuxedo in the context of menswear originated in the US around 1888.
It was named after Tuxedo Park, a Hudson Valley enclave for New York's social elite where it was seen in its early years. The term was capitalized until the 1930s and traditionally referred only to a white jacket; when the jacket was paired with its own unique trousers and accessories in the 1900s the term began to be associated with the entire suit. In French, Catalan, German, Russian, Spanish and other European languages the style is referred to with the pseudo-anglicism smoking; this generic colloquialism is a false friend deriving from its similarity with the 19th century smoking jacket. In French the dress code may be called "cravate noire," a term, sometimes adopted directly into English; the suit with accompanying accessories is sometimes nicknamed a monkey suit and, since 1918, soup and fish - a term derived from the sort of food thought to be served at black tie dinners. In the 1860s, the increasing popularity of outdoor activities among the middle and upper classes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland led to a corresponding increase in the popularity of the casual lounge suit as a country alternative to the more formal day wear frock coat, traditionally worn in town.
Men sought a similar alternative to the formal evening tailcoat worn every evening. The earliest record of a tailless coat being worn with evening wear is a 1865 midnight blue smoking jacket in silk with matching trousers ordered by the Prince of Wales from Savile Row tailors Henry Poole & Co; the smoking jacket was tailored for use at the Prince's informal country estate. Henry Poole never saw his design become known as a dinner jacket or cross the Atlantic and be called a tuxedo over there. Other accounts of the Prince's experimentation appear around 1885 variously referring to "a garment of many colours, such as was worn by our ancestors" and "short garments coming down to the waist and made on the model of the military men's jackets"; the garment as we know it was first described around the same time and associated with Cowes, a seaside resort in southern England and centre of British yachting, associated with the Prince. It was intended for warm weather use but soon spread to informal or stag winter occasions.
As it was an evening tailcoat substitute, it was worn with all the same accoutrements as the tailcoat, including the trousers. As such, in these early days, black tie was considered informal wear. In the following decades of the Victorian era, the style became known as a dinner jacket: a fashionable, formal alternative for the tailcoat which men of the upper classes wore every evening, thus it was worn with the standard accompaniments for the evening tailcoat at the time: matching trousers, white or black waistcoat, white bow tie, white detachable wing-collar formal shirt and black formal shoes. Lapels were faced or edged in silk or satin in varying widths. In comparison with full dress, etiquette guides declared dinner jacket inappropriate for wear in mixed company, meaning together with ladies. During the Edwardian era, the practice of wearing a black waistcoat and black bow tie with a dinner jacket became the convention, esta
Haiku listen is a short form of Japanese poetry in three phrases characterized by three qualities: The essence of haiku is "cutting". This is represented by the juxtaposition of two images or ideas and a kireji between them, a kind of verbal punctuation mark which signals the moment of separation and colours the manner in which the juxtaposed elements are related. Traditional haiku consist of 17 on, in three phrases of 5, 7, 5 on, respectively. A kigo drawn from a saijiki, an extensive but defined list of such terms. Modern Japanese haiku are said by some to vary from the tradition of 17 on or taking nature as their subject. Despite the western influence, the use of juxtaposition continues to be honored in both traditional and modern haiku. There is a common, although recent, perception that the images juxtaposed must be directly observed everyday objects or occurrences. In Japanese, haiku are traditionally printed in a single vertical line while haiku in English appear in three lines parallel to the three phrases of Japanese haiku.
Called hokku, haiku was given its current name by the Japanese writer Masaoka Shiki at the end of the 19th century. In Japanese haiku a kireji, or cutting word appears at the end of one of the verse's three phrases. A kireji fills a role somewhat analogous to a caesura in classical western poetry or to a volta in sonnets. Depending on which cutting word is chosen, its position within the verse, it may cut the stream of thought, suggesting a parallel between the preceding and following phrases, or it may provide a dignified ending, concluding the verse with a heightened sense of closure; the fundamental aesthetic quality of both hokku and haiku is that it is internally sufficient, independent of context, will bear consideration as a complete work. The kireji lends the verse structural support, allowing it to stand as an independent poem; the use of kireji distinguishes hokku from second and subsequent verses of renku. However, renku employ kireji. In English, since kireji have no direct equivalent, poets sometimes use punctuation such as a dash or ellipsis, or an implied break to create a juxtaposition intended to prompt the reader to reflect on the relationship between the two parts.
The kireji in the Bashō examples "old pond" and "the wind of Mt Fuji" are both "ya". Neither the remaining Bashō example nor the Issa example contain a kireji although they do both balance a fragment in the first five on against a phrase in the remaining 12 on. In comparison with English verse characterized by syllabic meter, Japanese verse counts sound units known as "on" or morae. Traditional haiku consist of 17 on, in three phrases of five and five on respectively. Among contemporary poems teikei haiku continue to use the 5-7-5 pattern while jiyuritsu haiku do not. One of the examples below illustrates that traditional haiku masters were not always constrained by the 5-7-5 pattern. Although the word "on" is sometimes translated as "syllable", one on is counted for a short syllable, two for an elongated vowel or doubled consonant, one for an "n" at the end of a syllable. Thus, the word "haibun", though counted as two syllables in English, is counted as four on in Japanese; this is illustrated by the Issa haiku below.
Conversely, some sounds, such as "kyo" may look like two syllables to English speakers but are in fact a single on in Japanese. In 1973, the Haiku Society of America noted that the norm for writers of haiku in English was to use 17 syllables, but they noted a trend toward shorter haiku. Shorter haiku are much more common in 21st century English haiku writing. While some translators of Japanese poetry infer that about 12 syllables in English approximate the duration of 17 Japanese on. A haiku traditionally contains a kigo, a word or phrase that symbolizes or implies the season of the poem and, drawn from a saijiki, an extensive but prescriptive list of such words. Kigo are in the form of metonyms and can be difficult for those who lack Japanese cultural references to spot; the Bashō examples below include "kawazu", "frog" implying spring, "shigure", a rain shower in late autumn or early winter. Kigo are not always included in non-Japanese haiku or by modern writers of Japanese "free-form" haiku.
The best-known Japanese haiku is Bashō's "old pond": 古池や蛙飛び込む水の音 ふるいけやかわずとびこむみずのおと furu ike ya kawazu tobikomu mizu no oto This separates into on as: fu-ru-i-ke ya ka-wa-zu to-bi-ko-mu mi-zu-no-o-to Translated: old pond frog leaps in water's soundAnother haiku by Bashō: 初しぐれ猿も小蓑をほしげ也 はつしぐれさるもこみのをほしげなり hatsu shigure saru mo komino o hoshige nariThis separates into on as: ha-tsu shi-gu-re sa-ru mo ko-mi-no o ho-shi-ge na-ri Translated: the first cold shower the monkey seems to want a little coat of strawThis haiku by Bashō illustrates that he was not always constrained to a 5-7-5 on pattern. It contains 18 on in the pattern 6-7-5 富士の風や扇にのせて江戸土産 ふじのかぜやおうぎにのせてえどみやげ Fuji no kaze ya ōgi ni nosete Edo miyage
University of Tokyo
The University of Tokyo, abbreviated as Todai or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyo, Japan. Established in 1877 as the first imperial university, it is one of Japan's most prestigious universities; the university has 10 faculties and enrolls about 30,000 students, 2,100 of whom are international students. Its five campuses are in Hongō, Kashiwa and Nakano, it is among the top type of the select Japanese universities assigned additional funding under the MEXT's Top Global University Project to enhance Japan's global educational competitiveness. The university has graduated many notable alumni, including 17 Prime Ministers, 9 Nobel Prize laureates, 3 Pritzker Prize laureates, 3 astronauts, 1 Fields Medalist; the university was chartered by the Meiji government in 1877 under its current name by amalgamating older government schools for medicine, various traditional scholars and modern learning. It was renamed "the Imperial University" in 1886, Tokyo Imperial University in 1897 when the Imperial University system was created.
In September 1923, an earthquake and the following fires destroyed about 700,000 volumes of the Imperial University Library. The books lost included the Hoshino Library, a collection of about 10,000 books; the books were the former possessions of Hoshino Hisashi before becoming part of the library of the university and were about Chinese philosophy and history. In 1947, after Japan's defeat in World War II, it re-assumed its original name. With the start of the new university system in 1949, Todai swallowed up the former First Higher School and the former Tokyo Higher School, which thenceforth assumed the duty of teaching first- and second-year undergraduates, while the faculties on Hongo main campus took care of third- and fourth-year students. Although the university was founded during the Meiji period, it has earlier roots in the Astronomy Agency, Shoheizaka Study Office, the Western Books Translation Agency; these institutions were government offices established by the 徳川幕府 Tokugawa shogunate, played an important role in the importation and translation of books from Europe.
Kikuchi Dairoku, an important figure in Japanese education, served as president of Tokyo Imperial University. For the 1964 Summer Olympics, the university hosted the running portion of the modern pentathlon event. On 20 January 2012, Todai announced that it would shift the beginning of its academic year from April to September to align its calendar with the international standard; the shift would be phased in over five years. But this unilateral announcement by the president was received badly and the university abandoned the plans. According to the Japan Times, the university had 1,282 professors in February 2012. Of those, 58 were women. In the fall of 2012 and for the first time, the University of Tokyo started two undergraduate programs taught in English and geared toward international students — Programs in English at Komaba — the International Program on Japan in East Asia and the International Program on Environmental Sciences. In 2014, the School of Science at the University of Tokyo introduced an all-English undergraduate transfer program called Global Science Course.
The University of Tokyo is organized into 15 graduate schools. Todai Law School is considered as one of the top Law schools in Japan, ranking top in the number of successful candidates of Japanese Bar Examination in 2009 and 2010. Eduniversal ranked Japanese business schools, the Faculty of Economics in Todai is placed 4th in Japan; the University of Tokyo is considered a top research institution of Japan. It receives the largest amount of national grants for research institutions, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, receiving 40% more than the University with 2nd largest grants and 90% more than the University with 3rd largest grants; this massive financial investment from the Japanese government directly affects Todai's research outcomes. According to Thomson Reuters, Todai is the best research university in Japan, its research excellence is distinctive in Physics, Biology & Biochemistry, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Materials Science and Immunology. In another ranking, Nikkei Shimbun on 2004/2/16 surveyed about the research standards in Engineering studies based on Thomson Reuters, Grants in Aid for Scientific Research and questionnaires to heads of 93 leading Japanese Research Centers, Todai was placed 4th in this ranking.
Weekly Diamond reported that Todai has the 3rd highest research standard in Japan in terms of research fundings per researchers in COE Program. In the same article, it's ranked 21st in terms of the quality of education by GP funds per student. Todai has been recognized for its research in the social sciences and humanities. In January 2011, Repec ranked Todai's Economics department as Japan's best economics research university, and it is the only Japanese university within world top 100. Todai has produced 9 presidents of the Japanese Economic Association, the largest number in the association. Asahi Shimbun summarized the amount of academic papers in Japanese major legal journals by university, Todai was ranked top during 2005-2009; the University's School of Science and the Earthquake Research Institute are both r
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC