A passenger ship is a merchant ship whose primary function is to carry passengers on the sea. The category does not include cargo vessels which have accommodations for limited numbers of passengers, such as the ubiquitous twelve-passenger freighters once common on the seas in which the transport of passengers is secondary to the carriage of freight; the type does however include many classes of ships designed to transport substantial numbers of passengers as well as freight. Indeed, until virtually all ocean liners were able to transport mail, package freight and express, other cargo in addition to passenger luggage, were equipped with cargo holds and derricks, kingposts, or other cargo-handling gear for that purpose. Only in more recent ocean liners and in all cruise ships has this cargo capacity been eliminated. While passenger ships are part of the merchant marine, passenger ships have been used as troopships and are commissioned as naval ships when used as for that purpose. Passenger ships include ferries, which are vessels for day to day or overnight short-sea trips moving passengers and vehicles.
An ocean liner is the traditional form of passenger ship. Once such liners operated on scheduled line voyages to all inhabited parts of the world. With the advent of airliners transporting passengers and specialized cargo vessels hauling freight, line voyages have died out, but with their decline came an increase in sea trips for pleasure and fun, in the latter part of the 20th century ocean liners gave way to cruise ships as the predominant form of large passenger ship containing from hundreds to thousands of people, with the main area of activity changing from the North Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean Sea. Although some ships have characteristics of both types, the design priorities of the two forms are different: ocean liners value speed and traditional luxury while cruise ships value amenities rather than speed; these priorities produce different designs. In addition, ocean liners were built to cross the Atlantic Ocean between Europe and the United States or travel further to South America or Asia while cruise ships serve shorter routes with more stops along coastlines or among various islands.
For a long time, cruise ships were smaller than the old ocean liners had been, but in the 1980s, this changed when Knut Kloster, the director of Norwegian Caribbean Lines, bought one of the biggest surviving liners, the SS France, transformed her into a huge cruise ship, which he renamed the SS Norway. Her success demonstrated. Successive classes of ever-larger ships were ordered, until the Cunard liner Queen Elizabeth was dethroned from her 56-year reign as the largest passenger ship built. Both the RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 and her successor as Cunard's flagship RMS Queen Mary 2, which entered service in 2004, are of hybrid construction. Like transatlantic ocean liners, they are fast ships and built to withstand the rigors of the North Atlantic in line voyage service, but both ships are designed to operate as cruise ships, with the amenities expected in that trade. QM2 was superseded by the Freedom of the Seas of the Royal Caribbean line as the largest passenger ship built; the Freedom of the Seas was superseded by the Oasis of the Seas in October 2009.
Because of changes in historic measurement systems, it is impossible to make meaningful and accurate comparisons of ship sizes over time beyond length. Three alternative forms of measurement are ship volume and weight of water it displaces. A fourth, deadweight tonnage, is a measure of how much mass a ship can safely carry, is thus more relevant to measuring cargo vessels than passenger ships. Gross register tonnage was a measure of the internal volume of certain enclosed areas of a ship divided into "tons" equivalent to 100 cubic feet of space; the displacement is a measure of both a ship's weight and the weight of water it displaces, which are one and the same by Archimedes' principle. While straightforward, it has four variants in measure, Loaded displacement, Light displacement, Normal displacement, Standard displacement. Of these, the first is most appropriate to measuring a passenger vessel. Gross tonnage is a comparatively new measure, only adopted in 1982 to replace GRT, it is calculated based on "the moulded volume of all enclosed spaces of the ship", is used to determine things such as a ship's manning regulations, safety rules, registration fees, port dues.
It is produced by a mathematical formula, does not distinguish between mechanical and passenger spaces, thus is not directly comparable to historic GRT measurements. While a high displacement can indicate better sea keeping abilities, gross tonnage is nowadays promoted as the most important measure of size for passenger vessels, as the ratio of gross tonnage per passenger – the Passenger/Space Ratio – gives a sense of the spaciousness of a ship, an important consideration in cruise liners where the onboard amenities are of high importance. A ship's GRT and displacement were somewhat similar
A steamship referred to as a steamer, is a type of steam powered vessel ocean-faring and seaworthy, propelled by one or more steam engines that move propellers or paddlewheels. The first steamships came into practical usage during the early 1800s. Steamships use the prefix designations of "PS" for paddle steamer or "SS" for screw steamer; as paddle steamers became less common, "SS" is assumed by many to stand for "steam ship". Ships powered by internal combustion engines use a prefix such as "MV" for motor vessel, so it is not correct to use "SS" for most modern vessels; as steamships were less dependent on wind patterns, new trade routes opened up. The steamship has been described as a "major driver of the first wave of trade globalization" and contributor to "an increase in international trade, unprecedented in human history." The steamship was preceded by smaller vessels designed for insular transportation, called steamboats. Once the technology of steam was mastered at this level, steam engines were mounted on larger, ocean-going vessels.
Becoming reliable, propelled by screw rather than paddlewheels, the technology changed the design of ships for faster, more economic propulsion. Paddlewheels as the main motive source became standard on these early vessels, it was an effective means of propulsion under ideal conditions but otherwise had serious drawbacks. The paddle-wheel performed best when it operated at a certain depth, however when the depth of the ship changed from added weight it further submerged the paddle wheel causing a substantial decrease in performance. Within a few decades of the development of the river and canal steamboat, the first steamships began to cross the Atlantic Ocean; the first sea-going steamboat was an ex-French lugger. The first iron steamship to go to sea was the 116-ton Aaron Manby, built in 1821 by Aaron Manby at the Horseley Ironworks, became the first iron-built vessel to put to sea when she crossed the English Channel in 1822, arriving in Paris on 22 June, she carried passengers and freight to Paris in 1822 at an average speed of 8 knots.
The American ship SS Savannah first crossed the Atlantic Ocean, although most of the voyage was made under sail. The first ship to make the transatlantic trip under steam power may have been the British-built Dutch-owned Curaçao, a wooden 438 ton vessel built in Dover and powered by two 50 hp engines, which crossed from Hellevoetsluis, near Rotterdam on 26 April 1827 to Paramaribo, Surinam on 24 May, spending 11 days under steam on the way out and more on the return. Another claimant is the Canadian ship SS Royal William in 1833; the first steamship purpose-built for scheduled trans-Atlantic crossings was the British side-wheel paddle steamer SS Great Western built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in 1838, which inaugurated the era of the trans-Atlantic ocean liner. The SS Archimedes, built in Britain in 1839 by Francis Pettit Smith, was the world's first screw propeller-driven steamship for open water seagoing, it had considerable influence on ship development, encouraging the adoption of screw propulsion by the Royal Navy, in addition to her influence on commercial vessels.
The first screw-driven propeller steamship introduced in America was on a ship built by Thomas Clyde in 1844 and many more ships and routes followed. The key innovation that made ocean-going steamers viable was the change from the paddle-wheel to the screw-propeller as the mechanism of propulsion; these steamships became more popular, because the propeller's efficiency was consistent regardless of the depth at which it operated. Being smaller in size and mass and being submerged, it was far less prone to damage. James Watt of Scotland is given credit for applying the first screw propeller to an engine at his Birmingham works, an early steam engine, beginning the use of a hydrodynamic screw for propulsion; the development of screw propulsion relied on the following technological innovations. Steam engines had to be designed with the power delivered at the bottom of the machinery, to give direct drive to the propeller shaft. A paddle steamer's engines drive a shaft, positioned above the waterline, with the cylinders positioned below the shaft.
SS Great Britain used chain drive to transmit power from a paddler's engine to the propeller shaft - the result of a late design change to propeller propulsion. An effective stern tube and associated bearings were required; the stern tube contains the propeller shaft. It should provide an unrestricted delivery of power by the propeller shaft; the combination of hull and stern tube must avoid any flexing that will bend the shaft or cause uneven wear. The inboard end has a stuffing box; some early stern tubes were made of brass and operated as a water lubricated bearing along the entire length. In other instances a long bush of soft metal was fitted in the after end of the stern tube; the Great Eastern had this arrangement fail on her first transatlantic voyage, with large amounts of uneven wear. The problem was solved with a lignum vitae water-lubricated bearing, patented in 1858; this is in use today. Since the motive power of screw propulsion is delivered along the shaft, a thrust bearing is needed to transfer that load to the hull without excessive friction.
SS Great Britain had a 2 ft diameter gunmetal plate on the forward end of the shaft which bore against a steel plate attached to the engine beds. Water
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets. In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange. A public company can be unlisted. Public companies are formed within the legal systems of particular nations, therefore have national associations and formal designations which are distinct and separate. For example one of the main public company forms in the United States is called a limited liability company, in France is called a "society of limited responsibility", in Britain a public limited company, in Germany a company with limited liability. While the general idea of a public company may be similar, differences are meaningful, are at the core of international law disputes with regard to industry and trade. In the early modern period, the Dutch developed several financial instruments and helped lay the foundations of modern financial system.
The Dutch East India Company became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. In other words, the VOC was the first publicly traded company, because it was the first company to be actually listed on an official stock exchange. While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fledged capital market: corporate shareholders; as Edward Stringham notes, "companies with transferable shares date back to classical Rome, but these were not enduring endeavors and no considerable secondary market existed." The securities of a publicly traded company are owned by many investors while the shares of a held company are owned by few shareholders. A company with many shareholders is not a publicly traded company. In the United States, in some instances, companies with over 500 shareholders may be required to report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Public companies possess some advantages over held businesses.
Publicly traded companies are able to raise funds and capital through the sale of shares of stock. This is the reason publicly traded corporations are important; the profit on stock is gained in form of capital gain to the holders. The financial media and the public are able to access additional information about the business, since the business is legally bound, motivated, to publicly disseminate information regarding the financial status and future of the company to its many shareholders and the government; because many people have a vested interest in the company's success, the company may be more popular or recognizable than a private company. The initial shareholders of the company are able to share risk by selling shares to the public. If one were to hold a 100% share of the company, he or she would have to pay all of the business's debt; this increases asset liquidity and the company does not need to depend on funding from a bank. For example, in 2013 Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg owned 29.3% of the company's class A shares, which gave him enough voting power to control the business, while allowing Facebook to raise capital from, distribute risk to, the remaining shareholders.
Facebook was a held company prior to its initial public offering in 2012. If some shares are given to managers or other employees, potential conflicts of interest between employees and shareholders will be remitted; as an example, in many tech companies, entry-level software engineers are given stock in the company upon being hired. Therefore, the engineers have a vested interest in the company succeeding financially, are incentivized to work harder and more diligently to ensure that success. Many stock exchanges require that publicly traded companies have their accounts audited by outside auditors, publish the accounts to their shareholders. Besides the cost, this may make useful information available to competitors. Various other annual and quarterly reports are required by law. In the United States, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act imposes additional requirements; the requirement for audited books is not imposed by the exchange known as OTC Pink. The shares may be maliciously held by outside shareholders and the original founders or owners may lose benefits and control.
The principal-agent problem, or the agency problem is a key weakness of public companies. The separation of a company's ownership and control is prevalent in such countries as U. K and U. S. In the United States, the Securities and Exchange Commission requires that firms whose stock is traded publicly report their major shareholders each year; the reports identify all institutional shareholders, all company officials who own shares in their firm, any individual or institution owning more than 5% of the firm's stock. For many years, newly created companies were held but held initial
The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards and parcels. A postal service can be private or public, though many governments place restrictions on private systems. Since the mid-19th century, national postal systems have been established as government monopolies, with a fee on the article prepaid. Proof of payment is in the form of adhesive postage stamps, but postage meters are used for bulk mailing. Modern private postal systems are distinguished from national postal agencies by the names "courier" or "delivery service". Postal authorities have functions other than transporting letters. In some countries, a postal and telephone service oversees the postal system, in addition to telephone and telegraph systems; some countries' postal systems allow for savings handle applications for passports. The Universal Postal Union, established in 1874, includes 192 member countries and sets the rules for international mail exchanges; the word mail comes from the Medieval English word male, referring to pack.
It was spelled that way until the 17th century, is distinct from the word male. The French have a similar word, malle for a trunk or large box, mála is the Irish term for a bag. In the 17th century, the word mail began to appear as a reference for a bag that contained letters: "bag full of letter". Over the next hundred years the word mail began to be applied to the letters themselves, the sack as the mailbag. In the 19th century the British referred to mail as being letters that were being sent abroad, post as letters that were for localized delivery. S. the U. S. Postal Service delivers the mail; the term email first appeared in the 1970s. The term snail-mail is a retronym to distinguish it from the quicker email. Various dates have been given for its first use. Post is derived from Medieval French poste, which stems from the past participle of the Latin verb ponere; the practice of communication by written documents carried by an intermediary from one person or place to another certainly dates back nearly to the invention of writing.
However, development of formal postal systems occurred much later. The first documented use of an organized courier service for the diffusion of written documents is in Egypt, where Pharaohs used couriers for the diffusion of their decrees in the territory of the State; the earliest surviving piece of mail is Egyptian, dating to 255 BC. The first credible claim for the development of a real postal system comes from Ancient Persia, but the point of invention remains in question; the best documented claim attributes the invention to the Persian King Cyrus the Great, who mandated that every province in his kingdom would organize reception and delivery of post to each of its citizens. He negotiated with neighbouring countries to do the same and had roads built from the city of Post in Western Iran all the way up to the city of Hakha in the East. Other writers credit his successor Darius I of Persia. Other sources claim much earlier dates for an Assyrian postal system, with credit given to Hammurabi and Sargon II.
Mail may not have been the primary mission of this postal service, however. The role of the system as an intelligence gathering apparatus is well documented, the service was called angariae, a term that in time came to indicate a tax system; the Old Testament makes mention of this system: Ahasuerus, king of Medes, used couriers for communicating his decisions. The Persian system worked on stations, where the message carrier would ride to the next post, whereupon he would swap his horse with a fresh one, for maximum performance and delivery speed. Herodotus described the system in this way: "It is said that as many days as there are in the whole journey, so many are the men and horses that stand along the road, each horse and man at the interval of a day's journey; the verse prominently features on New York's James Farley Post Office, although it has been rephrased to Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds. The economic growth and political stability under the Mauryan empire saw the development of impressive civil infrastructure in ancient India.
The Mauryans developed early Indian mail service as well as public wells, rest houses, other facilities for the common public. Common chariots called. Couriers were used militarily by kings and local rulers to deliver information through runners and other carriers; the postmaster, the head of the intelligence service, was responsible for ensuring the maintenance of the courier system. Couriers were used to deliver personal letters. In South India, the Wodeyar dynasty of the Kingdom of Mysore used mail service for espionage purposes thereby acquiring knowledge related to matters that took place at great distances. By the end of the 18th century, the postal system in India had reached impressive levels of efficiency. According to British national Thomas Broughton, the Maharaja of Jodhpur sent daily offerings of fresh flowers from his capital to Nathadvara, they arrived in time for the first religious Darshan at sunrise; this system underwent complete modernization when the British Raj established its full control over India.
The Post Offi
Abdülaziz was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876. He was the son of Sultan Mahmud II and succeeded his brother Abdulmejid I in 1861. Born at Eyüp Palace, Constantinople, on 8 February 1830, Abdülaziz received an Ottoman education but was an ardent admirer of the material progress, made in the West, he was the first Ottoman Sultan who travelled to Western Europe, visiting a number of important European capitals including Paris and Vienna in the summer of 1867. Apart from his passion for the Ottoman Navy, which had the world's third largest fleet in 1875, the Sultan took an interest in documenting the Ottoman Empire, he was interested in literature and was a talented classical music composer. Some of his compositions, together with those of the other members of the Ottoman dynasty, have been collected in the album "European Music at the Ottoman Court" by the London Academy of Ottoman Court Music, he was deposed on grounds of mismanaging the Ottoman economy on 30 May 1876, was found dead six days under unnatural and mysterious circumstances.
His parents were Mahmud II and Pertevniyal Sultan named Besime, a Circassian. In 1868 Pertevniyal was residing at Dolmabahçe Palace; that year Abdülaziz led Empress of France, to see his mother. Pertevniyal perceived the presence of a foreign woman within her quarters of the seraglio as an insult, she slapped Eugénie across the face resulting in an international incident. According to another account, Pertevniyal became outraged by the forwardness of Eugénie taking the arm of one of her sons while he gave a tour of the palace garden, she gave the Empress a slap on the stomach as a more subtly intended than represented reminder that they were not in France; the Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque was built under the patronage of his mother. The construction work began in November 1869 and the mosque was finished in 1871, his paternal grandparents were Sultana Nakşidil Sultan. Several accounts identify his paternal grandmother with Aimée du Buc de Rivéry, a cousin of Empress Joséphine. Pertevniyal was a sister of third wife of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt.
Khushiyar and Ibrahim were the parents of Isma'il Pasha. Between 1861 and 1871, the Tanzimat reforms which began during the reign of his brother Abdulmejid I were continued under the leadership of his chief ministers, Mehmed Fuad Pasha and Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha. New administrative districts were set up in 1864 and a Council of State was established in 1868. Public education was organized on the French model and Istanbul University was reorganised as a modern institution in 1861, he was integral in establishing the first Ottoman civil code. Abdülaziz cultivated good relations with the Second French Empire and the British Empire. In 1867 he was the first Ottoman sultan to visit Western Europe, he travelled by a private rail car. His fellow Knights of the Garter created in 1867 were Charles Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond, Charles Manners, 6th Duke of Rutland, Henry Somerset, 8th Duke of Beaufort, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Franz Joseph I of Austria and Alexander II of Russia.
In 1867, Abdülaziz became the first Ottoman Sultan to formally recognize the title of Khedive to be used by the Vali of the Ottoman Eyalet of Egypt and Sudan, which thus became the autonomous Ottoman Khedivate of Egypt and Sudan. Muhammad Ali Pasha and his descendants had been the governors of Ottoman Egypt and Sudan since 1805, but were willing to use the higher title of Khedive, unrecognized by the Ottoman government until 1867. In return, the first Khedive, Ismail Pasha, had agreed a year earlier to increase the annual tax revenues which Egypt and Sudan would provide for the Ottoman treasury. Between 1854 and 1894, the revenues from Egypt and Sudan were declared as a surety by the Ottoman government for borrowing loans from British and French banks. After the Ottoman government declared a sovereign default on its foreign debt repayments on 30 October 1875, which triggered the Great Eastern Crisis in the empire's Balkan provinces that led to the devastating Russo-Turkish War and the establishment of the Ottoman Public Debt Administration in 1881, the importance for Britain of the sureties regarding the Ottoman revenues from Egypt and Sudan increased.
Combined with the much more important Suez Canal, opened in 1869, these sureties were influential in the British government's decision to occupy Egypt and Sudan in 1882, with the pretext of helping the Ottoman-Egyptian government to put down the Urabi Revolt. Egypt and Sudan nominally remained Ottoman territories until 5 November 1914, when the British Empire declared war against the Ottoman Empire during World War I. In 1869, Abdülaziz received visits from Eugénie de Montijo, Empress consort of Napoleon III of France and other foreign monarchs on their way to the opening of the Suez Canal; the Prince of Wales, the future Edward VII, twice visited Istanbul. By 1871 both Mehmed Fuad Pasha and Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha were dead; the Second French Empire, his Western European model, had been defeated in the Franco-Prussian War by the Nor
The pound sterling known as the pound and less referred to as sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling have currencies called the pound. Sterling is the third most-traded currency in the foreign exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those two currencies and the Chinese yuan, it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights. Sterling is the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves; the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man produce their own local issues of sterling which are considered equivalent to UK sterling in their respective regions. The pound sterling is used in Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands, Saint Helena and Ascension Island in Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha; the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Banknotes issued by other jurisdictions are not regulated by the Bank of England. The full official name pound sterling, is used in formal contexts and when it is necessary to distinguish the United Kingdom currency from other currencies with the same name. Otherwise the term pound is used; the currency name is sometimes abbreviated to just sterling in the wholesale financial markets, but not when referring to specific amounts. The abbreviations "ster." and "stg." are sometimes used. The term "British pound" is sometimes incorrectly used in less formal contexts, it is not an official name of the currency; the exchange rate of the pound sterling against the US dollar is referred to as "cable" in the wholesale foreign exchange markets. The origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the GBP/USD exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex traders of GBP/USD are sometimes referred to as "cable dealers". GBP/USD is now the only currency pair with its own name in the foreign exchange markets, after IEP/USD, known as "wire" in the forward FX markets, no longer exists after the Irish Pound was replaced by the euro in 1999.
There is apparent convergence of opinion regarding the origin of the term "pound sterling", toward its derivation from the name of a small Norman silver coin, away from its association with Easterlings or other etymologies. Hence, the Oxford English Dictionary state that the "most plausible" etymology is derivation from the Old English steorra for "star" with the added diminutive suffix "-ling", to mean "little star" and to refer to a silver penny of the English Normans; as another established source notes, the compound expression was derived: However, the perceived narrow window of the issuance of this coin, the fact that coin designs changed in the period in question, led Philip Grierson to reject this in favour of a more complex theory. Another argument that the Hanseatic League was the origin for both the origin of its definition and manufacture, in its name is that the German name for the Baltic is "Ost See", or "East Sea", from this the Baltic merchants were called "Osterlings", or "Easterlings".
In 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called "Easterlings Hall", or Esterlingeshalle. Because the League's money was not debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the "Easterlings", contracted to "'sterling". For further discussion of the etymology of "sterling", see sterling silver; the currency sign for the pound is £, written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is sometimes seen. This symbol derives from medieval Latin documents; the ISO 4217 currency code is GBP, formed from "GB", the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for the United Kingdom, the first letter of "pound". It does not stand for "Great Britain Pound" or "Great British Pound"; the abbreviation "UKP" is used but this is non-standard because the ISO 3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes: GGP, JEP and IMP. Stocks are traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices.
A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, singular and plural, except in the common phrase "quids in!". The term may have come via Italian immigrants from "scudo", the name for a number of coins used in Italy until the 19th century.
Flag of Spain
The flag of Spain, as it is defined in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, consists of three horizontal stripes: red and red, the yellow stripe being twice the size of each red stripe. Traditionally, the middle stripe was defined by the more archaic term of gualda, hence the popular name rojigualda; the origin of the current flag of Spain is the naval ensign of 1785, Pabellón de la Marina de Guerra under Charles III of Spain. It was chosen by Charles III himself among 12 different flags designed by Antonio Valdés y Bazán; the flag remained marine-focused for much of the next 50 years, flying over coastal fortresses, marine barracks and other naval property. During the Peninsular War the flag could be found on marine regiments fighting inland. Not until 1820 was the first Spanish land unit provided with one and it was not until 1843 that Queen Isabella II of Spain made the flag official. Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the color scheme of the flag remained intact, with the exception of the Second Republic period.
The present laws and regulations on the Spanish flag are: Spanish Constitution of 1978, establishing the national flag:Act 39/1981, regulating the use of the flag. Royal Decree 441/1981, establishing the detailed technical specifications of the colours of the flag. Royal Decree 1511/1977, establishing the Regulations on flags and emblems Royal decree of 19 July 1913, abolishing the 5-stripe Spanish merchant flag and establishing the plain bi-colour—the national flag without the shield—as the Spanish merchant flag; the colours of the flag, as defined by the Spanish Royal Decree 441/1981 of 27 February, are: The nearest Pantone shades are 7628 C and 7406 C. The basic design of the current flag of Spain with the coat of arms is specified by rule 3 of the Royal Decree 1511/1977, that states the following: The coat of arms of Spain has a height equal to 2⁄5 of the hoist and will figure on both sides of the flag; when the flag is of regular proportions, having length equal to 3⁄2 of the width, the coat's axis is placed at a distance from the hoist equal to 1⁄2 of the flag's width.
If the flag's length is less than normal, the coat of arms is placed at the center of the flag. The flag can only be flown horizontally from public buildings, private homes, ships, town squares, or during official ceremonies. While the flag should be flown from sunrise to sunset, government offices in Spain and abroad must fly the flag on a 24-hour basis; the flags must conform to the legal standards, cannot be soiled or damaged in any way. For mourning activities, the flag can be flown in either of the following ways; the first method known as half-masting, is performed when the flag is hoisted to the top of the flagpole lowered to the pole's one-third position. The other method is to attach a black ribbon to a flag, permanently affixed to a staff; the ribbon itself is ten centimetres wide and it is attached to the mast so that the ends of the ribbon reach the bottom of the flag. During the funeral ceremony, the flag may be used to cover the coffins of government officials and persons designated by an act of the President.
When flying the Spanish flag with other flags, the following is the correct order of precedence: The national flag, flags of foreign states, the flag of the European Union, international NGOs, military and government standards, Autonomous communities flags, city flags and any others. When foreign flags are used alongside the Spanish flag, the flags are sorted according to their countries' names in the Spanish language; the only exception is when the congress or meeting held in Spain dictates a different language to be used for sorting. The flag of Europe has been hoisted. While not mentioned by name in the law, the flag of NATO can be used in Spain, since it belongs to that organization as well; when unfurled in the presence of other flags, the national flag must not have smaller dimensions and must be situated in a prominent, honorable place, according to the relevant protocol. Some high-ranking officials of the Spanish state are entitled to display a flag representative of their status, it is a square flag of Spain with the Spanish coat of arms centered on the yellow stripe.
The Yacht ensign is the flag of Spain charged with the royal crown in blue in the center of the yellow stripe. This flag was first established in 1875 by Royal Decree, which provided that the central stripe would display the royal crown; the Spanish naval jack is only hoisted at the prow of all Navy ships when docked or anchored in foreign waters, from sunrise to sunset. In national waters it is hoisted on Sundays, festivities and in presence of a foreign warship as soon as it moors at the dock; the national flag is always hoisted at the stern, when sailing, from sunrise to sunset, when docked. It is a square flag composed of 4 quarters: First quarter, for Castile: Gules