The first Pentium microprocessor was introduced by Intel on March 22, 1993. Its P5 microarchitecture was the fifth generation for Intel, the first superscalar IA-32 microarchitecture; as a direct extension of the 80486 architecture, it included dual integer pipelines, a faster floating-point unit, wider data bus, separate code and data caches and features for further reduced address calculation latency. In October 1996, the Pentium with MMX Technology was introduced, complementing the same basic microarchitecture with the MMX instruction set, larger caches, some other enhancements; the P5 Pentium competitors included the Motorola 68060 and the PowerPC 601 as well as the SPARC, MIPS, Alpha microprocessor families, most of which used a superscalar in-order dual instruction pipeline configuration at some time. Intel's Larrabee multicore architecture project uses a processor core derived from a P5 core, augmented by multithreading, 64-bit instructions, a 16-wide vector processing unit. Intel's low-powered Bonnell microarchitecture employed in early Atom processor cores uses an in-order dual pipeline similar to P5.
Intel discontinued the P5 Pentium processors in early 2000 in favor of the Celeron processor which replaced the 80486 brand. The P5 microarchitecture was designed by the same Santa Clara team which designed the 386 and 486. Design work started in 1989; the preliminary design was first simulated in 1990, followed by the laying-out of the design. By this time, the team had several dozen engineers; the design was taped out, or transferred to silicon, in April 1992, at which point beta-testing began. By mid-1992, the P5 team had 200 engineers. Intel at first planned to demonstrate the P5 in June 1992 at the trade show PC Expo, to formally announce the processor in September 1992, but design problems forced the demo to be cancelled, the official introduction of the chip was delayed until the spring of 1993. John H. Crawford, chief architect of the original 386, co-managed the design of the P5, along with Donald Alpert, who managed the architectural team. Dror Avnon managed the design of the FPU. Vinod K. Dham was general manager of the P5 group.
The P5 microarchitecture brings several important advancements over the preceding i486 architecture. Performance: Superscalar architecture — The Pentium has two datapaths that allow it to complete two instructions per clock cycle in many cases; the main pipe can handle any instruction, while the other can handle the most common simple instructions. Some RISC proponents had argued that the "complicated" x86 instruction set would never be implemented by a pipelined microarchitecture, much less by a dual-pipeline design; the 486 and the Pentium demonstrated that this was indeed feasible. 64-bit external databus doubles the amount of information possible to read or write on each memory access and therefore allows the Pentium to load its code cache faster than the 80486. Separation of code and data caches lessens the fetch and operand read/write conflicts compared to the 486. To reduce access time and implementation cost, both of them are 2-way associative, instead of the single 4-way cache of the 486.
A related enhancement in the Pentium is the ability to read a contiguous block from the code cache when it is split between two cache lines. Much faster floating-point unit; some instructions showed an enormous improvement, most notably FMUL, with up to 15 times higher throughput than in the 80486 FPU. The Pentium is able to execute a FXCH ST instruction in parallel with an ordinary FPU instruction. Four-input address adders enables the Pentium to further reduce the address calculation latency compared to the 80486; the Pentium can calculate full addressing modes with segment-base + base-register + scaled register + immediate offset in a single cycle. The microcode can employ both pipelines to enable auto-repeating instructions such as REP MOVSW perform one iteration every clock cycle, while the 80486 needed three clocks per iteration. Optimization of the access to the first microcode words during the decode stages helps in making several frequent instructions execute more especially in their most common forms and in typical cases.
Some examples are: CALL, RET, shifts/rotates. A faster hardware-based multiplier makes instructions such as MUL and IMUL several times faster than in the 80486. Virtualized interrupt to speed up virtual 8086 mode. Other features: Enhanced debug features with the introduction of the Processor-based debug port. Enhanced self-test features like the L1 cache parity check. New instructions: CPUID, CMPXCHG8B, RDTSC, RDMSR, WRMSR, RSM. Test registers TR0–TR7 and MOV instructions for access to them were eliminated; the Pentium MMX added the MMX instruction set, a basic integer SIMD instruction set extension marketed for use in multimedia applications. MMX could not be used with the x87 FPU instructions because the registers
The Leviathan gas field is a large natural gas field located in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Israel, 47 kilometres south-west of the Tamar gas field. The gas field is located 130 kilometres west of Haifa in waters 1,500 metres deep in the Levantine basin, a rich hydrocarbon area in one of the world's larger offshore gas finds of the past decade. According to some commentators, the gas find has the potential to change Israel's foreign relations with neighboring countries Turkey, Egypt. Together with the nearby Tamar gas field, the Leviathan field is seen as an opportunity for Israel to achieve a degree of energy independence in the Middle East; as of 2017 by conservative estimates, Leviathan holds enough gas to meet Israel's domestic needs for 40 years. The field began commercial production of gas on 31 December 2019; the potential for a natural gas prospect at the Leviathan site was identified by geologist Eitan Aizenberg, co-founder of the small Israeli oil exploration company Ratio.
To assist with exploring the prospect Ratio enlisted the cooperation of another Israeli firm, who brought in Texas-based Noble Energy to the venture – with whom it had developed the small Mari-B offshore gas field in southern Israel under the Yam Tethys partnership. In July, 2010, Noble Energy announced that seismic studies indicated there was a 50% chance of the Leviathan field containing natural gas, with the potential reserve size being estimated at 16 trillion cubic feet; the initial exploration well, Leviathan 1, was drilled to a depth of 5,170 metres and the discovery was announced on December 30, 2010. The cost of drilling the exploration well was $92.5 million. The well was drilled by Noble's Homer Ferrington rig; the second stage of drilling of the Leviathan 1 well was intended to reach a depth of 7,200 metres, which would include an additional natural gas reserve and 600 million barrels of oil. While the gas discovery at -5170m was made in the Tamar sands layer, known to contain gas, the additional oil and gas potential exists in layers that have not been explored in the Levant basin.
Noble has twice failed to reach the deeper layers due to technical challenges with drilling to the extreme depths involved. However, during drilling towards the intended target some gas was detected and as of 2012 Noble still had plans to explore those layers; the Leviathan gas field was the second largest gas field in the Mediterranean Sea after the August 2015 discovery of the Zohr gas field off the coast of Egypt, only 6 km from Cyprus's Block 11. Leviathan is the largest discovery in the history of Noble Energy. Noble Energy operates Leviathan with a 39.66% working interest. In February 2014, Woodside Energy agreed to buy a 25% stake of the Leviathan field for up to US$2.55 billion. It was announced on 21 May 2014 that Woodside Energy pulled out of an agreement to take a stake worth up to $2.7 billion in Israel's flagship Leviathan gas project, as the group developing the field shifted focus to regional markets. In the summer of 2014 Netherland, Sewell & Associates made an upward revision on the amount of gas reserves, giving a 2P value of 621 BCM.
The expected year of production was stated to be 2017. In April, 2015, the Israel Ministry of Energy reported that it was working with NSAI and the Leviathan partners to understand the discrepancy between the NSAI revised estimate and the estimate provided by other analyses provided to the ministry, indicated a best estimate of only 16.5 tcf. On 19 October 2015, Russian President Vladimir Putin and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu agreed to allow major concessions for Gazprom to develop the Leviathan reserves. On 19 February 2018, The partners in Israel’s Tamar and Leviathan natural gas fields, including a unit of US Noble Energy Inc and Delek Drilling, have signed $15 billion in deals to export natural gas to Egypt over 10 years. One accord calls for the sale of 3.5 BCM of natural gas annually from the Leviathan field, for a total of 32 BCM, estimating the sale from the Leviathan field to reach $7.5 billion. Regarding the deal, the Egyptian president, Abdel Fatah al-Sissi, declared about the project: "Has a lot of advantages for us.
And I want people to be reassured". Yossi Abu, chief executive of Delek Drilling, said: "I think that the main thing is that Egypt is becoming the real gas hub of the region". Inovo BV, the Dutch corporation owned by Kamil Ekim Alptekin, claims to be the sole Turkish representative in Ratio Oil Exploration. Ratio has denied that it has any affiliation with Alptekin or Inovo BV, though BuzzFeed News has produced evidence documenting a relationship dating back to at least early 2016. Gas production is carried out by four wells connected by two 18-inch, 73-mile subsea tiebacks to a gas processing platform located 10km offshore Dor; the processing platform has the capacity to handle up to 1.2 BCF of gas per day and could be expanded to handle up to 2.1 BCF per day. The existence of the Leviathan gas fields poses several challenges to states in that area of the Eastern Mediterranean, in terms of cooperation between them, as well as for the wider Mediterranean energy context. After discovery of the Leviathan gas fields in 2010, Lebanon argued that the field extends into Lebanese waters.
Lebanon’s Parliament Speaker Nabih Berri stated that Israel is "ignoring the fact that according to the maps the deposit extends into Lebanese waters," Agence France-Presse reported on June 9. Israeli Minister of National Infrastructures Uzi Landau responded "We will not hesitate to use our force and strength to protect no
Dietary factors are recognized as having a significant effect on the risk of cancers, with different dietary elements both increasing and reducing risk. Diet and obesity may be related to up to 30-35% of cancer deaths, while physical inactivity appears to be related to 7% risk of cancer occurrence. One review in 2011 suggested that total caloric intake influences cancer incidence and progression. While many dietary recommendations have been proposed to reduce the risk of cancer, few have significant supporting scientific evidence. Obesity and drinking alcohol have been correlated with the incidence and progression of some cancers. Lowering the drinking of beverages sweetened with sugar is recommended as a measure to address obesity. A diet low in fruits and vegetables and high in red meat has been implicated but not confirmed, the effect may be small for well-nourished people who maintain a healthy weight; some specific foods are linked to specific cancers. Studies have linked eating red or processed meat to an increased risk of breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, which may be explained by the presence of carcinogens in foods cooked at high temperatures.
Aflatoxin B1, a frequent food contaminant, increases risk of liver cancer, while drinking coffee is associated with a reduced risk. Betel nut chewing causes oral cancer. Stomach cancer is more common in Japan due to its high-salt diet. Immigrant communities tend to develop the risk of their new country within one generation, suggesting a substantial link between diet and cancer. Dietary recommendations for cancer prevention include weight management and eating "mainly vegetables, whole grains and fish, a reduced intake of red meat, animal fat, refined sugar." A number of diets and diet-based regimes are claimed to be useful against cancer. Popular types of "anti-cancer" diets include the Breuss diet, Gerson therapy, the Budwig protocol and the macrobiotic diet. None of these diets has been found to be effective, some of them have been found to be harmful. Nutritional epidemiologists use multivariate statistics, such as principal components analysis and factor analysis, to measure how patterns of dietary behavior influence the risk of developing cancer.
Based on their dietary pattern score, epidemiologists categorize people into quantiles. To estimate the influence of dietary behavior on risk of cancer, they measure the association between quantiles and the distribution of cancer prevalence and cancer incidence, they include other variables in their statistical model to account for the other differences between people with and without cancer. For breast cancer, there is a replicated trend for women with a more "prudent or healthy" diet, i.e. higher in fruits and vegetables, to have a lower risk of cancer. A "drinker dietary pattern" is associated with higher breast cancer risk, while the association is inconsistent between a more westernized diet and elevated risk of breast cancer. Pickled foods are linked with cancer. Alcohol is associated with an increased risk of a number of cancers. 3.6% of all cancer cases and 3.5% of cancer deaths worldwide are attributable to drinking of alcohol. Breast cancer in women is linked with alcohol intake. Alcohol increases the risk of cancers of the mouth, esophagus and larynx, colorectal cancer, liver cancer and ovaries.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization has classified alcohol as a Group 1 carcinogen. Its evaluation states, "There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages in humans. …Alcoholic beverages are carcinogenic to humans." On October 26, 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization reported that eating processed meat or red meat was linked to some cancers. The evidence on the effect of dietary fiber on the risk of colon cancer is mixed with some types of evidence showing a benefit and others not. While eating fruit and vegetables has a benefit, it has less benefit on reducing cancer than once thought.. Soy is rich in phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogens have weak estrogenic effects, but are occurring compounds. A 2014 study found fruit but not vegetables protected against upper gastrointestinal tract cancer. While fruit and fiber protected against colorectal cancer and fiber protected against liver cancer.
Flavonoids are "the most common group of polyphenolic compounds in the human diet and are found ubiquitously in plants." While some studies have suggested flavonoids may have a role in cancer prevention, others have been inconclusive or suggested they may be harmful. According to Cancer Research UK, "there is no evidence that any type of mushroom or mushroom extract can prevent or cure cancer", although research into some species continues. According to the American Cancer Society, there is no conclusive evidence for an anticancer effect of consuming soy products. Green tea consumption has no effect on cancer risk. A 2016 meta-analysis showed that men who drank coffee had a lower risk of liver cancer. A 2014 systematic review found, "no firm evidence that vitamin D supplementation affects cancer occurrence in predominantly elderly community-dwelling women." Although numerous cellular mechanisms are involved in food intake, many investigations over the past decades have pointed out defects in the methionine metabolic pathway as cause of carcinogenesis.
Kraslice is a town in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic. From 1938 to 1945 it was one of the municipalities in Sudetenland; the town is situated on the southern slopes of the eastern reaches of the Ore Mountains, some 5 km from the neighbouring German town of Klingenthal. It lies in an area known for swarm type seismic activity; the last strong earthquake swarm was in 1986. The city lies on railway line No 145 from Sokolov to Klingenthal. Passenger services are provided by the railway company of GW Train Regio. German monks from Waldsassen Abbey in Bavaria were the first to settle the upper Svatava valley in the 12th century; the town was granted regal city status by Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV in 1370. In 1944 a women's subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp was established here; the German-speaking population was expelled in 1945 and the town was resettled with Czechs. The roots of the name derive from the medieval German "Graz", meaning pine forest. Many variants were used throughout the town's history: Greselin, Zum Greselin, Gresslas, Gresslitz and Graslitz.
The Czech name is a transliteration of the last used German name. Graslitz had 13,936 inhabitants on 1 December 1930, 6,294 inhabitants 22 May 1947 and has some 7,000 inhabitants – a significant decrease from the pre-Second World War population figure of around 20,000, due to the expulsion of the German-speaking population after that war. Rudolf Dellinger, German composer Julius Meinl I, Austrian businessman, founder of Julius Meinl AG Klingenthal, Germany Aschaffenburg, Germany Media related to Kraslice at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Hyecho, Sanskrit: Prajñāvikrama. Hyecho studied esoteric Buddhism in Tang China under Śubhakarasiṃha and under the famous Indian monk Vajrabodhi who praised Hyecho as "one of six living persons who were well-trained in the five sections of the Buddhist canon." On the advice of his Indian teachers in China, he set out for India in 723 to acquaint himself with the language and culture of the land of the Buddha. During his journey of India, Hyecho wrote a travelogue in Chinese named Wang ocheonchukguk jeon which means, "Memoir of the pilgrimage to the five kingdoms of India." The travelogue reveals that Hyecho, after arriving by sea in India headed to the Indian Kingdom of Magadha moved on to visit Kushinagar and Varanasi. However Hyecho's journey did not end there and he continued north, where he visited Lumbini, the Arabs. Hyecho left India following the Silk Road towards the west, via Agni or Karasahr, to China where the account ends in 729 CE, he referred to three kingdoms lying to the northeast of Kashmir which were "under the suzerainty of the Tibetans….
The country is narrow and small, the mountains and valleys rugged. There are monasteries and monks, the people faithfully venerate the Three Jewels; as to the kingdom of Tibet to the East, there are no monasteries at all and the Buddha's teaching is unknown. It took Hyecho four years to complete his journey; the travelogue contains much information on local diet, climate and political situations. It is mentioned, he found it quite interesting to see the cattle roaming around cities and villages. The travelogue was lost for many years until a fragment of it was rediscovered by Paul Pelliot in the Mogao Caves in China in 1908 and was subsequently translated into different languages over the years; the original fragment is now in France. Korean Buddhism Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Index of Korea-related articles List of Silla people Wang ocheonchukguk jeon Sen, Surendranath. India Through Chinese Eyes: Sir William Meyer Endowment Lectures 1952–53. University of Madras. Digitized "Wang ocheonchukguk jeon" on International Dunhuang Project website W. Fuchs, "Huei-ch'ao's Pilgerreise durch Nordwest-Indien und Zentral-Asien um 726," Sitzungberichten der Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil-hist.
Klasse, XXX,: 426-469
The Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Iowa and Other States known as the Iowa Synod, was founded on August 24, 1854 at St. Sebald in Clayton County, Iowa, it adopted a constitution and its name, in 1864. The synod was the result of disagreements, in Saginaw, that had arisen with some of the pastors sent to America by Johann Konrad Wilhelm Löhe against the Missouri Synod; some of these pastors joined the Missouri Synod, while pastors Georg M. Grossmann and Johannes Deindoerfer and a small group moved to Iowa. Most of the congregations of the First Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Texas joined the Iowa Synod as its Texas District in 1896. In 1930 the Iowa Synod merged with the Ohio Synod and the Buffalo Synod to form the American Lutheran Church; the latter body, after further mergers, became part of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America in 1988. In 1929, just before its merger into the ALC, the Iowa Synod had 637 pastors, 932 congregations, 150,683 members