Holy Crown of Hungary
The Holy Crown of Hungary known as the Crown of Saint Stephen, was the coronation crown used by the Kingdom of Hungary for most of its existence. The Crown was bound to the Lands of the Hungarian Crown. No king of Hungary was regarded as having been legitimate without being crowned with it. In the history of Hungary, more than fifty kings were crowned with it, up to the last, Charles IV, in 1916; the enamels on the crown are or Byzantine work, presumed to have been made in Constantinople in the 1070s. The crown was presented by the Byzantine Emperor Michael VII Doukas to King Géza I of Hungary, it is one of the two known Byzantine crowns to survive, the other being the earlier Monomachus Crown, in Budapest, in the Hungarian National Museum. However, the Monomachus Crown may have had another function, the Holy Crown has been remodelled, uses elements of different origins; the date assigned to the present configuration of the Holy Crown varies, but is most put around the late 12th century. The Hungarian coronation insignia consists of the Holy Crown, the sceptre, the orb, the mantle.
The orb has the coat-of-arms of Charles I of Hungary. In popular tradition the Holy Crown was thought to be older, dating to the time of the first King Stephen I of Hungary, crowned in 1000/1001, it was first called the Holy Crown in 1256. During the 14th century, royal power came to be represented not by a crown, but by just one specific object: the Holy Crown; this meant that the Kingdom of Hungary was a special state: they were not looking for a crown to inaugurate a king, but rather, they were looking for a king for the crown. He depicts that "the Holy Crown is for the Hungarians what the Lost Ark is for the Jewish people". Since 2000, the Holy Crown has been on display in the central Domed Hall of the Hungarian Parliament Building; the Crown's shape is larger than a human head. During coronations, the king had to wear a leather'kapa' liner, made to fit, inside the crown; the weight of the Crown is 2056 g. The gold-silver alloys in the upper and the lower parts of the Crown differ in alloy ratio.
The lower part of the Crown is asymmetric. As is the case with all European Christian crowns, it symbolizes a halo and thus signifies that the wearer rules by Divine Right. According to popular tradition, St Stephen I held up the crown before his death to offer it to the Virgin Mary to seal a divine contract between her and the divine crown. After this, Mary was depicted not only as patrona for the Kingdom of Hungary but as regina; this contract was supposed to empower the crown with divine force to help the future kings of Hungary and did help reinforce the political system based on the so-called "Doctrine of the Holy Crown". Péter Révay, a Crown Guard, expounded this doctrine in his works Commentarius De Sacra Regni Hungariae Corona and De monarchia et Sacra Corona Regni Hungariae. At the core of this doctrine was the notion that the crown itself had personhood and as a legal entity is identical to the state of Hungary, it is superior to the ruling monarch, who rules "in the name of the crown".
According to the most accepted theory, represented in the publications of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and of the Hungarian Catholic Episcopal Conference, the Holy Crown of Hungary consists of two main parts: "abroncs" the corona graeca, "keresztpántok" the corona latina. It was created during the reign of Béla III under Byzantine influence; the crowning of Stephen I, the first king of Hungary, canonized Saint Stephen, marks the beginning of Hungarian statehood. The date is variously given as Christmas 1000 or 1 January 1001. One version of the origin of the crown is written by bishop Hartvik, in which the "Pope" has sent King Stephen I "his blessings and a crown"; the basis for this belief is a biography by bishop Hartvik written around 1100-1110 at the request of King Könyves Kálmán. According to "Hartvik’s legend", St Stephen sent Archbishop Astrik of Esztergom to Rome to ask for or require a crown from the "Pope", but it does not tell the name of the Pope. No matter how much Astrik hurried, the Polish prince, Mieszko I's envoy was quicker, the crown was prepared for the future Polish king.
The Pope had seen a dream during the night, seeing the angel of the Lord telling him there will be another envoy from another nation, asking for a crown for their own king. The angel told the Pope: "There will be another envoy from an unknown folk, who will ask for a crown, please give the crown to them, as they deserve it"; the next day Astrik approached the Pope. "Hartvik’s legend" appeared in the liturgical books and breviaries in Hungary around 1200, recalling the then-existing Pope, Pope Sylvester II. The story of how the crown had been sent by Pope Sylvester II spread throughout the
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Ferenc Révay de Szklabina et Blatnicza, was the Palatinal Governor in the Kingdom of Hungary, thus was ranking third to the King. Révay was the son of Anna Eszteleky. Ferenc Révay became the personal secretary of Stephen Báthory in 1521. After the Battle of Mohács in 1526, during the dispute over the throne, he joined Ferdinand I of the Habsburgs. Following the call of his brother, István Révay, Jovan Nenad joined Ferdinand, Ferdinand seized the throne, Ferenc Révay was elected as Royal Tablemaster, as a royal donation, he received half of the Szklabina fortress, which he took full control of in 1540. In 1532, Révay became the Ispán of Turóc County, he was granted the rank of Chief Justice and received numerous donations. He became Palatinal Governor in 1542, he was present in the Parliament of 1550, where he was elected as the member of the Border-Check Committee. Révay favoured science and scientists, he communicated with András Gyulai and András Choron. He was an admirer of Martin Luther, they exchanged several letters.
Szinnyei, József, Magyar írók élete és munkái, Budapest: Arcanum, ISBN 9638602996
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central and Southeastern Europe all the way north and eastwards to Northeast Europe, Northern Asia, Central Asia, as well as in Western Europe and Western Asia. From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit the majority of Central and Southeastern Europe. Today, there is a large Slavic diaspora throughout North America in the United States and Canada as a result of immigration. Slavs are the largest ethno-linguistic group in Europe. Present-day Slavic people are classified into East Slavs, West Slavs, South Slavs. Slavs can be further grouped by religion. Orthodox Christianity is practiced by the majority of Slavs; the Orthodox Slavs include the Belarusians, Macedonians, Russians, Rusyns and Ukrainians and are defined by Orthodox customs and Cyrillic script, as well as their cultural connection to the Byzantine Empire.
Their second most common religion is Roman Catholicism. The Catholic Slavs include Croats, Kashubs, Poles, Slovaks and Sorbs and are defined by their Latinate influence and heritage and connection to Western Europe. There are substantial Protestant and Lutheran minorities among the West Slavs, such as the historical Bohemian Hussites; the second-largest religion among the Slavs after Christianity is Islam. Muslim Slavs include the Bosniaks, Gorani, Torbeši, other Muslims of the former Yugoslavia. Modern Slavic nations and ethnic groups are diverse both genetically and culturally, relations between them – within the individual groups – range from ethnic solidarity to mutual hostility; the oldest mention of the Slavic ethnonym is the 6th century AD Procopius, writing in Byzantine Greek, using various forms such as Sklaboi, Sklabēnoi, Sthlabenoi, or Sklabinoi, while his contemporary Jordanes refers to the Sclaveni in Latin. The oldest documents written in Old Church Slavonic, dating from the 9th century, attest the autonym as Slověne.
These forms point back to a Slavic autonym which can be reconstructed in Proto-Slavic as *Slověninъ, plural Slověne. The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is considered a derivation from slovo denoting "people who speak", i. e. people who understand each other, in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people". The word slovo and the related slava and slukh originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew-, cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος, as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo, English loud. Ancient Roman sources refer to the Early Slavic peoples as Veneti, who dwelled in a region of central Europe east of the Germanic tribe of Suebi, west of the Iranian Sarmatians in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD; the Slavs under name of the Antes and the Sclaveni first appear in Byzantine records in the early 6th century. Byzantine historiographers under emperor Justinian I, such as Procopius of Caesarea and Theophylact Simocatta describe tribes of these names emerging from the area of the Carpathian Mountains, the lower Danube and the Black Sea, invading the Danubian provinces of the Eastern Empire.
Jordanes, in his work Getica, describes the Veneti as a "populous nation" whose dwellings begin at the sources of the Vistula and occupy "a great expanse of land". He describes the Veneti as the ancestors of Antes and Slaveni, two early Slavic tribes, who appeared on the Byzantine frontier in the early 6th century. Procopius wrote in 545 that "the Sclaveni and the Antae had a single name in the remote past; the name Sporoi derives from Greek σπείρω. He described them as barbarians, who lived under democracy, believe in one god, "the maker of lightning", to whom they made sacrifice, they lived in scattered housing, changed settlement. In war, they were foot soldiers with small shields and battle axes clothed, some entering battle naked with only genitals covered, their language is "barbarous", the two tribes are alike in appearance, being tall and robust, "while their bodies and hair are neither fair or blond, nor indeed do they incline to the dark type, but they are all ruddy in color. And they live a hard life, giving no heed to bodily comforts..."
Jordanes described the Sclaveni having forests for their cities. Another 6th-century source refers to them living among nearly impenetrable forests, rivers and marshes. Menander Protector mentions a Daurentius who slew an Avar envoy of Khagan Bayan I for asking the Slavs to accept the suzerainty of the Avars. According to eastern homeland theory, prior to becoming known to the Roman world, Slavic-speaking tribes were part of the many multi-ethnic confederacies
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Turiec is a region in central Slovakia. Turiec is an informal designation of the territory, but it is the name of one of the 21 official tourism regions of Slovakia; the region is not an administrative division in its own right, but between the late 11th century and 1920 it was an administrative county of the Kingdom of Hungary. The region was named after the Turiec river. Turóc county as a Hungarian comitatus arose before the 15th century. In 1920, by the Treaty of Trianon, the territory became part of newly formed Czechoslovakia. Between 1939-1945, after Czechoslovakia was abolished, Turiec was part of the First Slovak Republic. After World War II, it became part of Czechoslovakia again. In 1993, Czechoslovakia was split and Turiec became part of Slovakia; the region is delimited by the area of the Turiec basin, i.e. by the mountain ranges of Veľká Fatra to the east, Malá Fatra to the west and north, as well as Žiar and Kremnica Mountains to the south. The Turiec river flows through inflows into Váh near Vrútky.
In the early 20th century, the subdivisions of Turóc/Turiec county were: Lower Turiec - its center was Martin and the subregion corresponds to the present-day District of Martin Upper Turiec - its center was Turčianske Teplice and the subregion corresponds to the present-day District of Turčianske Teplice Cycling around Turiec: http://www.travelslovakia.sk/slovakia-trips/biking-slovakia/turiec-slovakia-cycling.php
For the county, see Nógrád County. Nógrád is a village in Hungary; the name comes from Slavic Novgrad from which evolved Hungarian Nógrád. 1138/1329 civitas Naugrad, around 1200 castrum Nougrad, 1217 castrum de Nevgrad. The village and the county was named after the castle. Street map