Egon Petri was a classical pianist. Egon Petri's family was Dutch, his father, a professional violinist, taught him to play the violin. While still a teen, Petri played with the Dresden Court Orchestra and with his father's string quartet, he studied composition and theory with Hermann Kretzschmar and Felix Draeseke at the Dresden Conservatory. From an early age Petri had taken piano lessons and with strong encouragement from Ignacy Jan Paderewski and Ferruccio Busoni, he concentrated on piano, he studied with Busoni, who influenced him. He considered himself more a disciple than a student of Busoni's. Under Busoni's influence, Petri focused on the works of Johann Sebastian Bach and Franz Liszt, composers who, along with Busoni himself, remained at the centre of his repertoire. During World War I, Petri moved with Busoni to Switzerland, where he assisted him in editing Bach's keyboard works. In the 1920s, Petri taught in Berlin. In 1923 he became the first non-Soviet soloist to play in the Soviet Union.
In 1927 he moved to Zakopane, where, until the outbreak of World War II in 1939, he conducted summer and early fall sessions and master-classes for selected piano students. From 1929 he made recordings for several labels, including Columbia Records. Petri escaped from Poland the day before the German invasion in September 1939, but he had to leave behind all his books and letters, including his correspondence with Busoni, he moved to the United States, working first at Cornell University and at Mills College in Oakland, California. He pointedly refused to play in Germany again. In 1955 he became a naturalised American citizen. Though a Dutch citizen until he was 74, he never lived in the Netherlands and was not at ease with the Dutch language. On one occasion when he performed for Queen Wilhelmina, they spoke German, he was fluent in German, French, Italian and Russian. He was an influential figure among many pianists of the mid-20th century, his international students included Ozan Marsh, John Ogdon and Xenia Boodberg Lee.
A big man, Petri had a superb technique and a powerful sonority, was a superlative exponent of the larger works of Beethoven and Brahms. He was a proponent of new music. Petri died in 1962 in California. Http://www.pianoeu.com/petri.html
The Philadelphia Orchestra is an American symphony orchestra, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. One of the "Big Five" American orchestras, the orchestra is based at the Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts, where it performs its subscription concerts, numbering over 130 annually, in Verizon Hall. From its founding until 2001, the Philadelphia Orchestra gave its concerts at the Academy of Music; the orchestra continues to own the Academy, returns there one week per year for the Academy of Music's annual gala concert and concerts for school children. The Philadelphia Orchestra's summer home is the Mann Center for the Performing Arts, it has summer residencies at the Saratoga Performing Arts Center, since July 2007 at the Bravo! Vail Valley Festival in Vail, Colorado; the orchestra performs an annual series of concerts at Carnegie Hall. From its earliest days the orchestra has been active in the recording studio, making extensive numbers of recordings for RCA Victor and Columbia Records; the orchestra's current music director is Yannick Nézet-Séguin, since 2012.
The orchestra was founded in 1900 by Fritz Scheel, who acted as its first conductor. The orchestra had its beginnings with a small group of musicians led by the pianist F. Cresson Schell. In 1904, Richard Strauss guest conducted the orchestra in a program of his compositions, in 1906 the Polish pianist Artur Rubenstein made his American debut with the orchestra. Additionally in 1906, the orchestra traveled to the White House to perform in an exclusive concert. In February 1907, Leandro Campanari took over and served as interim conductor for a short time during Scheel's illness and after his death. A flutist in the orchestra, August Rodemann, had stood in before Campanari's arrival, he started sabotaging the performances and Campanari was obliged to remove himself from a bad situation. In 1907, Karl Pohlig became music director and served until 1912. New music he programmed was unpopular with audiences, revelations that he had an extra-marital affair with his secretary caused outrage; the orchestra cancelled his contract and gave him a year's salary in severance to avoid a suit from Pohlig alleging a conspiracy to oust him.
Leopold Stokowski brought the orchestra to national prominence. Under his guidance, the orchestra gained a reputation for virtuosity, developed what is known as the "Philadelphia Sound." Stokowski left the orchestra in 1941, did not return as a guest conductor for nearly 20 years. In 1936 Eugene Ormandy joined the organization, jointly held the post of principal conductor with Stokowski until 1938 when he became its sole music director, he remained as music director until 1980. Ormandy conducted many of the orchestra's best-known recordings and took the orchestra on its historic 1973 tour of the People's Republic of China, where it was the first Western orchestra to visit that country in many decades; the tour was successful and it has since returned for three additional successful tours. Riccardo Muti became principal guest conductor of the orchestra in the 1970s, assumed the role as Music Director from Ormandy in 1980, serving through 1992, his recordings with the orchestra included the symphonies of Ludwig van Beethoven, Johannes Brahms, Alexander Scriabin, for the EMI and Philips labels.
Wolfgang Sawallisch succeeded Muti as Music Director from 1993 to 2003. He made a number of recordings with the orchestra of music of Robert Schumann, Richard Strauss and Richard Wagner, among other composers, for the EMI label. However, the orchestra lost its recording contract with EMI during this time, which led to a musicians' strike for 64 days in 1996. Near the end of Sawallisch's tenure, the orchestra released a self-produced set of recordings of the Schumann symphonies with Sawallisch conducting. In 2003, Sawallisch was named Conductor Laureate, held the title until his death in 2013. In 2003, Christoph Eschenbach succeeded Sawallisch as music director; this appointment was controversial because Eschenbach had not conducted the orchestra in over four years and there was a perceived lack of personal chemistry between him and the musicians prior to the appointment. At least one early report tried to downplay this concern; the orchestra returned to commercial recordings on the Ondine label.
However, in October 2006, Eschenbach and the orchestra announced the conclusion of his tenure as music director in 2008, for a total of five years, the shortest tenure as music director in the history of the Philadelphia Orchestra, along with Pohlig. After Eschenbach's departure, the Philadelphia Orchestra was without a music director for four years. In February 2007, Charles Dutoit was appointed chief conductor and artistic adviser for four seasons, starting in the fall of 2008 and running through the 2011–2012 season; this move was made to provide an "artistic bridge" while the orchestra searched for its eighth music director. According to news articles from August 2007, the orchestra had now devised a search process in which each musician in the orchestra would have a say in the choice of the next Music Director. In December 2008, at the invitation of Dutoit, Yannick Nézet-Séguin made his first guest-conducting appearance with the orchestra, he returned for a second series of concerts in December 2009.
In June 2010, Nézet-Séguin was appointed Music Director Designate, with a scheduled duration under that title from 2010 to 2012, with 2 weeks of scheduled appearances in the 2010–2011 season, 5 weeks of scheduled appearances in the 2011–2012 season. In 2012, he was appointed music director, succeeding Dutoit, who subsequently was named conductor laureate of the orchestra. Nézet-Séguin's initial contract as mus
Royal Philharmonic Orchestra
The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, based in London, was formed by Sir Thomas Beecham in 1946. In its early days the orchestra secured profitable recording contracts and important engagements including the Glyndebourne Festival Opera and the concerts of the Royal Philharmonic Society. After Beecham's death in 1961 the orchestra's fortunes declined steeply. Since Beecham's death the RPO has had seven chief conductors, including Rudolf Kempe, Antal Doráti, André Previn and Vladimir Ashkenazy. Others associated with the orchestra have included Sir Charles Groves, Sir Charles Mackerras, Peter Maxwell Davies, Yehudi Menuhin and Leopold Stokowski. In 2004 the orchestra acquired its first permanent London base, at the new Cadogan Hall in Chelsea; the RPO gives concerts at the Royal Festival Hall, the Royal Albert Hall and venues around the UK and other countries. From its earliest days the orchestra has been active in the recording studios, making film soundtracks and numerous gramophone recordings. In 1932 the conductor Sir Thomas Beecham had founded the London Philharmonic Orchestra, with the backing of rich supporters, he ran until 1940, when finances dried up in wartime.
Beecham left to conduct in Australia and the US. On Beecham's return to England in September 1944 the LPO welcomed him back, in October they gave a concert together that drew superlatives from the critics. Over the next months Beecham and the orchestra gave further concerts with considerable success, but the LPO players, now their own employers, declined to give him the unfettered control he had exercised in the 1930s. If he were to become chief conductor again it would be as a paid employee of the orchestra. Beecham responded, "I emphatically refuse to be wagged by any orchestra... I am going to found one more great orchestra to round off my career." In 1945 he conducted the first concert of Walter Legge's new Philharmonia Orchestra, but was not disposed to accept a salaried position from Legge, his former assistant, any more than from his former players in the LPO. His new orchestra to rival the Philharmonia would, he told Legge, be launched in "the most auspicious circumstances and éclat".
In 1946 Beecham reached an agreement with the Royal Philharmonic Society: his orchestra would replace the LPO at all the Society's concerts. He thus gained the right to name the new ensemble the "Royal Philharmonic Orchestra", an arrangement approved by George VI. Beecham arranged with the Glyndebourne Festival that the RPO should be the resident orchestra at Glyndebourne seasons, he secured backing, including that of record companies in the US as well as Britain, with whom lucrative recording contracts were negotiated. The music critic Lyndon Jenkins writes: Naturally, it became known that he was planning another orchestra, at which the cry "He'll never get the players!" went up just as it had done in 1932. Beecham was unmoved: "I always get the players," he retorted. "Among other considerations, they are so good they refuse to play under anybody but me". Beecham appointed Victor Olof as his orchestral manager, they started recruiting. At the top of their list were leading musicians with whom Beecham had worked before the war.
Four had been founder members of the LPO fifteen years previously: Reginald Kell, Gerald Jackson, James Bradshaw and Jack Silvester. From the current LPO they engaged the oboist Peter Newbury. Beecham persuaded the veteran bassoonist Archie Camden, pursuing a solo career, to return to orchestral work; the cellos were led by Raymond Clark, enlisted from the BBC Symphony Orchestra. The principal horn player was Dennis Brain, who held the same post in Legge's Philharmonia, but managed to play for both orchestras. Jenkins speculates that as Beecham knew all Britain's orchestral leaders at first hand he decided not to try to lure any of them away, his choice was John Pennington, first violin of the London String Quartet from 1927 to 1934, had had a career in the US as concertmaster, successively, of the San Francisco Symphony, Los Angeles Philharmonic and Paramount Pictures orchestras. On 11 September 1946 the Royal Philharmonic assembled for its first rehearsal. Four days it gave its first concert, at the Davis Theatre, Croydon.
Beecham telegraphed a colleague, "Press unanimous in praise of orchestra. First Croydon concert huge success". Beecham and the orchestra played a series of out-of-town engagements before venturing a first London concert on 26 October; the Times spoke of "a hall filled with golden tone which enveloped the listener". Before its London debut the orchestra made its first recording, within two years had made more than 100. Within a few months Pennington was forced to resign when the British Musicians' Union discovered that he was not one of its members, he was succeeded by his deputy Oscar Lampe, "a man who eschewed most social graces but played the violin divinely", according to Jenkins. In the early days the orchestra comprised 72 players all on yearly contract to Beecham, giving him first call on their services, subject to reasonable notice, but not otherwise restricting their freedom to play for other ensembles. A review of the London orchestral scene of the late 1940s said of the RPO and its main rival: "The Philharmonia and Royal Philharmonic share a serious disability: that n
Vladimir Samoylovich Horowitz was an American classical pianist and composer born in the Russian Empire. He was acclaimed for his virtuoso technique, his tone color, the excitement engendered by his playing, he is recognized as one of the greatest pianists of all time. Vladimir Horowitz was born in Kyiv, Russian Empire. There are unsubstantiated claims that Horowitz was born in Berdychiv, but his birth certificate unequivocally states Kiev as his birthplace. Horowitz was the youngest of four children of Samuil Horowitz and Sophia Bodik, who were assimilated Jews. Samuil was a well-to-do electrical engineer and a distributor of electric motors for German manufacturers. Horowitz's grandfather Joachim was a merchant, belonging to the 1st Guild, which exempted him from having to reside in the Pale of Settlement. Horowitz was born in 1903, but in order to make him appear too young for military service so as not to risk damaging his hands, his father took a year off his son's age by claiming he was born in 1904.
The 1904 date appeared in many reference works during the pianist's lifetime. Horowitz's uncle Alexander was a close friend of Alexander Scriabin; when Horowitz was 10, it was arranged for him to play for Scriabin, who told his parents that he was talented. Horowitz received piano instruction from an early age from his mother, herself a pianist. In 1912 he entered the Kiev Conservatory, where he was taught by Vladimir Puchalsky, Sergei Tarnowsky, Felix Blumenfeld, his first solo recital was in Kharkiv in 1920. Horowitz's fame grew, he soon began to tour Russia, where he was paid with bread and chocolate rather than money, due to the economic hardship caused by the Civil War. During the 1922–23 season, he performed 23 concerts of eleven different programs in Petrograd alone. Despite his early success as a pianist, Horowitz maintained that he wanted to be a composer and undertook a career as a pianist only to help his family, who had lost their possessions in the Russian Revolution. In December 1925, Horowitz emigrated to the West, ostensibly to study with Artur Schnabel in Berlin but secretly intending not to return.
The 22-year-old pianist stuffed American dollars and British pound notes into his shoes to finance his initial concerts. On December 18, 1925, Horowitz made his first appearance in Berlin, he played in Paris and New York City. Horowitz was selected by Soviet authorities to represent Ukraine in the inaugural 1927 International Chopin Piano Competition in Poland, but he had decided to stay in the West and thus did not participate. Horowitz gave his United States debut on January 1928, in Carnegie Hall, he played Tchaikovsky's Piano Concerto No. 1 under the direction of Sir Thomas Beecham, making his U. S. debut. Horowitz said that he and Beecham had divergent ideas about tempos and that Beecham was conducting the score "from memory and he didn't know" the piece. Horowitz's rapport with his audience was phenomenal. Olin Downes, writing for The New York Times, was critical about the tug of war between conductor and soloist, but credited Horowitz with both a beautiful singing tone in the second movement and a tremendous technique in the finale, calling his playing a "tornado unleashed from the steppes".
In this debut performance, Horowitz demonstrated a marked ability to excite his audience, an ability he maintained for his entire career. Downes wrote, "it has been years since a pianist created such a furor with an audience in this city." In his review of Horowitz's solo recital, Downes characterized the pianist's playing as showing "most if not all the traits of a great interpreter." In 1933, he played for the first time with the conductor Arturo Toscanini in a performance of Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 5. Horowitz and Toscanini went on to perform together many times, in recordings. Horowitz settled in the U. S. in 1939 and became an American citizen in 1944. He made his television debut in a concert taped at Carnegie Hall on February 1, 1968, broadcast nationwide by CBS on September 22 of that year. Despite rapturous receptions at recitals, Horowitz became unsure of his abilities as a pianist. On several occasions, the pianist had to be pushed onto the stage, he withdrew from public performances from 1936 to 1938, 1953 to 1965, 1969 to 1974, 1983 to 1985.
In 1926, Horowitz performed on several piano rolls at the Welte-Mignon studios in Germany. His first gramophone recordings were made in the United States in 1928 for Victor. Horowitz's first European-produced recording, made by His Master's Voice, RCA Victor's London based affiliate in 1930, was of Rachmaninoff's Piano Concerto No. 3 with Albert Coates and the London Symphony Orchestra, the world premiere recording of that piece. Through 1936, Horowitz continued to make recordings in the UK for HMV of solo piano repertoire, including his famous 1932 account of Liszt's Sonata in B minor. Beginning in 1940, Horowitz's recording activity was again concentrated in the US; that year, he recorded Brahms Piano Concerto No. 2, in 1941, the Tchaikovsky Piano Concerto No. 1, both with the NBC Symphony Orchestra under Toscanini. In 1959, RCA Victor issued the live 1943 performance of the Tchaikovsky concerto with Horowitz and Toscanini. During Horowitz's second retirement, which began in 1953, he made a series of recordings in his New York City townhouse, including LPs of Scriabin and Clementi.
Horowitz's first stereo
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Butler University is a private university in Indianapolis, United States. Founded in 1855 and named after founder Ovid Butler, the university has over 60 major academic fields of study in six colleges: Lacy School of Business, College of Communication, College of Education, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Jordan College of the Arts, it comprises a 295-acre campus located five miles from downtown Indianapolis. On January 15, 1850, the Indiana State legislature adopted Ovid Butler's proposed charter for a new Christian university in Indianapolis. After five years in development, Butler University opened on November 1, 1855, as North Western Christian University at 13th Street and College Avenue on Indianapolis' near north side at the eastern edge of the present Old Northside Historic District. Attorney and university founder Ovid Butler provided the property; the University's department of religion became a separate Christian Church seminary and "college of applied Christianity" in 1924.
In 1930, Butler merged with the Teacher's College of Indianapolis, founded by Eliza Blaker, creating the university's second college. The third college, the College of Business Administration, was established in 1937, the College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences was established in 1945, following a merger that absorbed the Indianapolis College of Pharmacy; the Jordan College of Fine Arts, the university's fifth college, was established in 1951, following a merger with the Arthur Jordan Conservatory of Music. Butler's School of Religion, established in 1924, became independent in 1958 and is known as the Christian Theological Seminary. Butler University was founded by members of the Christian Church, though it was never controlled by the church; the university charter called for "a non-sectarian institution free from the taint of slavery, offering instruction in every branch of liberal and professional education." The university was the first in Indiana and the third in the U. S. to admit both women.
Butler was the first university in the United States to endow a chair designated for a woman, the Demia Butler Chair. Catharine Merrill, the first person to hold the chair, became the second woman to be named a professor in an American university; the university established the first professorship in English literature and the first Department of English in the state of Indiana. The original location of the school was 13th Street and College Avenue on the near-northside of Indianapolis. In 1875, the university, renamed for Ovid Butler "in recognition of Ovid Butler's inspirational vision, determined leadership, financial support," moved to a 25-acre campus in Irvington, which at the time was an independent suburb of Indianapolis; the campus consisted of several buildings, including an observatory, most of which were demolished in 1939. The Bona Thompson Library at the intersection of Downey and University avenues, designed by architects Henry H. Dupont and Jesse T. Johnson, is the only remaining building, although several buildings that housed faculty still remain, including the Benton House.
Enrollment at Butler increased following the end of World War I, prompting the administration to examine the need for a larger campus. The new and current campus, designed in-part by noted architect George Sheridan, was formed on the site of Fairview Park, a former amusement park on the city's northwest side. Classes began on the campus in 1928; the first building on the Fairview campus was Arthur Jordan Memorial Hall, designed by Robert Frost Daggett and Thomas Hibben. The structure's Collegiate Gothic style of architecture used in the original William Tinsley-designed 13th Street and College Avenue building, set the tone for subsequent buildings erected on the campus over the next three decades. In 1928, the Butler Fieldhouse was completed after being designed by architect Fermor Spencer Cannon; the building remained the largest indoor sports facility in the state until the mid-1960s. The Religion Building and Sweeney Chapel were completed in 1942; these structures, designed by Burns and James, were remodeled into Robertson Hall in 1966.
The building now serves as the university's admissions offices. Following World War II, construction began on Atherton Union; this building includes an on-campus Starbucks. McGuire and Shook designed Ross Hall, a dormitory designed for men but is now coed, Schwitzer Hall, a women's dormitory. Art Lindbergh, with help from Daggett, designed the Holcomb Observatory and Planetarium, dedicated in 1955; this building houses Indiana's largest telescope. Acclaimed architect Minoru Yamasaki, who designed the World Trade Center, designed Irwin Library, which opened in 1963 and serves as the university's main library. In the early 1960s, Lilly Hall and Clowes Memorial Hall were constructed following the move of the Arthur Jordan Conservatory of Music to the campus. Clowes Hall, which opened in 1963, was co-designed by Indianapolis architect Evans Woollen III and John M. Johansen. Ten years following the construction of Clowes Hall and Irwin Library, the science complex of Gallahue Hall and the Holcomb Research Institute were built, completing the "U" shaped complex of academic buildings.
The Holcomb Building now houses the College of Business, Ruth Lilly Science Library, Information Technology. The Residential College, designed by James and Associates, was the university's