Chontla is a municipality in Veracruz, Mexico. It is located in the northern part of about 220 km from state capital Xalapa, it has a surface of 361.09 km2. It is located at 21°18′N 97°55′W. Chontla is delimited to the west by Tantoyuca, to the south by Ixcatepec and Tepetzintla, to the east by Citlaltépetl and Ozuluama, it produces principally maize and chili peppers. In November the celebration in honor of Santa Catarina takes place; the weather in Chontla is warm all year with rains in summer. Official website
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers who began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Born in Medellín, Spain, to a family of lesser nobility, Cortés chose to pursue adventure and riches in the New World, he went to Hispaniola and to Cuba, where he received an encomienda. For a short time, he served. In 1519, he was elected captain of the third expedition to the mainland, which he funded, his enmity with the Governor of Cuba, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, resulted in the recall of the expedition at the last moment, an order which Cortés ignored. Arriving on the continent, Cortés executed a successful strategy of allying with some indigenous people against others, he used a native woman, Doña Marina, as an interpreter.
She bore his first son. When the Governor of Cuba sent emissaries to arrest Cortés, he fought them and won, using the extra troops as reinforcements. Cortés wrote letters directly to the king asking to be acknowledged for his successes instead of being punished for mutiny. After he overthrew the Aztec Empire, Cortés was awarded the title of Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca, while the more prestigious title of Viceroy was given to a high-ranking nobleman, Antonio de Mendoza. In 1541 Cortés returned to Spain, where he died six years of natural causes but embittered; because of the controversial undertakings of Cortés and the scarcity of reliable sources of information about him, it is difficult to describe his personality or motivations. Early lionizing of the conquistadores did not encourage deep examination of Cortés. Modern reconsideration has done little to enlarge understanding regarding him; as a result of these historical trends, descriptions of Cortés tend to be simplistic, either damning or idealizing.
Cortés himself used the form "Hernando" or "Fernando" for his given name, as seen in his signature and the title of an early portrait. William Hickling Prescott's Conquest of Mexico refers to him as Hernando Cortés. At some point writers began using the shortened form of "Hernán" more generally. Cortés was born in 1485 in the town of Medellín, in modern-day Extremadura, Spain, his father, Martín Cortés de Monroy, born in 1449 to Rodrigo or Ruy Fernández de Monroy and his wife María Cortés, was an infantry captain of distinguished ancestry but slender means. Hernán's mother was Catalína Pizarro Altamirano. Through his mother, Hernán was second cousin once removed of Francisco Pizarro, who conquered the Inca Empire of modern-day Peru, not to be confused with another Francisco Pizarro, who joined Cortés to conquer the Aztecs. Through his father, Hernán was related to the third Governor of Hispaniola, his paternal great-grandfather was Rodrigo de Monroy y Almaraz, 5th Lord of Monroy. According to his biographer and friend Francisco López de Gómara, Cortés was pale and sickly as a child.
At the age of 14, he was sent to study Latin under an uncle in Salamanca. Modern historians have misconstrued this personal tutoring as time enrolled at the University of Salamanca. After two years, Cortés returned home to Medellín, much to the irritation of his parents, who had hoped to see him equipped for a profitable legal career. However, those two years at Salamanca, plus his long period of training and experience as a notary, first in Valladolid and in Hispaniola, gave him knowledge of the legal codes of Castile that he applied to help justify his unauthorized conquest of Mexico. At this point in his life, Cortés was described by Gómara as ruthless and mischievous; the 16-year-old youth had returned home to feel constrained life in his small provincial town. By this time, news of the exciting discoveries of Christopher Columbus in the New World was streaming back to Spain. Plans were made for Cortés to sail to the Americas with a family acquaintance and distant relative, Nicolás de Ovando, the newly appointed Governor of Hispaniola..
Cortés was prevented from traveling. He spent the next year wandering the country spending most of his time in Spain's southern ports of Cadiz, Palos and Seville, he left for Hispaniola in 1504 and became a colonist. Cortés reached Hispaniola in a ship commanded by Alonso Quintero, who tried to deceive his superiors and reach the New World before them in order to secure personal advantages. Quintero's mutinous conduct may have served as a model for Cortés in his subsequent career; the history of the conquistadores is rife with accounts of rivalry, jockeying for positions and betrayal. Upon his arrival in 1504 in Santo Domingo, the capital of Hispaniola, the 18-year-old Cortés registered as a citizen. Soon afterward, Governor Nicolás de Ovando granted him an encomienda and appointed him as a notary of the town of Azua de Compostela, his next five years seemed to help establish him in the colony. The expedition leader awarded him Indian slaves for his efforts. In 1511, Cortés accompanied Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, an aide of the Governor of Hispan
Xalapa is the capital city of the Mexican state of Veracruz and the name of the surrounding municipality. In the 2005 census the city reported a population of 387,879 and the municipality of which it serves as municipal seat reported a population of 413,136; the municipality has an area of 118.45 km². Xalapa lies near the geographic center of the state and is the second-largest city in the state after the city of Veracruz to the southeast; the name Xalapa comes from the Nahuatl roots xālli "sand" and āpan "place of water", which means "spring in the sand". It's classically pronounced in Nahuatl, although the final /n/ is omitted; this doesn't occur in contemporary Spanish, its modern counterpart is written as j. The spelling Xalapa reflects the old pronunciation. Xalapa is pronounced or, the last pronunciation is used principally in dialects of Mexico's south, the Caribbean, a large part of Central America, some places in South America and the Canary Islands and western Andalusia in Spain where has converted into a voiceless glottal fricative.
The complete name of the city is Xalapa-Enriquez, bestowed in honor of governor from the 19th century, Juan de la Luz Enríquez. The city's nickname, City of Flowers, was given by Alexander von Humboldt, who visited the city 10 February 1804; the reference is related to the city's older colonial history. According to folklore, the Spanish believed that Jalapa was the birthplace and home of the world's most beautiful woman, la Florecita, which means "little flower"; the residents of Xalapa are called Xalapeños or Jalapeños, the name given to the large popular peppers cultivated in this area. The Totonacs first established themselves around Macuiltepetl; this extinct volcano received its name because the Aztecs used it as the fifth reference mountain to get to the gulf of Mexico's shores. Today it is preserved in a park. During the 14th century, four indigenous peoples settled in the territory today known as Xalapa; each built a small village: Xalitic was founded by the Totonacas. Around 1313, the four villages joined, forming one large village named Xallapan.
Moctezuma Ilhuicamina, the fifth Aztec emperor, invaded the territory during the second half of the 15th century. All the land was ruled as part of the Aztec Empire before the arrival and conquest of the Spanish conquistadores. In 1519 Hernán Cortés passed through en route to Tenochtitlan. In 1555 Spanish Franciscans completed construction of a convent, an important event in the Nueva España of that time; when the Spanish arrived, Xalapa was populated. The population rose after the colonial settlement; when the Spanish improved the Mexico-Orizaba-Veracruz route, Xalapa declined in importance as a transport hub, its population stagnated in the 17th century. From 1720 on Xalapa became important, due to trade with merchants from New Spain arriving to buy and sell the products of the peninsula. Numerous Spanish families from the nearby towns settled in Xalapa, so by 1760 the population had increased to over 1,000 inhabitants, including mestizo and Spanish; the growth of Xalapa in population, culture and importance, increased in the 18th century.
Responding to residents' requests, Carlos IV of Spain declared Xalapa a town on 18 December 1791. In 1772, construction of Xalapa Cathedral began. On 18 May 1784, José María Alfaro got the first air balloon in the Americas, airborne, in Xalapa. Due to the abundance of flowers growing in the region, Alexander von Humboldt, who visited the town on 10 February 1804, christened it the "city of the flowers". Since the beginning of the 19th century, Xalapa has been the scene of some important historical events, it supported independence from Spain. Ideas flowed in the town, Xalapa was represented by many who put forward these ideas to those in Mexico City government meetings. On 20 May 1821, shortly before Mexican Independence on 27 September the same year, Xalapa was attacked by the forces of Don Antonio López de Santa Anna. Together with Don Joaquin Leño, he forced Spanish captain Juan Horbregoso to surrender the town. Independence was gained months later. On 9 May 1824, by decree of the President of the Republic Don Guadalupe Victoria, the first legislature of the state of Veracruz was established in Xalapa.
That year, Xalapa was declared the state capital. In the 1820s Xalapa and the surrounding area revolted when Vicente Guerrero replaced General Anastasio Bustamante. Veracruz was attacked by Isidro Barradas, attempting to reconquer parts of Mexico, over 3,000 were deployed in the military defense of Veracruz, Córdoba and Orizaba. Anastacio Bustamante, betraying the confidence put him, unsuccessfully revolted against the legitimate government with a new plan of Xalapa, signed on 4 December 1829. On 29 November 1830 by decree, Xalapa was named a city. In 1843, Don Antonio María de Rivera founded the Normal School of Xalapa to train teachers. Today it operates as a preparatory school for students going to college. In 1847 in the Mexican–American War Santa Anna attempted to defeat the opposing forces near Xalapa in the Battle of Cerro Gordo, he led an army o
Cazones de Herrera
Cazones de Herrera, or Cazones, is a town and municipality located in the north of the Mexican state of Veracruz on the Gulf of Mexico. While it has tourist attractions along its shore in the Barra de Cazones area, the municipality, including the seat, has a high level of socioeconomic marginalization. Most of the municipality's population works in agriculture; the town of Cazones de Herrera is 321 km from the state capital of Xalapa. It is a small town typical for the area, with a main church, main plaza and municipal palace or government office, it is located next to the Cazones River and there is boat service from the municipal seat to communities on the other side of the river, including boats that carry vehicles. While it is the largest community in the municipality with a population of 4,260 as of 2010, it has a high level of socioeconomic marginalization; the town name comes from the Spanish word for the sharpnose shark. The appendage "de Herrera" is in honor of politician José Joaquín de Herrera.
Its municipal seal contains elements related to the area’s production of citrus fruit and corn as well as a sharpnose sharks. Other elements refer to Farallón Island at the mouth of the Cazones River. In the pre-Hispanic period, the area was part of Totonacapan, although it came under the domination of the Aztecs in the 15th century. After the Conquest, the Totonacs came to dominate the local culture again. After Independence, the area became part of the Papantla municipality; the current municipality was created in 1936 with land that belonged to the municipalities of Papantla and Tuxpan, with the settlement of Cazones designated as a town. The current official name was adopted in 1956; the town of Cazones de Herrera is the local government for 70 other communities which cover an area of 106.11 km2. It borders the municipalities of Tuxpan, Poza Rica and Tihuatlán with the Gulf of Mexico to the east. Aside from the municipal seat, other significant communities are La Unión with 1,850 people, Manilio Fabio Altamirano with 1,214 people, Barra de Cazones with 1,167 people, Rancho Nuevo with 1,065 people.
The municipal government consists of a municipal president, an officer called a “síndico”, four representatives, called “regidors.”The municipality has an average altitude of ten meters above sea level. Its main river is the Cazones, which splits the municipality into two parts and is the traditional dividing line between Totonacapan and La Huasteca; the mouth of the river is here. The municipality’s shoreline faces the Gulf of Mexico and includes a number of beaches, including Playa Chaparrales, where marine turtles come to lay their eggs in March and April; the climate is hot and humid with an average annual temperature of 25C and an average rainfall of 2,000mm. The main ecosystem is high growth perennial rainforest. Remaining forests still have tropical hardwoods; the shoreline has a number of estuaries with mangroves. Wildlife includes rabbits, opossums and coyotes; the shoreline has various estuaries with mangroves. The mangroves on the river are home to various species of crab, some of which are in danger of extinction.
The area today is considered to be in the far southeast of the La Huasteca cultural region, with traditional dances belonging to this region, with danzón as the most traditional music. The municipality organizes regular events to promote and preserve the traditional dances of the Veracruz Huasteca; the establishment of the municipality is celebrated from June 16-23 each year. Carnival is another important annual festival; the local cuisine is rich in local seafood such as shrimp, sea bass and octopus served with mole and chili pepper. One notable non-seafood dish is pork served in garlic sauce. Just over 15% of the population speaks an indigenous language with the rest speaking Spanish; the municipality is considered to have a high level of socioeconomic marginalization. About 34% have problems obtaining sufficient food. Of the municipality’s 71 communities, fifty are considered to be or highly marginalized; as of the 2010 census, there were 5,991 residences. About 58% have running water, less than 47% have drainage.
Over 96% have electricity and access to a landfill. Seventy percent of homes have cement floors with 24% having dirt floors. About 15% have autos, 86% have televisions, 70% have refrigerators, 69% have radios, 34% have cell phones, just over five percent have computers, less than two percent have Internet. About 54% of the working population of the municipality is involved in agriculture and forestry. Principle crops include corn, bananas, green chili peppers, grapefruit. Most livestock is cattle, followed by pigs, sheep and domestic fowl. About 12 percent is involved in mining and utilities. About 32 % is involved including tourism. Tourist attractions in the municipality are related to its shoreline and includes beaches such as Playa Azul, Playa Boquitas, Playa Sur, Playa Chaparrales, as well as the Cazones River; the best known area is Barra de Cazones, where all of the municipality’s hotels are. The community centers on the main boardwalk and docks which were built by the state in 2006; the Cazones lighthouse was built in the 1970s to guide small vessels such as fishing boats.
Farallón is a small island located at the mouth of the Cazones River about half a kilometer from the ocean. In the colonial period, it was a refuge for pirates. One side of the island has a cliff called “El Chivo” eighteen meters high, popular for rappelling; the island
Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto was a Spanish explorer and conquistador, involved in expeditions in Nicaragua and the Yucatan Peninsula, played an important role in Pizarro's conquest of the Inca Empire in Peru, but is best known for leading the first Spanish and European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States. He is the first European documented as having crossed the Mississippi River. De Soto's North American expedition was a vast undertaking, it ranged throughout the southeastern United States, both searching for gold, reported by various Indian tribes and earlier coastal explorers, for a passage to China or the Pacific coast. De Soto died in 1542 on the banks of the Mississippi River. Hernando de Soto was born in Extremadura, Spain, to parents who were both hidalgos, nobility of modest means; the region was poor and many people struggled to survive. He was born in the current province of Badajoz. Three towns—Badajoz and Jerez de los Caballeros—claim to be his birthplace, he spent time as a child at each place.
He stipulated in his will that his body be interred at Jerez de los Caballeros, where other members of his family were buried. As he grew to adulthood, the Spanish took back control of the Iberian peninsula from Islamic forces. Spain and Portugal were filled with young men seeking a chance for military fame after the defeat of the Moors. With discovery of new lands across the ocean to the west, young men were attracted to rumors of adventure and wealth. De Soto sailed to the New World with Pedrarias Dávila, appointed as the first Governor of Panama. In 1520 he participated in Gaspar de Espinosa's expedition to Veragua, in 1524, he participated in the conquest of Nicaragua under Francisco Hernández de Córdoba. There he acquired a public office in León, Nicaragua. Brave leadership, unwavering loyalty, ruthless schemes for the extortion of native villages for their captured chiefs became de Soto's hallmarks during the conquest of Central America, he gained fame as an excellent horseman and tactician.
During that time, de Soto was influenced by the achievements of Spanish explorers: Juan Ponce de León, the first European to reach Florida. In 1530, de Soto became a regidor of Nicaragua, he led an expedition up the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula searching for a passage between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean to enable trade with the Orient, the richest market in the world. Failing that, without means to explore further, de Soto, upon Pedro Arias Dávila's death, left his estates in Nicaragua. Bringing his own men on ships which he hired, de Soto joined Francisco Pizarro at his first base of Tumbes shortly before departure for the interior of present-day Peru. Pizarro made de Soto one of his captains; when Pizarro and his men first encountered the army of Inca Atahualpa at Cajamarca, Pizarro sent de Soto with fifteen men to invite Atahualpa to a meeting. When Pizarro's men attacked Atahualpa and his guard the next day, de Soto led one of the three groups of mounted soldiers; the Spanish captured Atahualpa.
De Soto was sent to the camp of the Inca army, where his men plundered Atahualpa's tents. During 1533, the Spanish held Atahualpa captive in Cajamarca for months while his subjects paid for his ransom by filling a room with gold and silver objects. During this captivity, de Soto taught him to play chess. By the time the ransom had been completed, the Spanish became alarmed by rumors of an Inca army advancing on Cajamarca. Pizarro sent de Soto with 200 soldiers to scout for the rumored army. While de Soto was gone, the Spanish in Cajamarca decided to kill Atahualpa to prevent his rescue. De Soto returned to report. After executing Atahualpa and his men headed to Cuzco, the capital of the Incan Empire; as the Spanish force approached Cuzco, Pizarro sent his brother Hernando and de Soto ahead with 40 men. The advance guard fought a pitched battle with Inca troops in front of the city, but the battle had ended before Pizarro arrived with the rest of the Spanish party; the Inca army withdrew during the night.
The Spanish plundered Cuzco, where they found much silver. As a mounted soldier, de Soto received a share of the plunder, which made him wealthy, it represented riches from Atahualpa's camp, his ransom, the plunder from Cuzco. On the road to Cuzco, Manco Inca Yupanqui, a brother of Atahualpa, had joined Pizarro. Manco had been hiding from Atahualpa in fear of his life, was happy to gain Pizarro's protection. Pizarro arranged for Manco to be installed as the Inca leader. De Soto joined Manco in a campaign to eliminate the Inca armies under Quizquiz, loyal to Atahualpa. By 1534, de Soto was serving as lieutenant governor of Cuzco while Pizarro was building his new capital on the coast. In 1535 King Charles awarded Diego de Almagro, Francisco Pizarro's partner, the governorship of the southern portion of the Inca Empire; when de Almagro made plans to explore and conquer the southern part of the Inca empire, de Soto applied to be his second-in-command, but de Almagro tur
The Pánuco River known as the Río de Canoas, is a river in Mexico fed by several tributaries including the Moctezuma River and emptying into the Gulf of Mexico. The river is 510 kilometres long and passes through or borders the states of Mexico, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Veracruz. Since one of the headwaters of the Moctezuma River is the Tula River, the Pánuco drains the Valley of Mexico containing Mexico City. Near its source, the Pánuco serves as a drainage channel for Mexico City. From there, it becomes the state border between Hidalgo and Querétaro as it moves toward San Luis Potosí, it takes the name Río Pánuco only upon reaching the state of Veracruz. It empties into the Gulf of Mexico at Tampico and Ciudad Madero, where it forms the border between the states of Tamaulipas and Veracruz; the Tampico Bridge crosses the river near its mouth on the Gulf. In total, the Pánuco is more than 500 km in length, though only the last 15 km is navigable for larger ships. According to the Atlas of Mexico, it is the fourth-largest river in Mexico by volume of runoff, forms the sixth-largest river basin in Mexico by area.
The complete watershed of the Pánuco and its tributaries drains portions of Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Querétaro, Mexico and Veracruz. In 1519, during his cartographic expeditions along the western coast of the Gulf of Mexico, Spanish explorer Alonso Álvarez de Pineda established a settlement on the river, which he named Las Palmas, though it was abandoned after he was killed in battle with indigenous peoples living nearby; the Pánuco River basin is rich in fish. There are 100 fish species, including a few that were introduced. There are many endemics: six Nosferatu cichlid species, five Tampichthys minnows, nine "northern swordtails", three Gambusia species, two Ictalurus catfish, the bluetail goodeid, dusky splitfin, relict splitfin, pygmy shiner, checkered pupfish, broadspotted molly, Tamasopo cichlid, Calabazas shiner and fleshylip buffalo. Additionally, a couple of still-undescribed species are known from this river basin. A few of the endemics are threatened. Tampico Bridge List of longest rivers of Mexico "River Basins", Atlas of Mexico, 1975, with topographical map "Panuco", Freshwater Ecoregions of the World
Tamiahua is a municipality located in the north zone in the State of Veracruz. It has a surface of 985.4 km2. It is located at 21°17′N 97°27′W; the name comes from the Náhuatl language Tla-mia-hua-c: "In the flowers of maize of the land". The municipality of Tamiahua is delimited to the north by Ozuluama and Tampico Alto, to the east by Gulf of Mexico, to the south by Temapache and Tuxpam de Rodríguez Cano, to the west by Tamalín, Chinampa de Gorostiza, Naranjos Amatlán, Tancoco and Cerro Azul, its development has allowed the creation of two wharves and two piers, the municipality has established industries between two medians emphasizing the production of oysters. The town produces principally maize, green chile and orange fruit. Along the coastline fresh seafood, including shrimp and oysters, is harvested and attracts tourism to the area. In July, Tamiahua holds celebrations in honor of Santiago Apostol, patron of the town, in December there is a celebration in honor of the Virgin of Guadalupe.
The weather in Tamiahua is warm and wet all year with rains in summer and autumn. Municipal Official webpage permanent dead link] Municipal Official Information