Bâlea Lake is a glacier lake situated at 2,034 m of altitude in the Făgăraș Mountains, in central Romania, in Cârțișoara, Sibiu County. There are two chalets opened all the year round, a meteorological station and a mountain rescue station, it is accessible by car on the Transfăgărășan road during the summer, the rest of the year by a cable car from the "Bâlea Cascadă" chalet. In 2006, the first ice hotel in Eastern Europe was built in the vicinity of the lake
Cavnic is a former mining town situated in the valley of the same name, 26 km east of Baia Mare, in Maramureş County, northern Romania. The town covers 47.17 km2, at altitudes ranging from 500 to 1050 meters above sea level. Cavnic was first documented as Capnic, it was named after the river, which got its name from a Slavic word, kopanе, which refers to digging. Mining activity in the area dates back to the Roman age; the town was destroyed by the Ottomans in 1460 and by the Tatars in 1717, but the Tatars invasion ended with their defeat from the people of Cavnic, making from it the last Tatar invasion to take place in Romania. As a proof of the last Tatar invasion, the town hosts a 7.2 m tall obelisk on which a Latin inscription states "Anno 1717 usque hic fuerunt tartari" meaning "During the year 1717 the Tatars have arrived here". The obelisk is known among locals as "Tatar Pole" or "Written Rock"; the exact date when the obelisk was built is unknown. In the 1910 Census of the Kingdom of Hungary, Kapnikbánya was in Nagybánya district.
It had a population of 3517, out of which 1864 were Hungarians, 49 were Germans and 1604 were Romanians. 1497 identified as Catholic, 1890 as Greek Catholic, 89 as Jewish. The town's mines tended to close and reopen not remaining operational for any great length of time. In the 1970s, Cavnic underwent a great deal of development. Two ski slopes were built at Icoana, the town gained motels, boardinghouses and a hotel to take advantage of its touristic potential; as an interesting detail of touristic interest, it appears that one of the oldest inscriptions found in European mines has been uncovered in Voievod Gallery belonging to the former town's mine. The inscription states "Hier hats erschlagen Iacob Huber"; the text, dated 1511, was most written to commemorate a mining accident. In 2011 it had 4,862 residents, of whom 4,026 were Romanians, 705 Hungarians, 28 Roma, 4 Germans and 97 others. Ignaz von Born, was born here on December 26, 1742. Jenő Jendrassik, Hungarian professor and philosopher, was born here in 1824.
Simon Papp, Hungarian geologist, was born here on February 14, 1886. This article is based on a translation of the equivalent article from the Hungarian Wikipedia on 22 February 2007. Pictures and landscapes from the Carpathian Mountains www.cavnic.ro www.orasulcavnic.ro
Bușteni is a small mountain town in the north of Prahova County, in central Romania. It is located in the Prahova Valley, at the bottom of the Bucegi Mountains, that have a maximum altitude of 2505 m, its name means tree-logs in Romanian. One village, Poiana Țapului, is administratively part of the town a separate commune prior to 1950. According to the 2011 census, it has 8,894 inhabitants. Bușteni's average altitude is 900 m, it is one of the most popular mountain resorts, with year-round tourism opportunities, including skiing and mountain climbing. The town and the surrounding mountains were the site of military confrontations in 1916, during World War I. A large commemorative monument, Heroes' Cross lies at nearly 2,260 m; the monument is lighted at night and is visible from everywhere in Bușteni. The main local industries are wood tourism. Many holiday houses have been built in the town. A new Information Tourism Center was set up near the City Hall. Ana Maria Brânză: fencer Alina Dumitru: judoka Simona Halep: tennis player Adrian Mutu: footballer Bușteni is twinned with: Moissy-Cramayel, since 1993 Djerba-Midoun, since 2000 Pictures and landscapes from the Carpathian Mountains Alpinet, Website about Carpathian Mountains Bușteni sensitive map, Kalinderu ski slope- accommodation hotels, boarding houses - Links Bușteni Tourist Office
Semenic is a ski resort in the Semenic-Cheile Carașului National Park, in the Banat region of Romania. The semenic is a rare flower growing in the wilderness of the mountains. Therefore, this western Romanian ski resort was named after it, as a tribute to the rareness of the beauty that one can discover within this unique location; the resort is located on the Semenic Mountain, a part of the Banat Mountains in Caraş-Severin County. Semenic is situated on top of Mount Semenic at an altitude of 1,400m, about 36 km away from the county capital, Reşiţa, it is a fact that on Mount Semenic, in comparison with the other ski resorts of Romania, the snow gets the thickest throughout the year reaching a layer thickness above 2 m, that stretches the ski season up to the end of April, sometimes May. There are 3 main slopes: the Debutanților slope, sometimes called Idioților, most affordable and shortest. A newer built slope is situated on the western part of the resort, just under Piatra Goznei peak; this slope is a little bit further, its start point is 1800m high.
All the above slopes are serviced by 3 different ski-lifts. Since mid-February 2011, one may buy daily and weekend ski-passes, valid for all the slopes; the newest slope is Valiug, it is 6 km long, descending among the evergreen trees to Vǎliug village. A bus is servicing this slope every 30 minutes from Vǎliug. New facilities are to come soon, as the resort is planned to have artificial snow machines and up to 15 km of slopes by 2012. For the 2012 season a new facility is intended on the Northern slope to Garana, is expected to be open up to the end of May each year. Open hours: 9h-17h daily. There are enough accommodation facilities on the spot, or in the nearby villages: the cozy "pensiune"s in Gǎrâna Wolfsberg, Trei Ape, etc. Down-slope from the Semenic resort there is Gǎrâna, once known as Wolfsberg, that stands out with its specific architecture. Situated at an altitude of 935 m, the village is surrounded by a landscape dominated by the grand silhouette of the Semenic Mountain; every year, in the month of August, the Gǎrâna hosts The International GARANA Jazz Festival.
The Woodstock = like jazz-camp has other accommodation facilities. Nearby, one may visit the permanent Garana International Sculpture Park. Semenic National Park
Sibiu County is a county of Romania, in the historical region Transylvania, with the capital city Sibiu. In Hungarian, it is known as Szeben megye, in German as Kreis Hermannstadt. Under Kingdom of Hungary, a county with an identical name was created in 1876. In 2011, it had a population of 375,992 and the population density was 78/km². At the 2011 census the county has the following population indices: Romanians - 91.25% Romani - 4.76% Hungarians - 2.89% Germans - 1.09% Other - 0.1% Religion: Romanian Orthodox - 90.9% Greek Catholics - 2.3% Reformed - 2.0% Roman Catholics - 1.5% Pentecostals - 1.1% Baptists 0.9% Other - 1.3%Urbanisation - 5th most urbanised county in Romania: City dwellers: 277,574 Village dwelers: 144,150 Traditionally, the biggest minority in the county were Germans, but their numbers have decreased since World War II and the Romanian Revolution of 1989. The south side of the county, closer to the mountains was inhabited by Romanians, the north side of the country - the Transylvanian Plateau was inhabited evenly by Germans and Romanians, but most Saxon villages are now deserted.
The Roma population from southern Romania, was placed close to the villages in the Communist period and have since increased their numbers. This county has a total area of 5,432 km². In the South side there are the Carpathian Mountains - Făgăraș Mountains with heights over 2500 m, Lotru and Cindrel which make up to 30% of the county's surface; the Olt River crosses the mountains over to the South of Romania in Sibiu County forming one of the most accessible link between Transylvania and Wallachia. In the North side there is the Transylvanian Plateau; the most important rivers crossing the county are the Olt in the South with Cibin its main effluent, the Târnava in the North. Brașov County in the East. Alba County in the West. Mureș County in the North. Vâlcea County in the South. Argeş County in the South-East. Sibiu County has one of the most dynamic economies in Romania, is one of the regions with the highest level of foreign investment; the predominant industries in the county are: automotive components.
Food industry. Textile industry. Wood industry; the biggest natural resource in the county is natural gas in the north side, having one of the largest sources in the country. In Copșa Mică during the communist period there were two chemical industrial complexes which polluted the environment with carbon black, heavy metals, other chemical substances; the area is still considered one of the most polluted communities in Europe. After 1989 many of the industrial complexes were shut down and the area is recovering; the regional legislature is the County Council. Its president was Martin Bottesch from 2004 to 2012; the Sibiu County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 33 counselors, with the following party composition: The main tourist attractions in the county are: The city of Sibiu with its medieval fortifications and its historic centre. The medieval city of Mediaș; the medieval Saxon fortified churches and villages from Transylvania, some of them being UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Biertan.
Valea Viilor. Cisnădie. Cisnădioara. Slimnic. Agnita; the abbey of Cârța The Făgăraș Mountains. The Bâlea Valley and the Transfăgărășan; the Negoiu Peak. Păltiniș mountain resort and the Cindrel Mountains. Ocna Sibiului and Miercurea Sibiului Spa towns; the Mărginimea Sibiului rural area. Emil Cioran Octavian Goga Sibiu County has 2 municipalities, 9 towns and 53 communes MunicipalitiesMediaș Sibiu - capital city; the capital was Sibiu. The interwar county's territory included most of the southwestern portion of today's Sibiu County, excluding the area around Vizocna that belonged to former Hungarian subdivision of Alsó-Fehér County, the communes of Agârbiciu, Buia, Frâua, Hașag, Șelca Mare, Șelca Mică, which all belonged to Târnava Mare County. Sibiu County once contained the district around Sebeș, it was bordered to the west by the counties of Hunedoara and Alba, to the north by the counties of Târnava-Mică and Târnava Mare, to the east by Făgăraș County, to the south by the counties of Gorj and Vâlcea.
The county consisted of the city of Sibiu and four districts: Plasa Mercurea, headquartered at Mercurea Plasa Ocna Sibiului, headquartered at Ocna Sibiului Plasa Săliște, headquartered at Săliște Plasa Sibiu, headquartered at SibiuA subsequent administrative division in 1937 had the county divided into the city of Sibiu and six districts: Plasa Avrig, headquartered at Avrig Plasa Mercurea, headquartered at Mercurea Plasa Nocrich, headquartered at Nocrich Plasa Ocna Sibiului, headquartered at Ocna Sibiului Plasa Săliște, headquartered at Săliște Plasa Sibiu, headquartered at Sibiu According to the census data of 1930, the county's population was 194,619, of which 62.0% were Romanians, 29.3% Germans, 4.7% Hungarians, as well as other minorities. In the religious aspect, the population consisted of 52.0% Eastern Orthodox, 27.8% Lutheran, 12.7% Greek Catholic, 4.0% Roman Catholic, 2.2% Reformed, as well as other minorities. In 1930, the urban population was ethnically divided as follows: 43.8% Germans, 37.7% Romanians, 13.2% Hungarians, 2.7% Jews, as well as other minorities.
As a mother tongue in the urban population, German was spoken by 44.7% of the pop
Azuga is a small resort town nestled in the mountains of Prahova county in the historical region of Muntenia, in Romania. Azuga is located at the foot of the Baiu mountains, contains the longest ski run in Romania, the Sorica - together with other ski slopes. Heavy industrialized, Azuga retains now a bottled water factory - a leftover from the famous beer factory that brewed Azuga Beer, a sparkling wine factory, wine tasting and lodging; the beer factory, the glassware factory and the wool cloth factory were privatized and now are closed and demolished. The refractory materials factory privatized, is still standing but it is closed; the town offers a dramatic view over the Bucegi mountains from street level and from the top of the Sorica mountain. Azuga is one of the most famous mountain resorts of Prahova Valley. Tourists who decide to spend their winter vacation in Azuga, have two of the best ski slopes in the country: Sorica and Cazacu, together with a large offer for lodging; until the winter of 2002, Azuga was known as an industrial town but thanks to the mountain landscape offered by the Baiului Mountains, the town was turned into a resort.
Shortly after, Sorica slope has been certified by the International Ski Federation. Today in Azuga are many hostels that can provide accommodation for tourists. Another option is the accommodation in local homes at lower prices; the town is an emerging ski resort. On Sorica slope enthusiasts of winter sports can ski over a length of 2100 meters; the slope is recommended for both experienced skiers. There are two slopes descending the Cazacu mountain, one has 1920 meters in length and the other, more suitable for beginners, just 400 meters in length, with a drop of 115 m. Slopes are equipped with skilifts and a new Leitner gondola lift which goes all the way to the top of Sorica slope, allowing skiers to choose between the two main slopes; the gondola does not go to the top of the mountain. In the summer, Azuga is a preferred destination for hikers, being a starting point for trips to various mountain destinations in Predeal, Bușteni or Sinaia. Forest unpaved roads invite many bicycle enthusiasts, whom can drive along the Azuga River, peppered with small wooden artificial waterfalls that oxygenate the water for the many trouts that populate the river
Transylvania is a historical region, located in central Romania. Bound on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains; the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but parts of the historical regions of Crișana and Maramureș, the Romanian part of Banat. The region of Transylvania is known for the scenery of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history, it contains major cities such as Cluj-Napoca, Brașov, Sibiu, Târgu Mureș, Bistrița. The Western world associates Transylvania with vampires, because of the influence of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula and its many film adaptations. Historical names of Transylvania are: Latin: Ultrasilvania, Transsilvania Romanian: Ardeal, Transilvania Russian: Ардял, translit. Ardjal, Трансильвания Transil'vanija Hungarian: Erdély Ukrainian: Семигород, translit. Semyhorod, Залісся Zalissja, Трансильванія Transyl'vanija Serbian: Ердељ, translit. Erdelj, Трансилванија Transilvanija Croatian: Sedmogradska, Transilvanija Bulgarian: Седмоградско, translit.
Sedmogradsko, Трансилвания Transilvanija Slovak: Sedmohradsko German: Siebenbürgen, Transsilvanien Transylvanian Saxon: Siweberjen Polish: Siedmiogród, Transylwania Turkish: Erdel, Transilvanya Romani: TransilvaniyaIn Romanian, the region is known as Ardeal or Transilvania. The earliest known reference to Transylvania appears in a Medieval Latin document in 1075 as ultra silvam, meaning "beyond the forest". Transylvania, with an alternative Latin prepositional prefix, means "on the other side of the woods". Hungarian historians claim that the Medieval Latin form Ultrasylvania Transsylvania, was a direct translation from the Hungarian form Erdő-elve; that was used as an alternative name in German überwald and Ukrainian Залісся. The German name Siebenbürgen means "seven castles", after the seven Transylvanian Saxons' cities in the region; this is the origin of the region's name in many other languages, such as the Croatian Sedmogradska, the Bulgarian Седмиградско, Polish Siedmiogród and the Ukrainian Семигород.
The Hungarian form Erdély was first mentioned in the 12th-century Gesta Hungarorum as Erdeuleu or Erdő-elve. The word Erdő means forest in Hungarian, the word Elve denotes a region in connection with this to the Hungarian name for Muntenia. Erdel, Erdelistan, the Turkish equivalents, or the Romanian Ardeal were borrowed from this form as well; the first known written occurrence of the Romanian name Ardeal appeared in a document in 1432 as Ardeliu. The Romanian Ardeal is derived from the Hungarian Erdély. Transylvania has been dominated by several different countries throughout its history, it was once the nucleus of the Kingdom of Dacia. In 106 AD the Roman Empire conquered the territory. After the Roman legions withdrew in 271 AD, it was overrun by a succession of various tribes, bringing it under the control of the Carpi, Huns, Gepids and Slavs. From 9th to 11th century Bulgarians ruled Transylvania, it is a subject of dispute whether elements of the mixed Daco–Roman population survived in Transylvania through the Post-classical Era or the first Vlachs/Romanians appeared in the area in the 13th century after a northward migration from the Balkan Peninsula.
There is an ongoing scholarly debate over the ethnicity of Transylvania's population before the Hungarian conquest. The Magyars conquered much of Central Europe at the end of the 9th century. According to Gesta Hungarorum, the Vlach voivode Gelou ruled Transylvania before the Hungarians arrived; the Kingdom of Hungary established partial control over Transylvania in 1003, when king Stephen I, according to legend, defeated the prince named Gyula. Some historians assert Transylvania was settled by Hungarians in several stages between the 10th and 13th centuries, while others claim that it was settled, since the earliest Hungarian artifacts found in the region are dated to the first half of the 10th century. Between 1003 and 1526, Transylvania was a voivodeship in the Kingdom of Hungary, led by a voivode appointed by the King of Hungary. After the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Transylvania became part of the Kingdom of János Szapolyai. In 1570, the kingdom transformed into the Principality of Transylvania, ruled by Calvinist Hungarian princes.
During that time, the ethnic composition of Transylvania transformed from an estimated near equal number of the ethnic groups to a Romanian majority. Vasile Lupu estimates their number more than one-third of the population of Transylvania in a letter to the sultan around 1650. For most of this period, maintaining its internal autonomy, was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire; the Habsburgs acquired the territory shortly after the Battle of Vienna in 1683. In 1687, the rulers of Transylvania recognized the suzerainty of the Habsburg emperor Leopold I, the region was attached to the Habsburg Empire; the Habsburgs acknowledged Principality of Transylvania as one of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, but the territory of principality was administratively separa