Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
A cadastre is a comprehensive land recording of the real estate or real property's metes-and-bounds of a country. In most countries, legal systems have developed around the original administrative systems and use the cadastre to define the dimensions and location of land parcels described in legal documentation; the cadastre is a fundamental source of data in lawsuits between landowners. In the United States, Cadastral Survey within the Bureau of Land Management maintains records of all public lands; such surveys require detailed investigation of the history of land use, legal accounts, other documents. Land registration and cadastre complement each other. A cadastre includes details of the ownership, the tenure, the precise location, the dimensions, the cultivations if rural, the value of individual parcels of land. Cadastres are used by many nations around the world, some in conjunction with other records, such as a title register; the International Federation of Surveyors defines cadastre as follows: A Cadastre is a parcel based, up-to-date land information system containing a record of interests in land.
It includes a geometric description of land parcels linked to other records describing the nature of the interests, the ownership or control of those interests, the value of the parcel and its improvements. The word cadastre came into English through French from Late Latin capitastrum, a register of the poll tax, the Greek katástikhon, a list or register, from katà stíkhon —literally, "down the line", in the sense of "line by line" along the directions and distances between the corners mentioned and marked by monuments in the metes and bounds; the word forms the adjective cadastral, used in public administration for ownership and taxation purposes. The terminology for cadastral divisions may include counties, ridings, sections, lots and city blocks. Other languages have kept the original t sound in the second syllable. In modern Greek, though, it has been replaced by ktimatologio; some of the earliest cadastres were ordered by Roman Emperors to recover state owned lands, appropriated by private individuals, thereby recover income from such holdings.
One such cadastre was done in AD 77 in Campania, a surviving stone marker of the survey reads "The Emperor Vespasian, in the eighth year of his tribunician power, so as to restore the state lands which the Emperor Augustus had given to the soldiers of Legion II Gallica, but which for some years had been occupied by private individuals, ordered a survey map to be set up with a record on each'century' of the annual rental". In this way Vespasian was able to reimpose taxation uncollected on these lands. With the fall of Rome the use of cadastral maps discontinued. Medieval practice used written descriptions of the extent of land rather than using more precise surveys. Only in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries did the use of cadastral maps resume, beginning in the Netherlands. With the emergence of capitalism in Renaissance Europe the need for cadastral maps reemerged as a tool to determine and express control of land as a means of production; this took place first in land disputes and spread to governmental practice as a means of more precise tax assessment.
Cadastral surveys document the boundaries of land ownership, by the production of documents, sketches, plans and maps. They were used to ensure reliable facts for land valuation and taxation. An example from early England is the Domesday Book in 1086. Napoleon established a comprehensive cadastral system for France, regarded as the forerunner of most modern versions; the Public Lands Survey System is a cadastral survey of the United States originating in legislation from 1785, after international recognition of the United States. The Dominion Land Survey is a similar cadastral survey conducted in Western Canada begun in 1871 after the creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. Both cadastral surveys are made relative to principal meridian and baselines; these cadastral surveys divided the surveyed areas into townships, square land areas of 36 square miles. These townships are divided into sections, each one-mile square. Unlike in Europe this cadastral survey preceded settlement and as a result influenced settlement patterns.
Properties are rectangular, boundary lines run on cardinal bearings, parcel dimensions are in fractions or multiples of chains. Land descriptions in Western North America are principally based on these land surveys. Cadastral survey information is a base element in Geographic Information Systems or Land Information Systems used to assess and manage land and built infrastructure; such systems are employed on a variety of other tasks, for example, to track long-term changes over time for geological or ecological studies, where land tenure is a significant part of the scenario. A cadastral map is a map; some cadastral maps show additional details, such as survey district names, unique identifying numbers for parcels, certificate of title numbers, positions of existing structures, section or lot numbers and their respective areas
Lesser Poland Voivodeship
Lesser Poland Voivodeship or Lesser Poland Province known as Małopolska Voivodeship or Małopolska Province, is a voivodeship, in southern Poland. It has an area of 15,108 square kilometres, a population of 3,267,731, it was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Kraków, Tarnów, Nowy Sącz and parts of Bielsko-Biała, Katowice and Krosno Voivodeships, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. The province's name recalls the traditional name of a historic Polish region, Lesser Poland, or in Polish: Małopolska. Current Lesser Poland Voivodeship, covers only a small part of the broader ancient Małopolska region which, together with Greater Poland and Silesia, formed the early medieval Polish state. Historic Lesser Poland is much larger than the current province, it stretches far north, to Radom, Siedlce including such cities, as Stalowa Wola, Kielce, Częstochowa, Sosnowiec. The province is bounded on the north by the Świętokrzyskie Mountains, on the west by Jura Krakowsko-Częstochowska, on the south by the Tatra and Beskidy Mountains.
Politically it is bordered by Silesian Voivodeship to the west, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship to the north, Subcarpathian Voivodeship to the east, Slovakia to the south. All of Lesser Poland lies in the Vistula River catchment area; the city of Kraków was one of the European Cities of Culture in 2000. Kraków has railway and road connections with Katowice, Wrocław and Rzeszów, it lies at the crossroads of major international routes linking Dresden with Kiev, Gdańsk with Budapest. Located here is the second largest international airport in Poland, the John Paul II International Airport; the region's economy includes high technology, banking and metallurgical industries, ore, food processing, spirit and tobacco industries. The most industrialized city of the voivodeship is Kraków; the largest regional enterprise operates here, the Tadeusz Sendzimir Steelworks in Nowa Huta, employing 17,500 people. Another major industrial center is located in the west, in the neighborhood of Chrzanów and Oświęcim. Kraków Park Technologiczny, a Special Economic Zone, has been established within the voivodeship.
There are 210,000 registered economic entities operating in the voivodeship small and medium-sized, of which 234 belong to the state-owned sector. Foreign investment, growing in the region, reached US$18.3 billion by the end of 2006. 130,000 students attend fifteen Kraków institutions of higher learning. The Jagiellonian University, the largest university in the city, was founded in 1364 as Cracow Academy. Nicolaus Copernicus and Karol Wojtyła graduated from it; the AGH University of Science and Technology is considered to be the best technical university in Poland. The Academy of Economics, the Pedagogical University, the Kraków University of Technology and the Agricultural Academy are very regarded. There are the Fine Arts Academy, the State Theatre University and the Musical Academy. Nowy Sącz has become a major educational center in the region thanks to its Higher School of Business and Administration, with an American curriculum, founded in 1992; the school has 4,500 students. There are two private higher schools in Tarnów.
Located in Southern Poland, Lesser Poland is the warmest place in Poland with average summer temperatures between 23 °C and 30 °C during the day reaching 32 °C to 38 °C in July and August, the two warmest months of the year. The city of Tarnów, located in Lesser Poland, is the hottest place in Poland all year round, average temperatures being around 25 °C during the day in the three summer months and 3 °C during the day in the three winter months. In the winter the weather patterns alter each year. Błędów Desert, the only desert in Poland, is located in Lesser Poland, where temperatures can reach up to 38 °C in the summer. Four national parks and numerous reserves have been established in the voivodeship to protect the environment of Lesser Poland; the region has areas for tourism and recreation, including Zakopane and the Tatra and Beskidy Mountains. The natural landscape features many historic sites; the salt mine at Wieliczka, the pilgrimage town of Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, Kraków's Old Town are ranked by UNESCO among the most precious sites of world heritage.
At Wadowice, birthplace of John Paul II is a museum dedicated to the late Pope's childhood. The area of Oświęcim, with the former Nazi concentration camps Auschwitz-I and Auschwitz-II-Birkenau, is visited annually by a million people. Another tourist destination is the town of Bochnia with Europe's oldest; the voivodeship contains 61 towns. These are listed below in descending order of population: Smaller Poland Voivodeship is divided into 22 counties: 3 city counties and 19 land counties; these are further divided into 182 gminas. The counties are listed in the following table (ordering within
The Kraków Ghetto was one of five major, metropolitan Jewish Ghettos created by Nazi Germany in the new General Government territory during the German occupation of Poland in World War II. It was established for the purpose of exploitation and persecution of local Polish Jews, as well as the staging area for separating the "able workers" from those who would be deemed unworthy of life; the Ghetto was liquidated between June 1942 and March 1943, with most of its inhabitants sent to their deaths at Bełżec extermination camp as well as Płaszów slave-labor camp, Auschwitz concentration camp, 60 kilometres rail distance. Before the German-Soviet invasion of 1939, Kraków was an influential centre for the 60,000–80,000 Polish Jews who had lived there since the 13th century. Persecution of the Jewish population of Kraków began after the German troops entered the city on 6 September 1939 in the course of the invasion. Jews were ordered to report for forced labour beginning in September 1939. In November, all Jews twelve years or older were required to wear identifying armbands.
Throughout Kraków, synagogues were closed and all their relics and valuables confiscated by the Nazi authorities. By May 1940, the German occupation authority under Gauleiter Hans Frank announced that Kraków should become the “racially cleanest" city in the General Government. Massive deportations of Jews from the city were ordered. Of the more than 68,000 Jews in Kraków when the Germans invaded, only 15,000 workers and their families were permitted to remain. All other Jews were ordered out of the city, to be resettled into surrounding rural areas of the Generalgouvernement. In April 1940, Hans Frank proposed the removal of 50,000 Jews from the city of Kraków. Frank's reasoning for removing Jews from the Jewish quarter was that the area "...will be cleansed and it will be possible to establish pure German neighborhoods..." within Kraków. From May 1940 to 15 August 1940, a voluntary expulsion program was enacted. Jews that chose to leave Kraków were allowed to take all of their belongings and relocate throughout the General-Government.
By 15 August 1940, 23,000 Jews had left Kraków. After this date, mandatory expulsions were enforced. On 25 November 1940, the Order for the Deportation of Jews from the Municipal District of Kraków was announced; this order declared that no more Jews were allowed into the city of Kraków, Jews residing in Kraków required a special permit, locations outside of Kraków that Jews were forced to move to were chosen by authorities. Jews forced to leave were only allowed to bring along 25 kg of their belongings when they left. By 4 December 1940, 43,000 Jews were removed from Kraków, both voluntarily and involuntarily. Jews that were still residing in Kraków at this time were deemed "...economically useful..." and they had to obtain a residence permit that "...had to be renewed each month."The following year, on 3 March 1941, the establishment of the Kraków Ghetto was ordered by Otto Wächter. The ghetto was to be set up in the Podgórze District of Kraków. Podgórze was chosen as the site of the ghetto instead of the traditional Jewish quarter, because Hans Frank believed Kazimierz was more significant to the history of Kraków.
Podgórze was a suburb of Kraków at the time. Wächter claimed that formation of the ghetto was necessary for public order; the Kraków ghetto was established on 20 March 1941. When relocating to the ghetto, Jews were only allowed to bring 25 kg of their belongings; the rest of their possessions were taken by the German Trust Office. All non-Jewish residents of the area were required to relocate in other districts by 20 March 1941; the ghetto was guarded by the German police, the Polish police, the Jewish police, but the only police force inside the ghetto was the Jewish police. With the formation of the ghetto, the OD had an office established at Józefińska Street 37 in Podgórze. In April 1941, the ghetto was enclosed by a wall made of barbed stone. Jewish monuments and tombstones from the cemetery." The ghetto wall was constructed using Jewish forced labor. The ghetto was accessible by three entrances: one near the Podgórze Market, Limanowskiego Street, the Plac Zgody; the Kraków Ghetto was a closed ghetto meaning that it was physically closed off from the surrounding area and access was restricted.
Within other German-occupied areas, open ghettos and destruction ghettos existed. Movement in and out of the ghetto was restricted and Jews working outside of the ghetto had to have the proper documentation. Jews had to "...obtain the appropriate stamps for the Kennkarten..." from the Labor Office. The ghetto was populated by 16,000 Jews when it was first formed. Before the ghetto was cordoned off, it was home to around 3,500 residents; the ghetto consisted of 320 buildings. To accommodate the density, apartments within the ghetto were divided on a 2m² per person basis or by a standard of three people to one window; the Jewish Council was responsible for determining the new housing assignments. Within the Kraków ghetto, Yiddish was the official language, not Polish. On 1 December 1939, an order was announced mandating that all Jews within the General Government wear an armband identifying them as Jewish; the white armbands with the blue Star of David were still required once Jews were moved into the ghetto.
On 15 October 1941, the Third Decree of the General Governor's was enacted. This decree stated that Jews found outside "...their designated residential area will be punished with death." Th
Polish State Railways
Polskie Koleje Państwowe SA is the dominant railway operator in Poland. The company was founded when the former Polskie Koleje Państwowe state-owned operator was divided into several units based on the requirements laid down by the European Union. PKP SA is the dominant company in PKP Group collective that resulted from the split, maintains in 100% share control, being responsible for management of all of the other PKP Group component companies; the group's organisations are dependent upon PKP SA. In Poland there are 18,513 kilometres of railway tracks owned by the state; the pricing system employed by PKP is regressive. On international routes such as, for example, the Berlin-Warszawa Express and the IC-Nightbus Warsaw – Vilnius, a global pricing system is in use which requires one to buy two separate tickets in place of a single consolidated return ticket; the long-distance and local trains' pricing systems are separated from each other in entirety and thus tickets issued by local train operators cannot be used on long-distance services, with the opposite true.
International tickets, are valid on all services upon which one is required to travel on order to reach the final destination stated on the ticket. PKP's current plans to develop high-speed rail in Poland call for a "Y" line that will connect Warsaw–Łódź–Kalisz, split into two branches, one to Wrocław and another to Poznań; the geometric layout of the line will be designed to permit speeds of 360 km/h. Construction is planned to begin around 2014 and finish in 2019. In April 2010, the tender for a feasibility study was awarded to a consortium led by Spanish company Ingenieria IDOM; the feasibility study has been granted €80 million in subsidy from the European Union. The total cost of the line including construction and train sets has been estimated at €6.9 billion and is planned to be financed by EU subsidies. In September 2010, Alstom was revealed to have been the sole bidder on a tender for high-speed trainsets. Alstom will supply 20 New Pendolino trains to PKP Intercity; the contract for Alstom to supply and maintain these trains for PKP Intercity was signed on 30 May 2011.
As part of the deal, Alstom will construct a new rolling stock maintenance facility in Warsaw. In the centre of the city of Łódź the "Y" line will travel through an underground tunnel which would link two existing railway stations. One of them: Łódź Fabryczna has been reconstructed as an underground station. Since 2009 PKP's subdivision Polskie Linie Kolejowe has been using the new'Dworzec Polski' brand; this branding and its corresponding PR campaign'ROBI SIĘ!' was developed in order to shed more light on station redevelopments all around the country. The ethos of the brand requires that the station in question be transformed to meet the highest modern standards of comfort and technical service before being allowed to become a member of the'Dworzec Polski' network. There are 77 stations taking part in the'ROBI SIĘ!' programme, amongst which are included the main stations of Warsaw, Kraków, Wrocław, Gdynia. Regaining independence on 11 November 1918 allowed Poland to reclaim the former Russian and Austrian sectors from military railways.
The Railway Department in the Ministry of Communication was created and the Polish railways were named Polskie Koleje Państwowe. In December 1918, the Great Poland Uprising started; the rebels took over the former Prussian sector of railways. One year the fights for Lwów were over and the former Austrian railway directorate was taken over by Poland. Taking over the railways from Prussians lasted until 1921. After the victory over the Red Army in the Polish-Bolshevik War, a great deal of damage in railway structure was discovered on the route along which the communists were retreating. At the same time, the tense relations with Lithuania led the railways around Vilnius and Minsk to a partial disintegration and stagnation; the Libau–Romny Railway was not recovered. Polish railways administration took over the railways in Upper Silesia in 1922; that same year, a decision was made to divide railways in Poland into nine administrative districts. An economic crisis in 1930s forced the state to cut back its budget for railway investment.
Profit decreased by 50% compared to 1929. The next year, over 23,000 PKP employees had been dismissed and protests and strikes causes authorities to try to find a solution; the end of the crisis and an increase of cargo transport and income came in 1937. On 1 September 1939, the railwaymen of Szymankowo stopped a German armoured train before its arrival on the bridge over the Vistula River and the Polish soldiers reattached the explosive charges disconnected by the German dive bombers and blew up the bridge; the railwaymen and some of their innocent family members were executed by the Germans the same day, 1 September 1939. After the Soviet invasion of eastern Poland on 17 September 1939, most Polish rolling stock fell into Soviet hands; the Polish railways in Silesia and Pomorze were adopted by German railways Deutsche Reichsbahn on 25 September. The Polish railways in Generalgouvernement became Ostbahn; until the last moment before the German attack on the Soviet Union in 1941, cargo trains transported goods from the Sov
Kraków spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland's second most important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was being reported as a busy trading centre of Central Europe in 965. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic in 1918 and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre; the city has a population of about 770,000, with 8 million additional people living within a 100 km radius of its main square. After the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany at the start of World War II, the newly defined Distrikt Krakau became the capital of Germany's General Government.
The Jewish population of the city was forced into a walled zone known as the Kraków Ghetto, from which they were sent to German extermination camps such as the nearby Auschwitz never to return, the Nazi concentration camps like Płaszów. In 1978, Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the papacy as Pope John Paul II—the first Slavic pope and the first non-Italian pope in 455 years; that year, UNESCO approved the first sites for its new World Heritage List, including the entire Old Town in inscribing Kraków's Historic Centre. Kraków is classified as a global city with the ranking of high sufficiency by GaWC, its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of Gothic and Baroque architecture includes the Wawel Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the Vistula, the St. Mary's Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny. Kraków is home to Jagiellonian University, one of the oldest universities in the world and traditionally Poland's most reputable institution of higher learning.
In 2000, Kraków was named European Capital of Culture. In 2013 Kraków was approved as a UNESCO City of Literature; the city hosted the World Youth Day in July 2016. The name of Kraków is traditionally derived from Krakus, the legendary founder of Kraków and a ruler of the tribe of Lechitians. In Polish, Kraków is an archaic possessive form of Krak and means "Krak's". Krakus's name may derive from "krakula", a Proto-Slavic word meaning a judge's staff, or a Proto-Slavic word "krak" meaning an oak, once a sacred tree most associated with the concept of genealogy; the first mention of Prince Krakus dates back to 1190, although the town existed as early as the 7th century, inhabited by the tribe of Vistulans. The city's full official name is Stołeczne Królewskie Miasto Kraków, which can be translated as "Royal Capital City of Kraków". In English, a person born or living in Kraków is a Cracovian. While in the 1990s the English version of the name was written Cracow, the most widespread modern English version is Krakow.
Kraków's early history begins with evidence of a Stone Age settlement on the present site of the Wawel Hill. A legend attributes Kraków's founding to the mythical ruler Krakus, who built it above a cave occupied by a dragon, Smok Wawelski; the first written record of the city's name dates back to 965, when Kraków was described as a notable commercial centre controlled first by Moravia, but captured by a Bohemian duke Boleslaus I in 955. The first acclaimed ruler of Poland, Mieszko I, took Kraków from the Bohemians and incorporated it into the holdings of the Piast dynasty towards the end of his reign. In 1038, Kraków became the seat of the Polish government. By the end of the 10th century, the city was a leading centre of trade. Brick buildings were constructed, including the Royal Wawel Castle with St. Felix and Adaukt Rotunda, Romanesque churches such as St. Adalbert's, a cathedral, a basilica; the city was sacked and burned during the Mongol invasion of 1241. It was rebuilt identical, based on new location act and incorporated in 1257 by the high duke Bolesław V the Chaste who following the example of Wrocław, introduced city rights modelled on the Magdeburg law allowing for tax benefits and new trade privileges for the citizens.
In 1259, the city was again ravaged by the Mongols. A third attack in 1287 was repelled thanks in part to the new built fortifications. In 1335, King Casimir III of Poland declared the two western suburbs to be a new city named after him, Kazimierz; the defensive walls were erected around the central section of Kazimierz in 1362, a plot was set aside for the Augustinian order next to Skałka. The city rose to prominence in 1364, when Casimir III of Poland founded the University of Kraków, the second oldest university in central Europe after the Charles University in Prague. King Casimir began work on a campus for the Academy in Kazimierz, but he died in 1370 and the campus was never completed; the city continued to grow under the joint Lithuanian-Polish Jagiellon dynasty. As the capital of the Kingdom of Poland and a member of the Hanseatic League, the city attracted many craftsmen and guilds as science and the arts began to flourish; the royal chancery and the University ensured a first flourishing of Polish literary culture in the city.
The 15th and 16th centuries were known as Poland's Złoty Golden Age. Many works of Pol
Podgórze is a district of Kraków, situated on the right bank of the Vistula River, at the foot of Lasota Hill. The district was subdivided in 1990 into six new districts, see present-day districts of Kraków for more details; the name Podgórze translates as the base of a hill. A small settlement, in the years following the First Partition of Poland the town's development was promoted by the Austria-Hungary Emperor Joseph II who in 1784 granted it the city status, as the Royal Free City of Podgórze. In the following years it was a self-governing administrative unit. After the Third Partition of Poland in 1795 and the takeover of the entire city by the Empire, Podgórze lost it political role of an independent suburb across the river from the Old Town; the administrative reform of 1810 which followed the expansion of the Duchy of Warsaw brought Podgórze together with the rest of the historic city. However, after the Congress of Vienna made Kraków a free city in 1815, Podgórze fell back under the Austrian rule and remained there for the rest of the 19th century.
According to Encyclopædia Britannica, in 1910 it was the 13th largest town in the Austrian-ruled Galicia. In the years leading to the return of Polish independence, the city council discussions from July 1915 made Podgórze again a part of the Greater Kraków; the oldest man-made structure in Podgórze is the Krakus Mound on Lasota Hill, believed to be the grave of the legendary prince Krakus. It is one of the best view points in the city; the Austrian bridge named Carl's Bridge, linking Podgórze with the Kraków proper across the Vistula was built in 1802. This wooden structure located between today's Mostowa and Brodzińskiego streets, survived only until 1813 when it was destroyed in a flood. Towards the end of the Austrian rule, in 1915 the size of Podgórze reached 1⁄5 of the size of Kraków. Since the return of Poland's independence, it remained integrated into the city, it includes the historic part of Podgórze with the triangular market square and impressive St. Joseph Church as well as the green hills of Krzemionki with the World War II quarry called Liban.
It includes the site of the Nazi Kraków Ghetto and a factory of Oskar Schindler who saved nearly 1,200 Jews from the camps, as well as the old villages of Płaszów, Rybitwy and Przewóz. The district population as of 31 December 2006 was 31,599 at an area of 2,456 ha. Edward Dembowski, Polish philosopher and independence activist, died here Arthur Dunkelblum, Jewish Belgian chess master, born here Salomon Bochner, Jewish American mathematician, born here Ignacy Friedmann, a Jewish pianist, born here Józef Hofmann, born here Aleksander Kotsis, died here Bernard Offen, Holocaust survivor, lived here Poldek Pfefferberg, Holocaust survivor, taught at the Kościuszko Gymnasium as a professor Albin Francisco Schoepf, born here Mike Staner, Holocaust survivor, born here Roman Polanski, Polish film director, Holocaust survivor, lived here during World War II Ryan Socash, American artist lives here Krakus Mound Kraków Ghetto was located in the central part of Podgórze Operation Reinhard in Kraków during the Holocaust in Poland Large parts of the 1993 film Schindler's List were shot in nearby Kazimierz - not at the original places in Podgórze Tadeusz Pankiewicz, Polish Righteous Jewish Culture Festival in Kazimierz part of Kraków Old Town Podgórze District Council official page Pogórze historical route from the municipality of Kraków website Association PODGORZE.
PL site of the association of friends of the district with descriptions of the main sites of interests in several languages