The Paris Métro is a rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A symbol of the city, it is known for its density within the city limits, uniform architecture and unique entrances influenced by Art Nouveau, it is underground and 214 kilometres long. It has 302 stations. There are 16 lines, numbered 1 to 14 with two lines, 3bis and 7bis, which are named because they started out as branches of lines 3 and 7. Lines are identified on maps by number and colour, direction of travel is indicated by the terminus, it is the second busiest metro system in Europe, after the Moscow Metro, the tenth-busiest in the world. It carried 1.520 billion passengers in 2015, 4.16 million passengers a day, which amounts to 20% of the overall traffic in Paris. It is one of the densest metro systems in the world, with 245 stations within the 86.9 km2 of the city of Paris. Châtelet – Les Halles, with five Métro lines, three RER commuter rail and platforms up to 800 m apart, is one of the world's largest metro stations.
However, the system has poor disabled accessibility, because most stations were built well before this became a consideration. The first line opened without ceremony on 19 July 1900, during the World's Fair; the system expanded until the First World War and the core was complete by the 1920s. Extensions into suburbs and Line 11 were built in the 1930s; the network reached saturation after World War II with new trains to allow higher traffic, but further improvements have been limited by the design of the network and in particular the short distances between stations. Besides the Métro, central Paris and its urban area are served by the RER, developed beginning in the 1960s, several tramway lines, Transilien suburban trains and two VAL lines, serving Charles De Gaulle and Orly airports. In the late 1990s, the automated line 14 was built to relieve RER line A. Métro is the abbreviated name of the company that operated most of the network: La Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris, shortened to "Le Métropolitain".
It was abbreviated to métro, which became a common word to designate all rapid transit systems in France and in many cities elsewhere. The Métro is operated by the Régie autonome des transports parisiens, a public transport authority that operates part of the RER network, bus services, light rail lines and many bus routes; the name métro was adopted in many languages, making it the most used word for a urban transit system. It is possible that "Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain" was copied from the name of London's pioneering underground railway company, the Metropolitan Railway, in business for 40 years prior to the inauguration of Paris's first line. By 1845, Paris and the railway companies were thinking about an urban railway system to link inner districts of the city; the railway companies and the French government wanted to extend main-line railways into a new underground network, whereas the Parisians favoured a new and independent network and feared national takeover of any system it built.
The disagreement lasted from 1856 to 1890. Meanwhile, the population became traffic congestion grew massively; the deadlock gave the city the chance to enforce its vision. Prior to 1845, the urban transport network consisted of a large number of omnibus lines, consolidated by the French government into a regulated system with fixed and unconflicting routes and schedules; the first concrete proposal for an urban rail system in Paris was put forward by civil engineer Florence de Kérizouet. This plan called for a surface cable car system. In 1855, civil engineers Edouard Brame and Eugène Flachat proposed an underground freight urban railroad, due to the high rate of accidents on surface rail lines. On 19 November 1871 the General Council of the Seine commissioned a team of 40 engineers to plan an urban rail network; this team proposed a network with a pattern of routes "resembling a cross enclosed in a circle" with axial routes following large boulevards. On 11 May 1872 the Council endorsed the plan.
After this point, a serious debate occurred over whether the new system should consist of elevated lines or of underground lines. The underground option emerged as the preferred solution because of the high cost of buying land for rights-of-way in central Paris required for elevated lines, estimated at 70,000 francs per metre of line for a 20-metre-wide railroad; the last remaining hurdle was the city's concern about national interference in its urban rail system. The city commissioned renowned engineer Jean-Baptiste Berlier, who designed Paris' postal network of pneumatic tubes, to design and plan its rail system in the early 1890s. Berlier recommended a special track gauge of 1,300 mm to protect the system from national takeover, which inflamed the issue substantially; the issue was settled when the Minister of Public Works begrudgingly recognized the city's right to build a local system on 22 November 1895, by the city's secret designing of the trains and tunnels to be too narrow for main-line trains, while adopting standard gauge as a compromise with the state.
On 20 April 1896, Par
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Louis XV of France
Louis XV, known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five; until he reached maturity on 15 February 1723, the kingdom was ruled by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, as Regent of France. Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinal's death in 1743, at which time the young king took sole control of the kingdom, his reign of 59 years was the second longest in the history of France, exceeded only by his predecessor and great-grandfather, Louis XIV, who had ruled for 72 years. In 1748, Louis returned the Austrian Netherlands, won at the Battle of Fontenoy of 1745, he ceded New France in North America to Spain and Great Britain at the conclusion of the disastrous Seven Years' War in 1763. He incorporated the territories of the Duchy of Lorraine and the Corsican Republic into the Kingdom of France, he was succeeded in 1774 by his grandson Louis XVI, executed by guillotine during the French Revolution.
Two of his other grandsons, Louis XVIII and Charles X, occupied the throne of France after the fall of Napoleon I. Historians give his reign low marks as wars drained the treasury and set the stage for the governmental collapse and French Revolution in the 1780s. Louis XV was the great-grandson of Louis XIV and the third son of the Duke of Burgundy, his wife Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, the eldest daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, he was born in the Palace of Versailles on 15 February 1710. When he was born, he was named the Duke of Anjou; the possibility of his becoming King seemed remote. However, the Grand Dauphin died of smallpox on 14 April 1711. On 12 February 1712 the mother of Louis, Marie Adélaïde, was stricken with measles and died, followed on 18 February by Louis's father, the former Duke of Burgundy, next in line for the throne. On 7 March, it was found that both Louis and his older brother, the former Duke of Brittany, had the measles; the two brothers were treated with bleeding.
On the night of 8–9 March, the new Dauphin died from the combination of the disease and the treatment. The governess of Louis, Madame de Ventadour, would not allow the doctors to bleed Louis further; when Louis XIV died on 1 September 1715, Louis, at the age of five, inherited the throne. The Ordinance of Vincennes from 1374 required that the kingdom be governed by a regent until Louis reached the age of thirteen; the title of Regent was given to his cousin Philippe, the Duke of Orleans. Louis XIV, distrusted Philippe, a renowned soldier, but was regarded by the King as an atheist and libertine; the King referred to Philippe as a Fanfaron des crimes. Louis XIV wanted France to be ruled by his favorite but illegitimate son, Duke of Maine, in the council. In August 1714, shortly before his own death, the King rewrote his will to restrict the powers of the regent. Philippe, nephew of Louis XIV, was named president of the council, but other members included the Duke of Maine and his allies. Decisions were to be made by majority vote, meaning that the Regent could be outvoted by Maine's party.
Orléans saw the trap, after the death of the King, he went to the Parlement of Paris, an assembly of nobles where he had many allies, had the Parlement annul the King's will. In exchange for their support, he restored to the Parlement its droit de remontrance – the right to challenge the King's decisions, removed by Louis XIV; the droit de remontrance would impair the monarchy's functioning and marked the beginning of a conflict between the Parlement and King which led to the French Revolution in 1789. On 9 September 1715, the Regent had the young King transported away from the court in Versailles to Paris, where the Regent had his own residence in the Palais Royal. On 12 September, he performed his first official act, opening the first lit de justice of his reign at the Palais Royal. From September 1715 until January 1716 he lived in the Château de Vincennes, before moving to the Tuileries Palace. In February 1717, when he reached the age of seven, he was taken from his governess Madame Ventadour and placed in the care of François de Villeroy, the 73-year-old Duke and Maréchal de France, named as his governor in Louis XIV's will of August 1714.
Villeroy instructed the young King in court etiquette, taught him how to review a regiment, how to receive royal visitors. His guests included the Russian Tsar Peter the Great in 1717. Louis learned the skills of horseback riding and hunting, which became the great passion of the young King. In 1720, following the example of Louis XIV, Villeroy had the young Louis dance in public in two ballets at the Tuileries Palace on 24 February 1720, again in The Ballet des Elements on 31 December 1721; the shy Louis evidently did not enjoy the experience. The King's tutor was the Abbé André-Hercule de Fleury, the bishop of Fréjus, who saw that he was instructed in Latin, history
Pereire (Paris Métro)
Pereire is a station on Paris Métro Line 3. Pereire was opened on 23 May 1910; the station is named after the Place du Maréchal Juin. The Péreire brothers, Émile Péreire and his brother Isaac, created the Crédit Immobilier bank in 1852, they established railroad companies in Europe. Émile Péreire was the first director of the Compagnie du Chemin de fer de Paris à Saint-Germain, which opened the first railway in Paris in 1837. He was in charge of the Auteuil railroad, which became RER line "C". Marshal Alphonse Juin was commander of the French forces in Italy in 1943 and 1944. Pereire - Levallois Roland, Gérard. Stations de métro. D’Abbesses à Wagram. Éditions Bonneton
Charles Louis Gratia
Charles Louis Gratia was a French painter best known as a pastel artist. He became well-known for his portraits during the July Monarchy, but after the fall of the monarchy moved to London, England in 1850. After struggling at first, since he was foreign and pastel was an unfamiliar medium, he became recognized and made portraits of many prominent people including Queen Victoria, he returned to France in 1867, continued to submit work to the Paris Salon until 1895. In his last years he was unable to compete with photography and with the Impressionist painters, died in poverty. Charles Louis Gratia was born on 9 November 1815 in Vosges, his father had settled there after serving in the navy during the First French Empire. He moved to Paris with his family, his father obtained a position with the Chamber of Peers in the Luxembourg Palace, where he lived for several years. At the age of thirteen he became a pupil of the painter Henri Decaisne, who foresaw a brilliant future for him. Gratia painted in oils but specialized in pastels, in which he became a master, although he struggled to earn a living at first.
Gratia married when he was twenty, a move that he said hindered his career. He exhibited for the first time in the Salon of 1837, he was praised for his pastel portrait of the dramatist Prosper Gothi. He exhibited portraits of Mayer Schnerb, his 1844 full-length portrait of La Boisgontier in pastel on paper earned him his first prize, a 3rd medal. Two years he won a 2nd medal, he associated with illustrious people of the time such as Victor Hugo, Alphonse de Lamartine and Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, was a friend of the actor and playwright Frédérick Lemaître. He made portraits of the children of King Louis Philippe I. In March 1843 Alphonse Brot wrote to Théophile Gautier asking him to take a look at his friend Gratia's Portrait d'Esther in the Salon. Mlle Esther was a variety theater artist. After the French Revolution of 1848 Gratia was compromised by his relationship with the former royal family. In 1850 he took three daughters to London, England accompanied by Frédérick Lemaître, he had difficulty obtaining commissions.
For his first two years in England Gratia worked in a factory that made colored crayons and powdered paint. The factory owner, exhibited some of Gratia's work in the windows of his factory, introduced him to people who helped him gain a reputation, he became known for an unusual medium in England at the time. Gratia found a home in the palace of Cardinal Nicholas Wiseman in Fitzroy Square beside Regent's Park, he made a series of brilliant portraits of English notables including the Countess of Woldegrève. At Lord Willoughby's suggestion the queen agreed to sit for Gratia, but on condition that the portrait should not be exhibited and make English painters jealous; the queen sat several times accompanied by the Prince Consort. There was a dispute over payment for the oval frame of the portrait of the queen, kept by the frame maker. In addition to his portraits Gratia executed a number of pastels in exquisite taste during the seventeen years of his stay in London, some of which he send to the Salons of Paris between 1850 and 1867, when he returned to France.
These included Man of arms. Young Woman Reading was a portrait of Louise, it was acquired by the Ministry of Fine Arts for the Élysée Palace in Paris. In 1867 Gratia settled in Lunéville. Gratia fell out with his wife and they divorced. Louise, his second daughter, died soon after. Gratia thought, he remarried. He returned to work, among those that he submitted to the Salons are the Comte and Comtesse de Bourcier, he made portraits of Général de Montaigu and Maréchal and Maréchale Bazaine, two excellent pieces that were burned during the Paris Commune in 1871. In 1870 the Académie de Stanislas in Nancy gave him a medal of honor. Gratia continued to submit works to the Salon de Paris, including Monsieur et Madame Demasure and Monsieur et Madame Montigny. After twenty years in Lunéville Gratin moved to nearby Nancy around 1887, to an apartment in the Stanislas district, overlooking the convent of the Assumption. Works submitted to the Salon included Self-portrait, Portrait of my wife and child, Singing Monk, Madame Vernolle.
Apart from these portraits, he made various genre pieces such as Man of Arms, Young Woman playing with a parakeet, Bohemian woman, Harvest at Loulou, Young Woman with Lilacs and so on. In 1892 the L'Association des artistes lorrains was founded with Gratia as first president. In 1893 Gratia became ill, his family took him to Rouen, Normandy, he lived in Normandy for fifteen months, during which time he received no commissions and began to run through his small savings. He had two young sons to support, he returned to Paris, where Raymond Poinca
Barthélemy Prosper Enfantin
Barthélemy Prosper Enfantin was a French social reformer, one of the founders of Saint-Simonianism. He was a proponent of a Suez canal. Enfantin was born in Paris, the son of a banker of Dauphiné. After receiving his early education at a lyceum, he was sent in 1813 to the École polytechnique. In March 1814 he was one of the band of students who, on the heights of Montmartre and Saint-Chaumont, attempted resistance to the armies of the Sixth Coalition which had engaged in the invasion of Paris. In consequence of this outbreak of patriotic enthusiasm, the school was soon after closed by Louis XVIII, the young student was compelled to seek another career, he began working for a country wine merchant, travelling to Germany and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. In 1821 he entered a banking-house newly established at Saint Petersburg, but returned two years to Paris, where he was appointed cashier to the Caisse Hypothécaire. At the same time, he became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari.
In 1825 a new turn was given to his thoughts and his life by the friendship which he formed with Olinde Rodriguez, who introduced him to the Comte de Saint-Simon. He affiliated to Saint-Simon's version of utopian socialism, and, by 1829, he had become one of the acknowledged heads of the sect. After the July Revolution of 1830 Enfantin resigned his office of cashier, devoted all his energy to the cause. Besides contributing to Le Globe, he made appeals to the people by systematic preaching, organized centres of action in some of the main cities of France; the headquarters in Paris were moved from the modest rooms in the Rue Taranne to the large halls near the Boulevard des Italiens. Enfantin and Amand Bazard were proclaimed Pères Suprêmes – a union which was, only nominal, as a divergence was manifest. Bazard, who concentrated on organizing the group, had devoted himself to political reform, while Enfantin, who favoured teaching and preaching, dedicated his time to social and moral change; the antagonism was widened by Enfantin's announcement of his theory of the relation of man and woman, which would substitute a system of "free love" for the "tyranny of marriage".
Bazard and his disciples broke with Enfantin's group. The latter became sole "father", leading a chiefly religiously-oriented movement, joined by new converts, he wore on his breast a badge with his title of Père, was referred to by his preachers as "the living law", declared himself to be the chosen of God, sent out emissaries in a quest of a woman predestined to be the "female Messiah," and the mother of a new Saviour. Meanwhile, the new religion gathered believers in all parts of Europe, his extravagances and success at length brought him to the attention of authorities, who argued that he was endangering public morality - Enfantin had announced that the gulf between the sexes was too wide and this social inequality would impede rapid growth of society. Enfantin called for the abolition of prostitution and for the ability for women to divorce and obtain legal rights; this was considered radical for the time. In May 1832 the halls of the new sect were closed by the government, the Père, with some of his followers, appeared before the tribunals.
He retired to his estate at Menilmontant, near Paris, where with forty disciples, all of them men, he continued to carry out his socialist views. In August of the same year he was again arrested, on his appearance in court he desired his defence to be undertaken by two women who were with him, alleging that the matter was of special concern to women; the trial occupied two days and resulted in a verdict of guilty, a sentence of imprisonment for a year with a small fine. This prosecution discredited the new society. Enfantin was released in a few months. Accompanied by twenty of his followers, many of whom were engineers from the Ecole Polytechnique, including Charles Joseph Lambert known as Lambert-Bey, some women, he went first to Constantinople. Enfantin had declared 1833 the Year of the Mother, upon arrival in Constantinople the group began to preach their views about gender relations and New Christianity; the Ottoman Empire told them to leave to avoid prison. Enfantin and his group arrived in Egypt, where he planned to penetrate the feminine Orient with the masculine Occident in a consummation of progression - build a canal connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea.
In Egypt at that time, Muhammad Ali, the Egyptian Viceroy, was at odds with the Ottoman Sultan in Constantinople, practiced public-private contracts known as concessions with European companies to build cheap infrastructure. Ali did not agree to a project linking the two seas because he did not want to cut out the duties he collected from overland trade in Egypt, but did allow Enfantin's group to work on the Delta Barrage - a type of dam - north of Cairo - with unpaid laborers - that would act to limit Nile flooding and create predictable crop yields. During his time in Egypt, Enfantine established technical schools based on the Ecole Polytechnique model with Ali's blessing. In Egypt he encountered and influenced Ferdinand de Lesseps. Enfantine returned to France in 1836, lacking the patience to finish the Nile barrage project, encountering delays. On his return to France, he occupied minor offices, he became first a postmaster near Lyon, in 1841 was appointed, through the influence of some of his friends who had risen to posts of power, member of a scientific commission on Algeria, which led him to engage in researches concerni
Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity and religion are interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel; the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history and memory.
Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, as of 2016 was estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population. The modern State of Israel is the only country, it defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both and in modern times, including philosophy, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, music and cinema, science and technology, as well as religion. Jews have played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The English word "Jew" continues Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea"; the Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region; the Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Yiddish ייִד Yid; the etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g. يَهُودِيّ yahūdī, al-yahūd, in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" /"Juive" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc. but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are in use to describe a Jew, e.g. in Italian, in Persian and Russian.
The German word "Jude" is pronounced, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" is the origin of the word "Yiddish". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, It is recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility; some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, a culture, making the definition of, a Jew vary depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.
In modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage, people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, halakhic conversions; these definitions of, a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral